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What Are Digital Texts?
An Example: Palenque, Temple of the Cross
The Rationale For Digital Transcription
Terms And Definitions
Glyphs And Glyph Numbers
Glyph String Syntax And Punctuation
Textual Format
Text And File Names
File Format
How To Submit And Receive A Text
Reviewing Digital Texts
Internet Addresses
Appendix 1: Order Of Transcription
Appendix 2: Distance Number Indicator Abbreviations
Appendix 3: Site Codes
Appendix: 4 Artifact Type Codes

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What Are Digital Texts?

A digital text is simply a hieroglyphic text that has been transcribed according to a set of rules that substitute alphanumeric values for glyphs and their spatial "syntax". Because the epigraphic information in a digital text, unlike that of a raw image, can be processed by a computer, digital texts can be of great benefit to epigraphers interested in deciphering and interpreting Mayan texts. One obvious use is that of finding regular patterns of glyph substitution and collocation in a corpus of texts. All epigraphic decipherment rests on the finding of such patterns, and yet the process of finding them is a tedious and often incomplete one. With a large body of hieroglyphic material digitized, one can easily and comprehensively locate lists of patterns, which could then be used to support or disprove an hypothesis about a glyph's phonetic or semantic value. Such lists can also be used as a heuristic aid in pursuing unanticipated directions.

Mayanists are already familiar with textual digitization in the form of J.E.S. Thompson's conventions, introduced in A Catalog of Maya Hieroglyphs. Thompson assigned a numberic value to each glyph type that he was able to determine at the time, according to the following scheme: affixes = 1-370, main signs = 501-856, and portraits = 1000-1087). Thompson also devised a simple means of describing the spatial relationship between glyphs as they are found within glyph blocks. For example, a period separating to glyph numbers means that the two images were side by side, whereas a colon indicates that the left-hand glyph rests on top of the right-hand one. Epigraphers still use Thompson's scheme, and it has become the de facto standard, in spite of the existence of other systems of naming the glyphs.

In recent years, Thompson's conventions have been extended to accommodate new research agendas. Kornelia Kurbjuhn (1989) has introduced a fourth set of numbers to add to Thompson's original three--1300 and up accommodate anomolous glyph types. Similarly, MED introduces a new set of glyph series as well as some modifications of the syntax system introduced by Thompson. These modifications are described in detail below.

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An Example: Palenque, Temple of the Cross

01A         "ISIG"
01B         "ISIG"
02A         "ISIG"
02B         "ISIG"
03A         "9"
03B         "BAKTUN"
04A         "6"
04B         "KATUN"
05A         "16"
05B         "TUN"
06A         "9"
06B         "WINAL"
07A         "0"
07B         "KIN"
08A         "8"
08B         "AHAW"
09A         "18"
09B         "SEK"
10A         (128c.(60:[155])):23b
10B         "5".([1029]:125d)
11A         ([740]:24d).125d
11B         "2".((1000a.181):713a)
12A         (?:?).(622b:?)
12B         187:516c
13A         683:"9"
13B         173.(683:134|125|126|?)
14A         (588a:142).125d
14B         84:((1030d:142b).116d)
15A         151a.(74:575:178d)
15B         (561:23b).(598:23b)
16A         "1"."AHAW"
16B         "18"."SOZ"
17A         (740.181):125d|126|?
17B         69a:1000a
01C         348:793b
01D         "0 [KIN]".("5":"WINAL":125|136|?)
02C         "8"."TUN"
02D         (740.181):246
03C         679a.(11:335:713)
03D         "4"."AHAW"
04C         "8"."KUMKU"
04D         218:575
05C         "13"."BAKTUN"
05D         "2 [KIN]".("9":"WINAL":125|136|?)
06C         ("1":548:142b).(153b:125)
06D         (220a:501).(128c:561:23b)
07C         17a.(86:528:(528.528))
07D         747a.(113:561:23b)
08C         "1".(84:512a)
08D         1011
09C         "13"."IK"
09D         "20"."MOL"
10C         1014a
10D         "6".(168:561:23b)
11C         48.(1008:178d)
11D         "8".(48:1011)
12C         11.(187:1016a)
12D         115.(610:60|?:59)
13C         114.(566:23b)
13D         "0 [KIN]".("12":"WINAL":125|136|?)
14C         "3"."TUN"
14D         "18"."KATUN"
15C         "1"."BAKTUN"
15D         (511:88:125).(367:561:102)
16C         "1".(84:785a)
16D         1011
17C         679a.(740:24)
17D         (74:565a:117).178d
01E         "9"."IK"
01F         "15"."KEH"
02E         11.(713a:25:501)
02F         (74:565a:117).178d
03E         (11:757).(11:712:24)
03F         348:793b
04E         "3".(125:582;188)
04F         1000a
05E         "2 [KIN]".("11":"WINAL":246|?)
05F         "7"."TUN"
06E         "1"."KATUN"
06F         "2"."BKTUN"
07E         (740.181):125
07F         679a.((58a.665):713a)
08E         89.(11:757)
08F         348:793b
09E         "9"."IK"
09F         "0"."SAK"
10E         "2 [KIN]".("12":"WINAL":246|?)
10F         "10".("TUN":125)
11E         "6"."KATUN"
11F         "3".("BAKTUN":125)
12E         (1083b:59).125
12F         "9"."IK"
13E         679a.(740:125)
13F         11.(212a:764)
14E         11.(?:239)
14F         (108|?:785a).(74:565a)
15E         40.(168d:793a:130)
15F         "13 [KIN]".("7":"WINAL":246|?)
16E         "6".("TUN":125)
16F         "1".("KATUN":125)
17E         740:246
17F         11.(212:764b)
01P         679a.(58:665:713a)
01Q         89.(101|204|?:757)
02P         11.(212:764b)
02Q         "11"."KABAN"
03P         "0"."POP"
03Q         38.(168d:570:12)
04P         "5"."KIMI"
04Q         "14"."KAYAB"
05P         (740.181):125
05Q         744a
06P         "14 [KIN]".("5":"WINAL":246|?)
06Q         ("2":"TUN").("1":"KATUN")
07P         (740.181):(246|?)
07Q         679a:((58.665):713a)
08P         89.(101|204|?:757)
08Q         "1"."KAN"
09P         "2"."KAYAB"
09Q         40.(168d:44d:606)
10P         "11"."LAMAT"
10Q         "6"."XUL"
11P         (740.181):(246|?)
11Q         89.543
12P         "9 [KIN]".("3":"WINAL":125|136|?)
12Q         "13".("TUN":?)
13P         (740.181):(136.?)
13Q         89.543
14P         "2"."KABAN"
14Q         "10"."XUL"
15P         "3 [KIN]".("6":"WINAL":246|?)
15Q         (58.665):713a
16P         89.(101|204:757)
16Q         89.543
17P         679a.(1083:59)
17Q         "8"."AHAW"
01R         "13"."KEH"
01S         204.(676:130c|?)
02R         "9"."BAKTUN"
02S         44.(110.(610:23b))
03R         "18 [KIN]".("1":"WINAL":246|?)
03S         "8".("TUN":125)
04R         "1"."KATUN"
04S         (740.181):(246|?)
05R         21a.(68:683b)
05S         58.(219:528)
06R         679a.(58.665):713a)
06S         89.(11:757)
07R         "3"."EZ'NAB"
07S         "11"."XUL"
08R         "17 [KIN]".("7":"WINAL":246|?)
08S         "16".("TUN":130)
09R         329."KATUN"
09S         (740.181):(246|?)
10R         "5"."AHAW"
10S         "3"."ZEK"
11R         (228:528:142b).(115|?:23b|?:585a)
11S         679a.((58.665):713a)
12R         89.(101|204|?:757)
12S         "5"."KABAN"
13R         "0"."SOZ"
13S         "16 [KIN]".("6":"WINAL":246|?)
14R         "18".("TUN":125)
14S         "1"."KATUN"
15R         740:246|?
15S         (281:23b).(684b:142)
16R         679a.((58.665):713a)
16S         89.(1:757)
17R         "5"."KAN"
17S         "12"."KAYAB"
01T         "17 [KIN]".("4":"WINAL":125|136|?)
01U         "2".("TUN":125)
02T         "2"."KATUN"
02U         740.246|?
03T         679a(?:713a)
03U         89.(1.757)
04T         89.(1016a:24)
04U         191.1011
05T         (228:528:178).(115:23b:585a)
05U         "1"."IMIX"
06T         "4"."SIP"
06U         "1 [KIN]".("1":"WINAL":246|?)
07T         "1"."TUN"
07U         (740.181):246
08T         (575:59).(0:24)
08U         11.115.747a
09T         (228:528:142).(238:23b:585a)
09U         679a.(740.125)
10T         762:142b
10U         "7"."KAN"
11T         "17"."MOL"
11U         "7 [KIN]".("4":"WINAL":125)
12T         "8".("TUN":125)
12U          "2"."KATUN"
13T         740.246
13U         762:142b
14T         "11"."CIKCAN"
14U         "13"."CEN"
15T         "2 [KIN]".("8":"WINAL":125|246|?)
15U         "9".("TUN":130|?)
16T         740.246|?
16U         762.142b
17T         679a.(58.665):713a)
17U         89a.(11:757)
01G         "9"."AKBAL"
01H         "6"."XUL"
01I         188a.(74:110:110:25|?)
01J         (245|?:501:534).(519:578)
01K         (130e:518c:188).757|758a|?
02K         12.(0:(178.178))
03K         570.(32|35|?:1000|?)
04K         (1:533:23b).(184:624b:178f)
05K         125.((32|35|?.1000a):670:178f)
06K         1000a.(168d:573a)
07K         "18 [KIN]".("8":"WINAL":246|?)
08K         "1".(1034{"BAKTUN"}:142)
09K         ("13"."AHAW").("18"."KANKIN")
10K         679a.(110:1029)
01L         "8"."OK"
02L         "3"."KAYAB"
03L         ((58.665):713a).181
01M         89.(11:757)
01N         74.184.(762:142)
01O         ((12.(177:506)):(501.506)).(109e:539:130)
02O         "6 [KIN]".("11":"WINIAL":246|?)
03O         "6".("TUN":125)
04O         (58:665).713a
05O         (565a:266b).(597b:575)
06O         (11:219:59).(116c:747a)
07O         "3".(797a:59).35
08O         204.("3":676:178f)
09O         (11:714:130c).(11:(38.1016a):24b)
10O         151.(168d:561a:23b)
11O         ?{"VULTURE?"}.102
12O         204.(60:713a:18)
13O         74.184.(762)
14O         111.1000|?
15O         37.(168d:793a)

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The Rationale For Digital Transcription

The project of digitally transcribing hieroglyphic texts rests on the assumption that it is possible to preserve the salient information content of any given hieroglyphic inscription in numeric and syntactic form. Accordingly, transcription conventions should allow for the accurate and unambiguous representation of that information. Once transcribed, these texts should be of use for an indefinite number of purposes, because a digital transcription is designed simply to reproduce, with as little addition or substraction as possible, the information contained in the original inscription. If the addition of information is thought of as "interpretation," and the subtraction of information as "entropy," then the goal of transcription may be described as the preinterpretive, degree zero replication of the original.

The practice of transcription must be separated from the practice of decipherment, translation, and exegesis, and each of these four must be viewed as levels and moments in a comprehensive process of interpretation. Once the level of transcription is completed, it will be possible to proceed to the other interpretive levels.

The following conventions have been adopted in accordance with these principles and ideas.

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Terms And Definitions

The word "inscription" is used to refer to the actual hierglyphic text found on a given artifact, or a facsimile representation thereof. The word "transcription" refers to the rewriting of an inscription in a different form, which preserves some important information content in the inscription. Both inscriptions and transcriptions are referred to as "texts", but a transcritpive segment is sometimes designated as a "string".

The possibility of transcription rests on the condition that the graphic elements of a given inscription are instances or "tokens" or an abstract category or "type" that exists independently of any particular inscription, and which a transcription seeks to identify. Thus, to transcribe a text is to classify its specific elements under the signs of their generic categories. A "grapheme" is a type of graphic sign; inscriptions are made up of tokens of graphemes.

It should be noted that, in this context, a transcription seeks only to represent the geometric and graphemic properties of an inscription as completely and accurately as possible. With very few exceptions, no attempt is made to assign values to graphemes. The assignment of values--phonetic, semantic, grammatic, etc.--takes place rather at the level of "decipherment". The levels of transcription, decipherment, translation and interpretation should be treated as separate and quasi-independent moments of the process of epigraphic research.

A "digital transcription" is a transcription that rewrites the inscription by substituting numbers and other signs for the categories that classify the elements of the inscription.

One of the uses of a digital transcription is that it can be easily processed by a programmed translation routine. Because the visual recognition and classification of the inscribed text has been performed by a person, the mechanical act of substituting values for each numbered element of the transcription is quite easy.

A "glyph" is defined as a minimal unit of an inscription, which may stand alone or in combination with other glyphs. In Classic Maya writing, one or more glyphs are combined to form glyphic "collocations" or "blocks", which are in turn put together to form texts. When used in reference to inscriptions, the word "text" refers to a contiguous group of glyph blocks. Even though two separate groups of glyph blocks may be part of the same narrative, they are reparded as separate texts for the purposes of transcription.

In the system proposed here, a collocation and a block are not synonymous. A collocation is a group of glyphs that combine to form a higher-order unit, as with the signs for day and month names, units of time, temporal indicators, etc. By contrast, a glyph block is a group of glyphs that combine to form those square elements that are distinctive of the Mayan script. A given collocation may or may not be identical to a block, whereas a glyph block is a particular kind of collocation.

Very often one finds in the Classic Mayan inscriptions what appears to be two glyph blocks squeezed together to occupy the space of a single glyph block. The reduced glyph blocks are referred to as "sub-blocks".

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Glyphs And Glyph Numbers

All transcriptions use Thompson's (1962) glyph catalog numbers ("t-numbers"), with some modifications suggested by Kurbjuhn (1989), and others that are presented here for the first time. Thus:

For sake of clarity, these numbers are refered to as "g-numbers".

Aside from the broad categories inherited from Thompson's scheme--affix, main sign, and portrait--the g-number in itself contains no information about the glyph-type it names. Rather, the g-number serves as a unique identifier for a given glyph. It can act as the keyed index field for glyphic information in a relational database, and it can be used to name each glyph's graphic file (e.g. 050700.gif).

Note that, in this system, classificatory schema that group the glyphs according to their visual attributes--such as whether they are iconic or conventional, symmetrical or not, etc.--or some other criteria are not encoded in the g-number. Instead, such schema are to be applied to the glyphic "alphabet" by supplying, in a separate field alongside the g-number, some attribute code.

Also note that Thompson's system does not clearly distinquish between glyphs and collocations; in many cases a collocation that has been assigned an individual number in fact consists of separate glyphs which themselves have been given numbers. In most cases, it is preferable not to use glyph numbers that refer to collocations; instead, collocations are to be identified by their constituent glyphs. Some exceptions to this rule are collocations that represent day and month names and units of time.

Transcriptions of collocations that signify day and month names, units of time, and other calendrical ideas are designated as quoted glosses:

Not all standard collocations are designated by glosses, as in the above list. Period ending signs, for example, are designated by their individual glyphs. Also, it does no harm to transcribe any collocation for which there is an accepted gloss as a string of g-numbers. A good translation routine will detect such strings and convert them to glosses if desired.

A list of distance number indicators is contained in the Appendix.

Numbers are designated as arabic numerals enclosed in quotes.

Finally, unknown glyphs are designated as follows:

Unidentifiable glyphs are glyphs that have been eroded, erased or are otherwise missing. Occasionally, such a glyph may be identified by inference, in which case the inferred value is marked by braces.

It may be argued that Kurbjuhn has already reserved the numbers 1300 and up for the category of unidentified glyphs. However, of the 48 elements she includes in this category, most are collocations, not glyphs as defined here. Therefore, this category does not appear in the current scheme of classification.

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Glyph String Syntax And Punctuation

In a digital transcription, one line of transcribed text corresponds to one block of inscribed text. (This is true even in cases of sub-blocks). Within each line of transcription, each glyph is represented by its g-number, and the spatial arrangement of the glyphs as found in the inscription is represented by a set of punctuators originally developed by Thompson (1962) and modified here. Thompson's conventions have been augmented to avoid certain ambiguities that may otherwise crop up. The punctuators with their meanings are as follows:

If one images a glyph block as a small grid with irregularly shaped cells, then the rule for transcription may be stated as follows. First, define how many full columns are in the block. (A full column is the space between two parallel vertical lines that extend the length of the block.) Then, within the leftmost full column, if more than one, begin at the upper left and move from left to right, top to bottom, within the column. Then go to the next full column to the right and repeat the procedure. This rule, which is actually quite intuitive, is best grasped by looking at the examples in the Appendix.

The order of transcription given above must be applied in all cases. This is because the order of transcription does not necessarily correspond to the order in which the glyphs are to be read, that is, assigned values. It describes only the spatial arrangement of the glyphs as they occupy the space of the glyph block. The determination of the actual reading order of the glyphs takes place at the level of translation. Remember that the point of transcription is simply to preserve the visual information of an inscription as completely and accuraately as possible.

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Textual Format

As mentioned above, one block of inscribed text corresponds to a single line of transcribed text. Because the Classic Mayan inscriptions are for the most part composed of ordered rows and columns of glyph blocks, epigraphers have designated individual glyph blocks by their position within an array, where capital letters refer to columns and numbers refer to rows. This practice is adopted here, and transcribers should use received letter and number designations wherever possible.

The order of transcription of glyph blocks follows the established pattern of reading the Classic Mayan inscriptions, which is to read from left to right and top to bottom in columns of two. Thus, for a text with columns A through F and rows 1 through 10, the order of transcription will be: A1, B1, A2, B2, A3, B3, ..., E8, F8, E9, F9, E10, F10.

Many Mayan texts do not conform to the regular square-grid model, such as the "woven" text on Stela J at Copan and the irregularly shaped texts on some of the lintels at Yaxchilan. In cases where epigraphers have discovered the proper reading order of the text, this order is followed. In unattested cases, the order is arrived at by a careful examination of the calendrical phrases, names phrases, or by comparison to other anomalous texts at the same site. In any case, if the order is transcribed incorrectly, it can easily be corrected at a later date when the proper order is determined.

Once the proper reading order of blocks is determined, each block is transcribed on a separate line, beginning with the column letter, the row number, and a tab, as follows:

	A1		"ISIG"
	A2		"ISIG"
	B1		"ISIG"
	B2		"ISIG"
	A3		"12"
	A4		"9"
	B4		"KATUN"
	E16		"6".([548]:142:166|"?")
	F16		"1".(28:[548]:142:166|"?")
	E17		[740]:(57.126)
	F17		11.(212:[764a])

Note that lines E16 and E17 contain alternate readings for a glyph, and that the second reading is the "?". In these cases, the glyph value has been guessed at, and the question mark indicates that the suggested value is uncertain.

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Text And File Names

Each of the inscriptive texts on an artifact is transcribed as a separate file and given a unique name. The name appears on the first line of the transcription, and also acts as the name of the file in which the transcription is saved. The first eight characters (the "filename") encode the site, artifact type and artifact number. The precise structure is as follows:

For most inscriptions, this naming scheme is easily applied; however, for sites with artifacts numbered according to a scheme that uses letters or takes up more than two characters, a different numbering system needs to be adopted. For example, the various inscriibed panels in Palenque's Temple of the Foliated Cross would have to be renamed. Also, there are no standard numbers for texts on an artifact with multiple inscriptions. In both cases, what is required is a standardized set of numerical identifiers.

For more information on site and artifact codes, see the Appendix.

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File Format

All files should be in Unix ASCII format. There should be no spaces between any of the lines of text, including between the text name and the first transcribed block. Nor should there be any spaces between any of the characters on a line of text. The end of each line of transcribed text should have a carriage- return and a line-feed. (If you do not know what these last terms mean, these are usually invisible codes included in a text file. There is in all probability no need to worry to about them, since most word-processors include them.)

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How To Submit And Receive A Text

Digital transcriptions are mailed to the database owner's address (see below). Because even the longest inscriptions (such as the Central Panel of the Temple of Inscriptions at Palenque) yield relatively small files, there is no need to compress the files. Simply attach your file to a message that contains your name, address, and anything else you want to add. The owner will place the file in the appropriate subdirectory at the MED site, where it will be accessible to users via FTP (and services, such as Gopher, Lynx, Mosaic, etc., which make use of FTP).

Note that transcriptions are not uploaded directly to the FTP site. Files can be downloaded directly form the site, however.

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Reviewing Digital Texts

Users of MED are encouraged to review transciptions produced by others. This is an important part of networked mode of scholarship on which MED is founded. The more a given text is submitted to criticism by others, the more likely the transcription will be error-free, and the more legitimate the status of the text as a standard transcription.

Critical responses to a given transcription are aired on the Mesoamerican studies listserv, AZTLAN-L, under the category of "epigraphy." At some point in the future, an archive will be set up to store these exchanges, as well as any stand-alone essays than one may wish to contribute.

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Internet Addresses

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Appendix 1: Order Of Transcription

The following examples, from Schele (1989:6), illustrate the rule of defining full columns to establish the order of glyph transcription:

       |     |           |
       |     |           |
       |     |           |
       |  1  |     2     |
       |     |           |
       |     |           |
       |     |           |
Example 1: 2 full columns, 2 glyphs
Transcribed as "1.[2]"

       |        1        |
       |                 |
       |                 |
       |        2        |
       |                 |
       |                 |
Example 2: 1 full column, 2 glyphs
Transcribed as "1:[2]"

       |  1     |    2   |
       |                 |
       |                 |
       |        3        |
       |                 |
       |                 |
Example 3: 1 full column, 3 glyphs
Transcribed as "(1.2):[3]"

       |            |    |
       |            |    |
       |      1     |  2 |
       |            |    |
       |            |    |
       |         3       |
Example 4: 1 full column, 3 glyphs
Transcribed as "([1].2):3"

       |    |   |        |
       |  1 | 2 |        |
       +--------+   4    |
       |        |        |
       |    3   |        |
       |        +--------+
       |        |   5    |
Example 5: 2 full columns, 5 glyphs
Transcribed as "((1.2):[3]).([4]:5)"

       |           |     |
       |     1     |     |
       |           |     |
       |           |  4  |
       +-----------+     |
       |  2  |   3 |     |
       |     |     |     |
Example 6: 2 full columns, 4 glyphs
Transcribed as "([1]:(2.3)).4"

       |     1  |   4    |
       |        |        |
       |     2  |   5    |
       |        |        |
       |     3  |   6    |
Example 7: 2 full columns, 6 glyphs
Transcribed as "(1:[2]:3).(4:[5]:6)"

       |     |     2     |
       |     +-----------+
       |     |           |
       |  1  |     3     |
       |     |           |
       |     +------------
       |     |     4     |
Example 8: 2 full columns, 4 glyphs
Transcribed as "1.(2:[3]:4)"

       | 1| 2|        |  |
       +-----+   5    |  |
       |     |        |  |
       |  3  +--------+  |
       |     |  6 | 7 | 9|
       +-----+--------+  +
       |  4  |   8    |  |
Example 9: 3 full columns, 9 glyphs
Transcribed as "((1.2):[3]:4).([5]:(6.7):8).9"

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Appendix 2: Distance Number Indicator Abbreviations

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Appendix 3: Site Codes

The following site code names, from Graham (1975:1:24), are used to name digital text files:

Note: This list is being updated by members of the Corpus of Maya Hieroglyphic Inscriptions Project at the Peabody Museum at Harvard University. All inquiries for unlisted site names should be addressed to them.

ABJ  Abaj Takalik
ACN  Acanmul
AGC  Aguas Calientes
AGT  Aguateca
ALH  Altun Ha
ALM  Altamira
ALS  Altar de Sacrificios
AML  La Amelia
AMP  EI Amparo
ANL  Anonal
BLK  Balakbal
BFK  Bonampak
BUL  EI Baul
BVJ  Benque Viejo
CAY  EI Cayo
CCL  Chocola
CDR  EI Cedral
CHB  Chacchoben
CHL  EI Chal
CHN  Chichen Itza
CKL  Chinkultic
CKM  Chochkitam
CLB  Chilib
CLK  Calakmul
CML  Comalcalco
CMT  Comitan
CMU  Chichmul
CNC  Cancuen
CNH  Chinaha
CNK  Chinikiha
CNT  Cenotillo
CNZ  Chunhuitz
COB  Coba
COL  Collections, public or private
COZ  Cozumel
CPC  Chiapa de Corzo
CPL  Chapayal
CPN  Copan
CRB  EI Caribe
CRC  Caracol
CSB  Consacbe
CTP  Chuctiepa
CVL  Cival
CZP  EI Chicozapote
DBC  Dzibilchaltun
DBN  Dzibilnocac
DPL  Dos Pilas
DZL  Dzilam
DZT  Dzitbalche
EKB  Ek Balam
ENC  EI Encanto, Peten
ESP  La Esperanza
ETZ  Etzna
FLD  La Florida
FLS  Flores
FNC  Finca Encanto
GQT  Guaquitepec
HIG  Los Higos
HLK  Halakal
HLL  Halal
HNT  Huntichmul
HRZ  La Honradez
HTZ  Hacienda Hotzuc
ICC  Ichmac
ICL  Ichmul
ICP  Ichpaatun
IKL  Ikil
ITB  Itzimte-Bolonchen
ITN  Itzan
ITS  Itsimte-Sacluk
IXH  Ixtelha
IXK  Ixkun
IXL  Ixlu
IXZ  Ixtutz
IZP  Izapa
JAI  Jaina
JMB  Jimbal
JNT  Jonuta
KAB  Kabah
KAX  Kaxuinic
KJU  Kaminaljuyu
KNA  Kana
KNK  Kanki
KYL  Kayal
LAB  Labna
LAC  Lacanha
LAG  Lagunita
LBT  Lubaantun
LGP  Laguna Perdida
LOL  Loltun
LPM  Lopez Mateos
LTI  Lashtunich
MAR  La Mar
MCA  La Muneca
MCW  Mountain Cow
MLC  Mulchic
MLP  La Milpa
MLS  Muluch Tsekal
MNC  Mario Ancona
MNG  Managua
MPN  Mayapan
MQL  Machaquila
MRD  Mirador
MRF  Miraflores
MRL  Moral
MTL  Motul de San Jose
NAR  Naranjo
NAY  La Naya
NCT  Naachtun
NKM  Nakum
NPT  Nohpat
OAG  Ojo de Agua
OKP  Okop
OXK  Oxkintok
OXL  Oxlahuntun
OXP  Oxpemul
PAB  EI Pabellon
PAL  Palenque
PCL  Pechal
PCR  Pasion del Cristo
PCT  La Pochitoca
PDR  Padre Piedra
PIX  Pixoy
PLM  EI Palmar
PMB  Pomona, Belize
PMT  Pomona, Tabasco
PNG  Piedras Negras
PNH  Panhale
PNT  Pantaleon
POL  Polol
PRS  EI Paraiso, Yucatan
PRT  EI Porton
PRU  EI Peru
PSD  La Pasadita
PST  Pestac
PUS  Pusilha
PVR  EI Porvenir
QRG  Quirigua
RAM  Rio AmariUo
RAZ  Rio Azul
RBC  Rio Bec
RMC  Rio Michol
RTR  EI Retvo
SAL  Salinas de los Nueve Cerros
SAY  Sayil
SBL  Seibal
SCM  San r.lemente
SCN  Sacchana
SCU  Sacul
SEP  Santa Elena Poco Uinic
SIS  Sisilha
SLM  San Lorenzo, Campeche
SLS  San Lorenzo, Chiapas
SRC  Santa Rita Corozal
SRX  Santa Rosa Xtampak
STN  Santoton
TAM  Tamarindito
TBI  Hacienda Tabi
TCK  Tohcok
TEN  Tenam Puente
TIK  Tikal
TLA  Tila
TLT  Telantunich
TMN  Teleman
TNA  Tonina
TNL  Tonala
TPX  Topoxte
TRS  Tres Islas
TRT  EI Tortuguero
TSL  Tayasal
TUL  Tulum
TUN  Tunkuyi
TZB  Tzibanche
TZC  Tzocchen
TZD  Tzendales
TZM  Tzum
UAX  Uaxactun
UCN  Ucanal
UKM  Ukum
UOL  Uolantun
UXL  Uxul
UYM  Uaymil
XCA  Xcocha
XCK  Xcochkax
XCL  Xculoc
XCR  Xcoralche
XKB  Xkombec
XKM  Xkichmook
XLM  Xcalumkin
XMK  Xmakabatun
XNC  Xnucbec
XTL  Xutilha
XUL  Xultun
XUP  Xupa
YAX  Yaxchilan
YLC  Yalcabakal
YLT  Yaltutu
YUL  Yula
YXH  Yaxha
YXN  Yaxuna
YXP  Yaxcopoil
ZAP  El Zapote

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Appendix: 4 Artifact Type Codes

The following codes are adopted from Graham (1975:1:25), but have been modified where the authors used a two-character code:

ALT  Altar
BSC  Ball-court sculpture
COL  Column
CRN  Cornice
FRG  Fragment
HST  Hieroglyphic stairway, or step
JMB  Jamb
LNT  Lintel
MON  Monument
MRL  Mural painting
MSC  Miscellaneous
PAN  Panel
PIL  Pilaster or pier
STE  Stela
TAB  Tablet
THR  Throne
ZOM  Zoomorph

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