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Sources, Reference Works, and Readings

Biographies of Buddhist Nuns: Pao-chang's Pi-chiu-ni chuan. Translated by Li Jung-hsi. ōsaka: Tohokai, 1981. See also Tsai, Kathryn. "Review of Biographies of Buddhist Nuns, Pao-chang's Pi-chiu-ni chuan," translated by Li Jung-hsi, Cahiers d'Extrême-Asie 1 (1989): 87-101. Mr. Li's translation is adequate, except for the sections where references to sources other than the biographies themselves, such as the Chinese Buddhist scriptures, the dynastic histories, or important secondary sources were necessary to understand the text. His introduction, however, was written under political circumstances that apparently constrained him to make statements that, although not contradicting the official ideology, were quite contrary to what was evident in the biographies themselves. Although of interest, the book is for all practical purposes unobtainable in the United States.

*Blofeld, John E. The Wheel of Life: The Autobiography of a Western Buddhist. Boston: Shambala Publications, 1988. Mr. Blofeld is an accurate and eloquent observer. This account of his sojourn in China before World War II gives us a vicarious experience of things that are no more.

*Buddhist Texts through the Ages. Edited by Edward Conze. New York: Harper & Row, 1964. Contains selections from the whole range of Buddhist scriptures. It includes Arthur Waley's translation of biographies 1, 27, and 55.

*Chen-hua. In Search of the Dharma: Memoires of a Modern Chinese Buddhist Pilgrim. Edited by Chün-fang Yü and translated by Denis C. Mair. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1992. A lively, readable account of a modern Chinese Buddhist pilgrim.

*Ch'en, Kenneth. "Anti-Buddhist Propaganda during the Nan-ch'ao." Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies 15(1952): 166-192. The period covered by this article is exactly the same as that covered by Lives of the Nuns. Ch'en translates many arguments offered by both Taoists and Confucians against the foreign religion of Buddhism, as well as the responses by Buddhist apologists.

*—. Buddhism in China: A Historical Survey. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1964. Ch'en's valuable book has something on every aspect of Buddhism in China and also includes an excellent bibliography.

*—. The Transformation of Chinese Buddhism. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1973. An overview of cultural aspects of Buddhism in China.

Chi shen chou san pao kan t'ung lu (Collection of records of miracles wrought in China by faith in the Three Treasures). Compiled by Tao-hsüan (596-667). T. 52, no. 2106.

Chin shu (History of the Chin dynasty). 10 vols. Compiled by Fang Hsüan-ling (578-648) and others. Peking: Chung-hua Publishing, 1974.

Ch'u san-tsang chi chi (Collected notes on the translation of the Buddhist scriptures into Chinese). By Seng-yu (ca. 515). T. 55, no. 2145.

Chu wei-mo-chieh ching (Commentary to the Vimalakīrti). By Seng-chao (374-414). T. 35, no. 1775.

Chuang Tzu. Complete Works of Chuang Tzu. Translated by Burton Watson. New York and London: Columbia University Press, 1968.

Chung-kuo ku chin ti ming ta tz'u tien (Dictionary of Chinese place names ancient and modern). Compiled by Tsang Li-ho and others. 2d. ed. Hong Kong: Shang-wu Publishing, 1933.

Classic of History. See Shoo-King (Shu ching).

Collected Notes on the Translation of the Buddhist Scriptures into Chinese. See Ch'u san-tsang chi chi.

Commentary to the Vimalakīrti. See Chu wei-mo-chieh ching.

*Confucius. The Analects. Translated by D. C. Lau. New York: Penguin Classics, 1979; and The Analects of Confucius. Translated by Arthur Waley. N.Y.: Vintage Books, 1938. Both of these excellent scholarly translations of the Lun yü, each with a valuable introduction, are available in convenient editions.

Cullavagga. Vol. 20 in Sacred Books of the East, edited by F. Max Müeller. Reprint. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 1965.

de Groot, J. J. M. The Religious System of China. 6 vols. Reprint. Taipei: Ch'eng Wen Publishing, 1972.

Demiéville, Paul. "Momies d'Extrême-Orient." Journal des Savants (1965): 144-170; reprinted in P. Demiéville, Choix d'étude sinologiques. Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1973, pp. 407-432.

des Rotours, Robert. Traité des fonctionnaires et traité de l'armée, traduits de la nouvelle histoire des T'ang (chaps. 44-50) vols. 1, 2. Bibliotheque de l'institut des hautes études chinoises, vol. 6. Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1948, 1949.

Dharmaguptaka-bhikshunī-pratimoksha. See Ssu fen pi-ch'iu-ni chieh pen.

Dharmaguptaka-vinaya. See Ssu fen lü

Dudbridge, Glen. The Legend of Miao-shan. London, Oxford Oriental Monographs No. 1, Oxford University, 1978.

Ekottarāgama. See Tseng i a-han ching.

Eliade, Mircea. Myths, Dreams, and Mysteries. New York: Harper Torchbooks, 1967.

—. Shamanism: Archaic Techniques of Ecstasy (in French). Translated by Willard R. Trask. Bollingen Series no. 77. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1964.

Eminent Monks. See Kao seng chuan.

*Ennin's Diary: The Record of a Pilgrimage to China in Search of the Law. Translated by Edwin O. Reischauer. New York: Ronald Press, 1955. This Japanese pilgrim traveled to China just in time to witness the great persecution in the mid-ninth century. Although the time is later than that covered by the biographies of the nuns, it is still valuable for its eye-witness account of Buddhism in medieval China.

Fa yüan chu lin (Forest of pearls in the garden of the law). Compiled by Tao-shih (fl. 656-668). T. 53 no. 2122.

*Facets of Taoism in Chinese Religion. Edited by Holmes Welch and Anna Seidel. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1979.

Fo tsu t'ung chi (Thorough record of the Buddha's lineage). Compiled by Chih-p'an (fl. 1258-1269). T. 49 no. 2035.

Forest of Pearls in the Garden of the Law. See Fa yüan chu lin.

*Friedman, Lenore. Meetings with Remarkable Women: Buddhist Teachers in America. Boston: Shambala Publications, 1987.

Further Lives of Eminent Monks. See Hsü kao seng chuan.

Gernet, Jacques. Les aspects économiques du bouddhisme dans la société chinoise du Ve au Xe siècle. Paris: école Française d'Extrême Orient, 1956.

—. "Les suicides par le feu chez les bouddhistes chinois du Ve au Xe siècle." Mélanges publiés par l'Institut des Hautes études chinoises 2 (1960): 527-558.

Great Perfection of Wisdom Treatise. See Ta chih tu lun.

Great Sung Dynasty Compact History of the Buddhist Assemblies. See Ta sung seng shih lüeh.

Han fa pen nei chuan (Hidden account of the origin of the [Buddhist] law in the Han dynasty.) This text was probably forged during the sixth century and no longer exists as a separate work, but parts and summaries exist in other works. See Zürcher, Buddhist Conquest, vol. 2, p. 325, n. 23.

Han shu (History of the Former Han dynasty), 12 vols. By Pan Ku (32-92). Peking: Chung-hua Publishing, 1987.

Han shu i wen chih (Bibliography in the history of the Former Han dynasty), Chap. 30 of Han shu (q.v.).

*Herrmann, Albert. Historical and Commercial Atlas of China. Harvard-Yenching Institute monograph series no. 1. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1935. This old but still valuable work is excellent for its graphic presentation of the shifting political boundaries of the Northern and Southern dynasties. It also has maps of the ancient capitals of Ch'ang-an, Lo-yang, and Chien-k'ang (Nanjing). The entire atlas is a treat for those who enjoy contemplating history by means of maps.

Hirakawa Akira. Ritsuzō-no-kenkyū. Tokyo: Sankibo-Busshorin, 1970.

Historical Atlas of China, The (Chung-kuo li-shih ti-t'u chi). Vol. 4, The Eastern Jin Dynasty and Sixteen Kingdoms Period, The Southern and Northern Dynasties Period. Edited by Tan Qixiang. Shanghai: Cartographic Publishing House, 1982. Title and introduction in Chinese and English, maps in Chinese only.

*Horner, I. B. Women under Primitive Buddhism. 1930. Reprint. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 1975. This is a study of monastic life for women in the earliest days of Buddhism in India.

Hou han shu (History of the Latter Han dynasty). By Fan Yeh. 12 vols. Peking: Chung-hua Publishing, 1965.

Hsü kao seng chuan (Further lives of eminent monks). By Tao Hsüan (596667). T. 50, no. 2060.

*Jan Yun-hua. "Buddhist Self-Immolation in Medieval China," History of Religions, 4, no. 2 (winter 1965): 243-268. This article discusses all kinds of suicides, not only those by fire.

K'ai-yüan shih chiao lu (The T'ang k'ai-yüan reign period catalogue of Buddhist writings). By Shih Chih-sheng (ca. 730). T. 5, no. 2154.

K'ai-yüan shih chiao lu lüeh ch'u (The condensed T'ang k'ai-üan reign period catalogue of Buddhist writings). By Shih Chih-sheng (ca. 730). T. 5, no. 2155.

*Kaltenmark, Max. Lao Tzu and Taoism (in French). Translated by Robert Greaves. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1969. A popular and erudite introduction to Taoism.

Kao seng chuan (Lives of eminent monks). By Hui-chiao (ca. 530). T. 50, no. 2059.

Kao seng Fa Hsien chuan (Biography of the eminent monk Fa Hsien). T. 51, no. 2085.

Kasuga Reichi, "Jōdokyō-shiryō to shite no meisōden-shishishō meisōden-yōbun chō narabi ni mirokunyorai kannō shō dai shi shōin no meisōden ni tsuite," Shūgaku Kenkyū 12 (1936): 53-118. (The title of this journal has been miscopied as Shūkyō Kenkyū in other publications.)

Ku chin t'u shu chi ch'eng (Imperial encyclopedia, or, Complete collection of books and records ancient and modern). Chung-hua Publishing, 1934. Photolithographic reproduction of palace edition, presented to the emperor in 1725.

Kuang hung ming chi (The extended collection making known the illustrious). Compiled by Tao-hsüan (fl. 624-667). T. 52, no. 2103.

Kuang tsan ching (Perfection of wisdom in 25,000 lines; Sanskrit: Pañchavimshatisāhasrikā-prajñā-pāramitā ). Translated by Chu Fa-hu (Dharmaraksha) (fl. 265-310) in the north in Chang-an and Lo-yang. T. 8, no. 222.

*Lao tzu tao teh ching. Vol. 3, Chu tzu chi ch'eng, Chung-hua Publishing, 1954. Many good translations into English are available.

Le Lie-sien tchouan: Biographies légendaires des immortals taoïstes de l'anti-quité. Translated by Max Kaltenmark. Peking: Université de Paris, Publications du centre d'études sinologiques de Pékin, 1953.

Lévi, S., and E. Chavannes, "Les seize arhat protecteurs de la loi." Journal Asiatique 8, series 11, (September-October 1916): 189-304.

Li tai san pao chi (Records of the Three Treasures through the ages). By Fei Ch'ang-fang (597). T. 49, no. 2043.

Liang shu (History of the Liang dynasty). 3 vols. Compiled by Yao Ssu-lien (636). Peking: Chung-hua Publishing, 1973.

Lieh nü chuan (Lives of Illustrious Women). Compiled by Liu Hsiang (77-6 b.c.).

*Link, Arthur E. "Biography of Shih Tao-an." T'oung Pao 46(1958): 1-48. A very scholarly translation of the biography of Shih Tao-an, a man of exceeding importance in the early history of Buddhism in China.

—. "Shih Seng-yu and His Writings," Journal of the American Oriental Society 80, no. 1 (January / March 1960): 17-43.

—. "Taoist antecedents of Tao-an's Ontology," Symposium on Taoism in History of Religions nos. 2, 3 (November 1969-February 1970): 181-215.

*Liu I-ch'ing. Shih-shuo hsin-yü. Translated by Richard Mather. A New Account of Tales of the World. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1976. A highly entertaining collection of tales of lives and events covering roughly the years 120-420, therefore overlapping somewhat with the Lives of the Nuns. The tales are divided by category and for the most part deal with members of the upper classes.

Lives of Eminent Monks. See Kao seng chuan.

Lives of Famous Monks. See Meisōden-shō.

Lives of Illustrious Women. See Lieh nü chuan.

Lives of the Nuns. See Pi-ch'iu-ni chuan.

Lo-yang ch'ieh-lan chi. By Yang Hsüan-chih (532-534). T. 51, no. 2092. Reprinted. Taipei: Shih-chieh Publishing, 1962.

Lu Hsüan. Ku hsiao-shuo kou ch'en (A study of ancient fiction). 2 vols. Hong Kong: Hsin-yi (New Arts) Publishing, 1967.

Lun yü. See Confucius.

Mahāprajāpatī-sūtra. See Ta-ai-tao pi-ch'iu-ni ching.

Mahāsānghika-bhiksunī-prātimoksha. See Mo-ha-seng-shih pi-ch'iu-ni chieh pen.

Mahīshāsaka-vinaya. See Mi-sha-se pu ho hsi wu fen lü; and Mo-ha-seng-shih pi-ch'iu-ni chieh pen.

Maspero, Henri. "Les Origins de la communauté bouddhist de Loyang." Journal Asiatique 225 (1934): 87-107.

—. Le Taoïsme et les religions chinoises. Paris: Gallimard, 1971.

Meisōden-shō (Ming seng chuan ch'ao) (Selections from the lives of famous monks). In Zoku-zōkyō, ser. 2 (Tokyo: Zōkyō-shoin, 1905-1912), part 2z, case 7, vol. 1. (Reprint, Taipei: Shin Wen Feng, vol. 134, n.d.)

*Mencius. Translated by D. C. Lau. London: Penguin, 1970. An excellent scholarly translation in a convenient edition. Chinese version in Chu tzu chi ch'eng, vol. 1, Peking: Chung-hua Publishing, 1954.

Method for Inviting Pindola (Ch'ing pin-t'ou-lu fa). Translated by Hui-chien (457), in the south near Chien-k'ang. T. 32, no. 1689.

Mi-sha-se pu ho hsi wu fen lü (Mahīshāsaka-vinaya). Translated by Fo-t'oshih and Chu Tao-sheng (early fifth century). T. 22, no. 1421.

Ming hsiang chi (Records of mysterious omens). By Wang Yen (ca. 479). The complete book is no longer extant, but fragments have been brought together by Lu Hsün in Ku hsiao-shou kou ch'en (A study of ancient fiction). 2 vols. Hong Kong: Hsin-i (New Arts) Publishing, 1967.

Ming seng chuan (Lives of famous monks). By Shih Pao-ch'ang. See Meisōden-shō.

Mo-ha-seng-shih pi-ch'iu-ni chieh pen (Mahāsānghika bhikshunī-prātimoksha). Translated by Fa Hsien (ca. 416+). T. 22, no. 1427.

Mochizuki Shinkō. Bukkyō-daijiten (Encyclopedia of Buddhism). 10 vols. Tokyo: Seikai-shōten, 1968.

Nan ch'i shu (History of the Southern Ch'i dynasty). 3 vols. Compiled by Hsiao Tzu-hsien (489-537). Peking: Chung-hua Publishing, 1972.

Nan shih (History of the Southern dynasties). 6 vols. Compiled by Li Yen-shou (mid-seventh century). Peking: Chung-hua Publishing, 1975.

*Needham, Joseph. Science and Civilisation in China. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, various dates. This series about the history of science in China can be of great interest and use to the general reader who is not necessarily well versed in science. Volumes 1, 2, and 5.2 have much on Chinese history in general and on both Buddhism and Taoism as well as other Chinese philosophical traditions. The bibliographies are exceptionally full.

Ngo Van Xuyet. Divination magie et politique dans la Chine ancienne. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 1976.

Oda Tokunō. Bukkyō-daijiten. Revised ed. Tokyo: Daizō-shuppan, 1969.

*O'Hara, Albert Richard, S. J. The Position of Women in Early China. Washington, D.C.: Catholic University of America Press, 1945. Translates and analyzes the Lieh nü chuan (Lives of illustrious women), compiled by Liu Hsiang (77-6 b.c.).

*Paul, Diana. Women in Buddhism. Berkeley, Calif.: Asian Humanities Press, 1980. A thorough study of the feminine in Buddhism.

Pi-ch'iu-ni chuan (Lives of the nuns). Compiled by Shih Pao-ch'ang (ca. 516), in the south in Chien-k'ang. T. 50, no. 2063.

Pi-nai-yeh (Vinaya). Translated by Chu Fo-nien (fl. 365-385) in the north in Ch'ang-an. T. 24, no. 1464.

*Prip-Møller, Johannes. Chinese Buddhist Monasteries: Their Plan and Its Function as a Setting for Buddhist Monastic Life. 1937. Reprint. 2d ed. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, 1967. The materials for this extraordinary book were collected during the late 1920s and 1930s amid the terrible conditions prevalent at that time in China. Numerous photographs and drawings are enhanced by the discussion in the text. This book, together with Holmes Welch's Practice of Chinese Buddhism (see below), present the best picture that we have of the time when Buddhist monastic life in mainland China was viable and thriving.

*Psalms of the Sisters (Therīgāthā). Translated by Caroline Rhys Davids. London: Pali Text Society translation series no. 1, Luzac, 1909; 1964. This is a translation of a very early collection of verses supposedly recited by women at the time of their enlightenment. It is the only other Buddhist canonical work (it is found in the Pali canon) that can compare with the Chinese Lives of the Nuns. It is not biographical in the historical sense but rather in the realm of the heart and spirit and complements the Lives very well.

Record of Buddhistic Kingdoms, A: Being an account by the Chinese monk Fa-hien of his travels in India and Ceylon (a.d. 399-414) in search of the Buddhist books of discipline. Translated and annotated with a Corean recension of the Chinese text by James Legge. New York: Paragon Book Reprint Corp., and Dover Publications, Inc., 1965.

Record of Monasteries and Convents in Lo-yang, A. See Lo-yang ch'ieh-lan chi.

Records of Mysterious Omens. See Ming hsiang chi.

Répertoire du canon bouddhique Sino-Japonais, édition de Taishō (Catalogue of the Sino-Japanese Buddhist canon of the Taishō edition). Supplement to Hōbōgirin. 2d ed., rev. and enl. Edited by Paul Demiéville, Hubert Durt, and Anna Seidel. Paris: Adrien-maisonneuve, 1978.

Robinson, Richard H. Early Mādhyamika in India and China. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1967.

*Robinson, Richard H., and Willard Johnson. The Buddhist Religion. 3d ed. Belmont, Calif.: Wadsworth Publishing, 1982. A general historical introduction to Buddhism from its beginning to the present day.

Rogers, Michael C., trans. The Chronicle of Fu Chien: A Case of Exemplar History. Chinese Dynastic Histories translation no. 10. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1968.

*Seidel, Anna. "Chronicle of Taoist Studies in the West 1950-1990." Cahiers d'Extrême-Asie 5 (1989-1990): 233-347. A scholarly treat for the specialist.

Selections from the Lives of Famous Monks. See Meisōden-shō.

Seng-chao. Chu wei-mo-chieh ching (Commentary to the Vimalakīrti scripture). T. 38, no. 1775.

Seven Tallies in a Cloud Satchel. See Yün chi ch'i ch'ien.

Shih Pao-ch'ang. See Meisōden-shō.

Shoo-king. Translated by James Legge. Shanghai: Shanghai Publishing, 1904. Includes Chinese text.

Soper, Alexander. "Literary Evidence for Early Buddhist Art in China." Artibus Asiae. Suppl. 19. 1959.

Ssu fen lü (Dharmaguptaka-vinaya). Translated by Buddhayashas and Chu Fo-nien (ca. 365), in Ch'ang-an, in the north. T. 22, no. 1428.

Ssu fen pi-ch'iu-ni chieh-mo fa (Dharmaguptaka nuns' rites and rules book). Translated by Gunavarman (431), in the south in Chien-k'ang. T. 22, no. 1434.

Ssu fen pi-ch'iu-ni chieh pen (Dharmaguptaka nuns' rule book). Translated by Buddhayashas (ca. 408-412), in Ch'ang-an, in the north. T. 22, no. 1431.

Stein, R. A. "Remarques sur les mouvements du Taoïsme politico-religieux au IIe siècle ap. J.-C." T'oung Pao 50 (1963): 1-78.

Study of Ancient Fiction. See Lu Hsün. Ku hsiao-shuo kou ch'en.

Sung kao seng chuan (The Sung dynasty biographies of eminent monks). Compiled by Ts'an-ning (919-1001). T. 50, no. 2061.

Sung shu (History of the Sung dynasty). 8 vols. Compiled by Shen Yüeh (441513). Peking: Chung-hua Publishing, 1974.

Symposium on Taoism. In History of Religions. 9, nos. 2, 3 (November 1969/February 1970): 107-255.

Ta-ai-tao pi-ch'iu-ni ching (The scripture of Mahāprajāpatī's vinaya). (412439) Anonymous. T. 24, no. 1478.

Ta chih tu lun (Great perfection of wisdom treatise). By Nāgārjuna. Translated into Chinese by Kumārajīva. T. 25, no. 1509, and into French by E. Lamotte, Le Traité de la grande vertu de Sagesse de Nāgārjuna. Vol. 1. Louvain: Publications Universitaires, 1949; reprinted 1966.

Ta sung seng shih lüeh (Great Sung dynasty compact history of the Buddhist assemblies). Compiled by Ts'an-ning (997). T. 54, no. 2126.

T'ai-p'ing yü lan (The T'ai-p'ing encyclopedia). Compiled by Li Fang et al. in the mid-tenth century. Reprint. Taipei: Ta-hua Publishing, 1980.

Taishō-shinshū-daizōkyō (Chinese Buddhist canon newly edited in the Taishō era [1912-1925]). 55 vols. Edited by Takakusu Junjirō, Watanabe Kaigyoku, and Ono Gemmyō, Tokyo: Taisho Issai-kyō kanko kwai, 1924-1929.

T'ang Yung-t'ung, Han wei liang-chin nan-pei-ch'ao fo-chiao shih (History of Buddhism in the Han, Wei, Chin, and southern and northern dynasties). Peking, Chung-hua Publishing, 1955.

*Teachings of the Compassionate Buddha. Edited with commentary by E. A. Burtt. New York: Mentor Books, 1959. Pocket-sized selection of texts from all types of Buddhism.

*Thompson, Laurence G. The Chinese Way in Religion. Encino and Belmont, Calif.: Dickenson Publishing, 1973. This volume reprints the diary, first published in 1923, of a modern Chinese woman who decides to become a Buddhist nun.

—. Chinese Religion: An introduction. 2d ed. Encino and Belmont, Calif.: Dickenson Publishing Co., 1975.

Thorough Record of the Buddha's Lineage. See Fo tsu t'ung chi.

*Tsai, Kathryn. "The Chinese Buddhist Monastic Order for Women: The First Two Centuries." Historical Reflections/Réflexions Historiques 8, no. 3 (fall 1981): 1-20. A very technical version of the present introduction to the biographies of the nuns.

Tseng i a-han ching. Translated by T'i-ho (Gautama Sanghadeva) [ca. 383398], in both north and south. T. 2, no. 125.

Tsukamoto Zenryū. Chūgoku bukkyō tsūshi (History of Chinese Buddhism). Tokyo: Suzuki-gakujitsu zaidan, 1968.

*Van Gulik, Robert. Sexual Life in Ancient China: A Preliminary Survey of Chinese Sex and Society from ca. 1500 b.c. till 1644 a.d. Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1961. This valuable book provides much information about the life that Buddhist nuns left behind.

Watson, Burton. The Complete Works of Chuang Tzu. New York: Columbia University Press, 1968

Waley, Arthur F. The Analects of Confucius. See Confucius.

Wei shu (History of the Wei dynasty). 8 vols. Compiled by Wei Shou (551). Peking: Hsin-hua Publishing, 1974.

*Welch, Holmes. Taoism: The Parting of the Way. Rev. ed. Boston: Beacon Press, 1966. A well-written overview of Taoism.

*—. The Practice of Chinese Buddhism, 1900-1950. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1967. Welch interviewed many monks who had fled from mainland China after the communist takeover and, using their testimony, reconstructed general patterns of life in Chinese Buddhist monasteries. It is a very valuable book that stands together with Chinese Buddhist Monasteries by Johannes Prip-Møller (see above).

*Wright, Arthur F. "Biography of the Nun An Ling-shou." Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies 15(1952): 193-196. Another version of biography 2.

*—. Buddhism in Chinese History. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1959. A short introductory book.

*—. "Fo-t'u-teng: A Biography." Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies 11(1948): 321-371. A very scholarly translation of Fo-t'u-teng's biography with introduction and annotation that gives a good picture of the times.

—. "Biography and Hagiography: Hui-chiao's Lives of Eminent Monks." Silver Jubilee Volume of Jimbunkagakukenkyushō (Zinbunkagakukenkyusyō), pp. 383-432. Kyoto: Jimbun Kagaku Kenkyūsyo, 1954. A good study of the Kao seng chuan and its sources but hard to find.

Yün chi ch'i ch'ien (Seven tallies in a cloud satchel). 3 vols. Taipei: Tzu-yu Publishing, 1978. A Sung-dynasty collection (ca. 1025) of major Taoist writings.

Zoku-zōkyō, ser. 2. Tokyo: Zōkyō-shoin, 1905-1912. See also Meisōden-shō.

*Zücher, Erik. The Buddhist Conquest of China: The Spread and Adaptation of Buddhism in Early Medieval China. 2 vols. Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1959. A solid work of the history of the period.

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