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Chapter IV. List of the Principal Works Which Have Been Employed in the Preparation of this Volume.

Section I. Chinese Works; With Brief Notices of Them.

1. In the 十三經註疏 (See proleg. to vol. I., p. 129):—

[i.] 春秋左傳註疏,六十卷, 'The Chunqiu and the Zhuan of Zuo, with Commentary and Explanations; in 60 Books;'

[ii.] 春秋公羊傳註疏,二十八卷, 'The Chunqiu and the Zhuan of Gongyang, with Commentary and Explanations; in 28 Books;'

[iii.] 春秋榖梁傳註疏,二十卷, 'The Chunqiu and the Zhuan of Guliang, with Commentary and Explanations; in 20 Books.'

The above three Works are of course Kong Yingda's editions of the labours of Du Yu, He Xiu, and Fan Ning, on the text of the Chunqiu and the early Commentaries of Zuoshi, Gongyang, and Guliang;—of all of which I have spoken in the first chapter of these prolegomena. Kong's own explanations are as learned and prolix as in the case of the other Classics. Very little is to be gleaned after him from the books that have come down to us of the dynasties from the Han to the Tang. I have generally used the edition of the thirteen Jing (經) by Ruan Yuan; and to the text of the Shi in it I have referred in the prolegomena to vol. IV., p. 172. The student should use no other, where this is procurable. The above Works all contain Ruan's examination of Kong's texts (春秋,左傳,公羊傳,榖梁傳,註疏,校勘記).

4. 欽定春秋傳說彚纂 'Compilation and Digest of Commentaries and Remarks on the Chunqiu. By imperial authority.' In 40 Books, the first two being occupied with introductory matter. The Work was ordered and its preparation entrusted to a committee of the principal scholars of the empire in 1,699, the 38th year of the period Kangxi, and appeared in 1,721, the 60th year of the same. I have generally called it the Kangxi Chunqiu. It deserves the praise which I have bestowed on the imperial editions, in the present dynasty, of the Shu and the Shi, though I have been disposed to dissent more frequently from the decisions of the editors themselves. They drew in preparing it from 134 writers:—3 of the Zhou dynasty; 10 of the Han; 1 of the Jin; 2 of the Sui; 13 of the Tang; 57 of the Song; 12 of the Yuan; and 36 of the Ming.

According to their plan, there are subjoined to the text occasionally brief notices of the different readings, the pronunciation of characters, and the matter. Then follow the Commentaries of Zuo, Gongyang, Guliang, and Hu An'guo (胡安國, styled 康侯), for the most part in full; but the editors sometimes take it on them to curtail or even suppress them entirely where they think them to be in error.

Hu An'guo was a scholar and officer of the Song dynasty (born in 1,074; died in 1,138). His commentary on our classic, in 30 Books, is not intrinsically of much value, but it was received on its publication with great applause by Gaozong, the first emperor of the southern Song dynasty; and all through the Ming dynasty its authority was supreme. It formed the standard for competitors at the literary examinations. Having given those four Commentaries, the editors draw upon their host of Authorities (集說), and conclude, when they think it necessary, with their own decisions (案).

6. There was published in 1,677, at the district city of Kunshan (崑山), department Suzhou, Jiangsu, a large collection of Works on the Classics, under the title of 通志堂經解, taken from the name of the hall or library of the gentleman to whom the books belonged. The expense of publication seems to have been borne by a Manchu, called Nalan Chengde, with the style of Rongruo (納蘭成德, 容 若). The Collection contains 33 Works on the Chunqiu, all but the last by writers of the Song and Yuan dynasties. I have had the opportunity of consulting:—

[i.] 春秋傳, 'Commentaries on the Chunqiu.' In 15 Books; by Liu Chang (劉敞; styled 原父); born 1,019, died 1,077. The author had written an earlier Work on the Chunqiu, called 春秋權衡. The one under notice remained in manuscript, until the publication of the Collection in which we now find it, Still there seems no doubt of its genuineness. Liu draws largely on the three early Commentaries, but decides between them according to his own judgment, having adopted, however, the praise-and-censure theory from Gongyang and Guliang.

[ii.] 春秋傳, 'Commentaries on the Chunqiu.' In 20 Books, by Ye Mengde (葉夢得; styled 少蘊,and also called 石林). These last two characters are generally prefixed to the title of the Work, to distinguish it from the preceding and others. The author was born in 1,077, and died in 1,148. He shows on the one hand his dissent from Sun Fu (孫復) and others who wished to discard the three early Commentaries altogether, and not go beyond the text for its explanation, and on the other hand from Su Che (蘇轍), who held to Zuoshi and paid no regard to Gong and Gu.

[iii.] 春秋通說, 'A general Exposition of the Chunqiu.' In 13 Books; by Huang Zhongyan (黃仲炎; styled 若晦), a scholar of the Song dynasty, who seems for some reason or other not to have advanced beyond his first degree. His Work was completed in 1,230. He entirely discards the praise-and-censure theory, and is more than necessarily independent in his treatment of the three early Commentaries.

[iv.]春秋集註, 'Collected Comments on the Chunqiu.' In 11 Books; by Zhang Qia (張洽 ; styled 元德 ), a scholar of the first half of the 13th century. He had previously prepared a Work on the classic, which he called 春秋集傳; and, dissatisfied with the finish of it, he prepared the present one, in which he strove to imitate the style and manner of Zhu Xi on the Analects and Mencius;—and hence its name of 集註. It is a useful Work, very perspicuous.

[v.]春秋或問, 'The meaning of the Chunqiu Catechetically elicited.' In 20 Books; by Lü Dagui (呂大圭 ; styled 圭叔, and also called 樸鄉), who took his 3d degree in 1,247. The catechetical form enables the author to bring out his views with force; but there is nothing which can be called peculiarly his own. As between the early commentators, he adheres to Zuo for the facts, and to Guliang for the principles, having much to say against Gongyang, and more against He Xiu.

[vi.] 讀春秋編, 'Digest to help in reading the Chunqiu.' In 12 Books; by Chen Shen (陳深; styled 子微), who lived both in the Song and Yuan dynasties. He had given to his study the name of 清全齋, which characters often enter into the title of his Work. He makes constant use of Zuo's Commentary, but is an advocate of the views of Hu An'guo.

[vii.] 春秋諸國統紀, 'The Records in the Chunqiu arranged under the States to which they severally belong.' In 22 Books; by Qi Lüqian (齊履謙; styled 伯恒). His preface is dated in 1,319. The peculiar character of the Work is shown in the title. He has placed the notices belonging to Lu before those of Zhou;—very naturally, it seems to me, but the critics profess to be shocked by the arrangement. A good deal of freedom is shown in the handling of subjects.

[viii.] 春秋或問, 'The meaning of the Chunqiu Catechetically elicited.' In 10 Books; by Cheng Duanxue (程端學; styled 時叔, called also 積齋), who took his third degree in 1,321. He was much employed in the office of historiography, and composed the Work next mentioned and another on the Chunqiu before he felt equal to this, which is reckoned his chef d'æuvre. It betrays a sceptical disposition in reference to the three early Commentaries, and is particularly rich in adducing the opinions of the Song scholars.

[ix.] 春秋本義, 'The proper Meaning of the Chunqiu.' In 30 Books; by Cheng Duanxue above. This was his earliest Work on our Classic, and shows the same tendencies which are fully developed in 'The Meaning Catechetically elicited.' He gives the names of 176 Works and Authors, which he had consulted in preparing for his task.

[x.] 春秋諸傳會通, 'All the Commentaries on the Chunqiu in one view.' In 24 Books; by Li Lian (李廉; styled 行簡). The Author's preface bears date in 1,349, towards the end of the Yuan dynasty. The substance of the three early Commentaries, and of their editors, Du Yu, He Xiu, and Fan Ning, of Kong Yingda, Hu An'guo, Cheng Yichuan, Chen Fuliang (陳傅良), and Zhang Qia, is all to be found here, with the judgments on their different views of Li Lian himself. It is a Work of great value.

[xi.] 春秋師說, 'My Master's Teachings on the Chunqiu.' In 3 Books; by Zhao Pang (趙汸 ; styled 子常), First published in 1,348. The author had studied under Huang Ze (黃澤), famous for his knowledge of the Yi jing (易經) and the Chunqiu; and here he gives what he had learned from him on the true meaning of those Classics, and the successes and failures of previous commentators.

[xii.] 春秋屬辭, 'The Style and Expression in the Chunqiu on similar Subjects.' In 15 Books; by the same author as the above. This is an ingenious attempt to make out the principles by which Confucius was guided in his work of compiling the Chunqiu from the historiographers of Lu. His principal Authorities are Du Yu and his own master Huang Ze; but he often differs from them. He did his work well; but we have seen that all conclusions on the subject must be very uncertain.

[xiii.] 春秋左氏傳補註, 'Supplementary Comments on the Zhuan of Zuoshi.' In 10 Books, by the same Zhao Pang. A valuable Work. The writer has before him the three early Commentaries, and it is his object to correct errors and supply defects in Zuo from Gongyang and Guliang. He has also before him the labours of Du Yu on Zuo and of Chen Fuliang on Guliang, and he endeavours 'to take what is long in the one to supplement what is short in the other.'

19.春秋釋例, 'The Laws of the Chunqiu Explained.' By Du Yu; in 10 Books. This was a production of Du Yu, after he had completed his great Work on Zuo's zhuan. It contains laws of style under 42 heads; then proceeds to the names of places, genealogies, and Du's scheme of the chronology of the Chunqiu period. It seems to me that three different Works of Du have here got mixed together. Zhu Yizun (朱彝尊) mentions the Laws of Style as a Work by itself, published under the Song dynasty in 15 Books; noting that he had not been able to see it. He also notices the Chronology as a Work by itself, saying that only Du's preface to it remains. Indeed the whole was long supposed to be lost, but it was reproduced, as we have it now, in 1,777, from a Collection made in the period Yongle (1,403—1,424) of the Ming dynasty.

20. The 皇清經解, contains several Works on the Chunqiu by the scholars of the present dynasty. I have used:—

[i.] 左傳杜解補正, 'Supplement, with Corrections, to Du's Explanations of the Zuo zhuan.' In 3 Books; by Gu Yanwu (顧炎武; See proleg. vol. IV., p. 101). Contains many useful hints for the translator of Zuo. Gu makes much use of two scholars of the Ming dynasty,—Shao Bao (邵寶) and Fu Xun (傅遜), who had made it their business to discover the mistakes of Du.

[ii.] 學春秋隨筆, 'Jottings in the study of the Chunqiu.' In 10 Books; by Wan Sida (萬斯大; styled 充宗); born in 1,633, died in 1,783. Wan was well acquainted with the Li ji (禮記), the official Book of Zhou, and the Yi li (儀禮), and most of his remarks are based upon them. Chinese scholars praise him as having always good ground for what he says. I confess I have been inclined to call in question—now his Authorities, and now his interpretation of them.

[iii.] 春秋毛氏傳. 'Commentary on the Chunqiu by Mao.' This is the work of Mao Qiling (毛奇齡) of whom I have had much to say in my previous volumes. In 35 Books. It is everywhere referred to in my notes. Occasionally one has to differ from the author, but his views have in general commanded my approval. I thought at one time of simply translating his Work instead of giving all the Zuo zhuan; but I considered that to do the latter would be more useful for students. Agreeing for the most part with Zuo, Mao seems glad when he finds reason to differ from him; and he makes Hu An'guo his butt.

[iv.] 春秋簡書刊誤, 'Errors in the Tablets of the Chunqiu.' In two Books; by Mao Qiling. This is a defence of the text of Zuo against the different readings that are found in Gong and Gu.

[v.] 春秋屬辭比事記, 'An Exhibition of the Style of the Chunqiu according to the analogies of the Subject-matter.' In two Books. Also by Mao Qiling. It contains a good demonstration of the baselessness of the praise-and-censure theory, and is intended to vindicate Mao's own four laws of interpretation, given in the introduction to his Commentary.

[vi.] 春秋說, 'Discourses on the Chunqiu.' In 15 Books; by Hui Shiqi (惠士奇 ; styled 仲儒). He was also called 半農 ; and these two characters are often prefixed to the titles of his Works. This one on the Chunqiu is of great value. The notices in the Classic are all classified; the views or illustrations of them afforded in the early Commentaries adduced; and the whole adjudicated on by the author.

[vii.] 春秋地理考實, 'The Geography of the Chunqiu Examined and Determined.' In 4 Books; by Jiang Yong (江永; See proleg. vol. IV., p. 98, n. 6). Displays much research; and is particularly valuable as bringing down the identifications of the ancient places to the geographical arrangements of the country at the present day. A foreigner is apt to err, as I have sometimes done in this matter, by accepting the geographical determinations in the Kangxi edition of our classic, and then finding that the arrangement of departments and districts in a province has since been changed.

[viii.] 春秋左傳小疏, 'Short Glosses on the Chunqiu and Zuo zhuan.' In one Book; by Shen Tong (沈彤; styled 冠雲 , and also 果堂), who lived from 1,688 to 1,752, and was employed by the government in various literary tasks. He published 'short glosses' on several of the other classics as well as the Chunqiu. I have found them useful.

[ix.] 春秋左傳補註, 'Supplementary Comments on the Chunqiu and Zuo zhuan.' A Work similar to the above. In 8 Books; by Hui Dong (惠棟; styled 定宇). It had been growing up in his family for three generations, until he revised the labours of his father, grandfather, and great-grandfather, added to them his own researches, and published it in 1,768. The reader of Du Yu will get considerable help from it.

[x.]春秋正辭, 'The Language of the Chunqiu Determined and Regulated.' In 13 Books; by Zhuang Cunyu (莊存與), a scholar of the Qianlong period. The Work is for the most part an examination of the Classic according to the views and nomenclature of Gongyang and He Xiu.

[xi.] 春秋左傳補疏, 'Supplementary Explanations of the Chunqiu and Zuo zhuan.' In 5 Books; by Jiao Xun (焦循 ; styled 理堂 and 里堂). The writer's principal object was to supplement Kong Yingda's Explanations of Du Yu's comments on Zuo.

[xii.] 春秋左傳補註, 'Supplementary Comments on the Chunqiu and Zuo zhuan.' In 3 Books; by Ma Zonglian (馬宗璉). Intended as a supplement to the Work with the same title by Hui Dong, noticed above.

[xiii.] 公羊何氏釋例, 'On the Laws of He Xiu in explaining the Commentary of Gongyang.' In 10 Books; by Liu Fenglu (劉逢祿; styled 申甫), a scholar of the Jiaqing period. A Work similar in design to No. x.

[xiv.] 公羊何氏解詁箋, 'Glosses on He Xiu's Explanations of Gongyang.' In 1 Book; also by Liu Fenglu.

[xv.—xviii.] 發墨守評;穀梁廢疾申何;左氏春秋考證;箴膏盲評. These are four Works by the same author. I have not translated the titles because they refer to controversies in the Han dynasty between He Xiu and Zheng Kangcheng. The writer's object is to maintain the authority of Gongyang and even of Guliang against Zuoshi.

[xix.] 春秋異文箋, 'Glosses on the different readings in the text of the Chunqiu.' In 13 Books; by Zhao Tan (趙坦), a scholar of the Jiaqing period.

[xx.] 公羊禮說, 'Remarks on the rules of ceremony insisted on by Gongyang.' In 1 Book; by Ling Shu (淩曙 ); of the same period. He was a believer in Gongyang.

[xxi.]經義述聞, 'Recollections of Lessons on the meaning of the Classics.' In 10 Books, three of which are occupied with the Chunqiu. By Wang Yinzhi (王引之), whose 'Recollections of Lessons in the Shi' are noticed in the proleg. to vol. IV., p. 178.

41. 春秋地名考略, 'An Examination into the Names of places in the Chunqiu.' In 14 Books; by Gao Shiqi (高士奇 ; styled 澹人), a great scholar of the Kangxi period. The writer sometimes defeats his end by the minuteness of his researches. The Work is valuable, but not so convenient for the student as that on the same subject by Jiang Yong, which I have already noticed.

42. 春秋大事表, 'The principal things in the Chunqiu exhibited in a tabular form.' In 50 Books, with one Book of Plates, and an Appendix. By Gu Donggao (顧棟高; styled 震滄), a scholar and officer of the Kangxi and Qianlong periods. I have met with no Work on the Chunqiu more exhaustive, and certainly with none from which I have myself derived more assistance. The author's tables and disquisitions supply the most abundant matter for study and research.

43. 春秋內傳古註輯存, 'The old Comments on the Chunqiu and Zuo zhuan Collected and Preserved.' In 3 Books (三冊); by Yan Wei (嚴蔚; styled 豹人); published in 1,788. The Work is an attempt to gather and preserve the Comments of Fu Qian (服虔) and other Commentators of the Han dynasty, to which the writer thinks Du Yu was often under obligation without acknowledging it.

44. 左氏春秋集說 , 'Collected Discourses on the Chunqiu of Zuoshi.' In 10 Books; with two Books of Introduction and Appendix, chiefly on the Laws of the Chunqiu. By Zhu Heling (朱鶴齡; styled 長孺, and also called 愚庵), a graduate of the Ming dynasty who lived on into the present. The Work is useful, principally because the author is constantly quoting from Dan Zhu (啖助) and Zhao Kuang (趙匡) of the Tang dynasty, though he does not himself agree with them.

45. 春秋占筮書, 'On the Articles on Divination in the Chunqiu.' In 3 Books. This is another Work bearing on the interpretation of the Zuo zhuan by Mao Qiling, which has not been reprinted in the 皇清經解 . The title is incorrect, because the references to divination in the text of the Chunqiu are the briefest possible, and the Work deals with articles in the Zuo zhuan. It is said correctly in Mao's introductory notice that no satisfactory attempt to explain those articles had been made by Du Yu, Kong Yingda, or any other of the critics. It was bold in Mao to try to do so; but I do not think he has succeeded. So far as I have attained hitherto in the study of the Yi jing and the ancient divination of the Chinese, I have failed to understand their principles;— if there be any principles in them.

46. 春秋條貫篇, 'On the Connexion between the Notices in the text of the Chunqiu.' In 11 Books; also by Mao Qiling. The Work arose out of a dispute between Mao and the other Examiners at the competition for the third degree in 1,685, they contending that the connexion could only be discovered by means of the Zhuan, and he that it could be ascertained from the text itself. The editors of the 'Catalogue of the Books in the Imperial Libraries (欽定四庫全書總目)' condemn it as inferior to Mao's other productions on the Chunqiu; but, like every other thing that he wrote, there is a great deal of force in many of his reasonings.

47. 春秋衷要 , 'The most important Points in the Interpretation of the Chunqiu Determined.' In 6 Books; by Li Shigu (李式穀 ; styled 海匏). The writer adopts the Kangxi Chunqiu as the standard for interpreting the Classic, but now and then introduces a view of his own. It is a useful Work.

48. 讀左漫筆, 'Occasional Jottings to help in reading the Zuo zhuan.' In 16 Books; by Chang Maolai (常茂徠 ; styled 秋厓). This is one of the most recent Works on our Classic, the author's preface being dated in 1,867. He tells us that the Zuo zhuan had been the mental food of his whole life, and that he had published two Works on special subjects connected with it. But he was in the habit of reading his favourite author, and the long list of critics and commentators on him, with pencil in hand; and wherever their remarks seemed to require addition or correction, he made his own notes; and so the materials for the present Work grew up gradually under his hand. One may get a good many suggestions from it.

49. 春秋左傳平議, 'Quiet Discussions on Zuo's Commentary on the Chunqiu.' In 3 Books; by Yu Yue (俞樾 ; styled 蔭甫); like the last, a very recent writer. These 3 Books are only a portion of a large Work on all the classics, published in 1,866. He is helpful in determining the punctuation of the original; in fixing the exact meaning of characters; and on the interchanging use of characters by the ancient writers.

50. 左繡, 'The Elegancies of Zuo.' In 30 Books; by Feng Lihua (馮李驊; styled天閑), and Lu Hao (陸浩; styled 大瀛). After varions preliminary matter on the best way of reading the Zuo zhuan, etc., the pages in the body of the Work are divided into two parts. In the lower part there are given the text and Zuo's Commentary, with the comments of Du Yu at length, Lu Deming's (陸德明) pronunciation of characters, and the glosses of Lin Yaosou (林堯叟) of the Song dynasty, these last often abbreviated, but of real value. There are occasionally quotations from Kong Yingda, and from Gu Yanwu's Work, the first of those mentioned above from the 皇清經解. The upper part of the page is occupied with Feng and Lu's own remarks, mostly designed to show the force and beauty of Zuo's style. These give the name to the Work.

51. 讀左補義, 'Aids to the reading of Zuo.' In 50 Books; by Jiang Bingzhang (姜炳璋), whose Work on the Shi jing (詩經) I have noticed in the proleg. to vol. IV., p. 175. The present Work, first published in 1,768, deserves much of the praise which I gave to the former. He differs from Du Yu on the laws of style in the classic, and thinks that Confucius simply copied the historiographers of Lu without altering or abbreviating their text.

From the first chapter of these prolegomena it will be seen that I have very much adopted these views myself, though aware of the objections that can be urged against them. Jiang appends short essays or disquisitions of his own on the events related to the narratives of Zuo.

52. 春秋左氏傳集釋 'Explanations of the Chunqiu and the Zuo zhuan from all Sources.' In 60 Books. This Work is still in manuscript, having been prepared, with a special view to my own assistance, by my friend Wang Tao (王韜). It is entitled to the praise which I have bestowed, in the proleg. to vol. IV., p. 176, on his Work on the Shi.

53. 春秋朔閏考辨, 'An Examination into the first days of the moon, and the intercalary months, during the Chunqiu period.' In 3 Books; also by Wang Tao, and in manuscript. He shows the unsatisfactory nature of the chronological schemes proposed by Du Yu, Gu Donggao, and Chen Houyao (陳厚耀 ), and then proceeds to his task, taking his data—now from the text, and now from the Zhuan. His mind was first thoroughly stimulated on the subject by the Rev. Mr. Chalmers. There is certainly no Work in Chinese on the chronology of the Chunqiu period at all equal to this. He has also prepared in Chinese a table of the days of new moon and of the winter solstice for the whole period (春秋至朔表).

54. 春秋日食圖說, 'The Eclipses mentioned in the Chunqiu, with Plates, and Disquisitions.' In 1 Book. Also by Wang Tao, and in manuscript. For the matter in this treatise, as for that in the above, Wang is mainly indebted to Mr. Chalmers.

55.春秋問答, 'Difficulties with regard to the Chunqiu, by way of Question and Answer.' In 1 Book; by Wang Tao, and in manuscript. This treatise may be considered as Wang's endeavour to reply to questions proposed by myself, while engaged in the preparation and printing of this volume. It embraces most of the subjects which I have discussed in the previous chapters of these prolegomena. His answers are more or less satisfactory, but show the conservative character of the Chinese mind in regard to the views on the classics which have been current since the Han dynasty.

56. 左傳經世鈔, 'Extracts from the Zuo zhuan.' In 23 Books; by Wei Xi (魏禧; styled 冰叔), of the Ming dynasty. This Work contains the greater number of the narratives in Zuo, those of them belonging to the same subject, which in his commentary are scattered over several years, being brought together. Explanatory glosses from Du Yu, Lin Yaosou, and Wei Xi himself are occasionally interspersed throughout Zuo's text, and each paragraph is followed by reflections of a general or historical character from the compiler. It has been useful to me from the large characters, finely cut, in which the copy that I have is printed; and which is probably a reprint from an edition published in 1,748 by Peng Jiaping (彭家屏; styled 樂君). The 經世 of the title is hardly translatable, and is taken from a remark by Zhuangzi (莊子) of the Zhou dynasty about the Chunqiu (春秋 ,經世先王之志).

57. 古文析義, 'Ancient Compositions, with Notes on their meaning.' In 16 Books; by Lin Yunming (林雲銘; styled 西仲), who took his third degree in 1,658. The Work is a little of the same nature as some volumes of "Elegant Extracts" from our English masters, which I have seen. A selection is made of the most celebrated pieces of composition from the Zhou dynasty downwards, with explanations of the meaning and notes on the style interspersed, with a disquisition at the end on the subject-matter by the compiler. The first two Books are occupied with pieces from the Zuo zhuan. Lin Yunming was called a bibliomaniac (書癡) by his neighbours; but scholars speak contemptuously of his Works. Wang Tao calls the one before us 'a series of Lessons for a village school (鄉塾課蒙之本).' The foreign student, however, is glad to get hold of it, especially at the commencement of his studies in the Zuo zhuan.

The class of Works represented by the preceding is numerous. I have consulted the 古文析義新編; the 古文快筆; the 古文分編集評 ; the 古文觀止; the 古文評註; the 古文翼; the 古文眉詮; and the 古文淵鑒. Unfortunately they all deal with nearly the same pieces in Zuo's Work.

I have not felt it necessary to introduce in the above list the Dictionaries and Works of general reference, with many others on the classics in general, which were mentioned in the lists in my preceding volumes, and have again been referred to as occasion required.


I have not to add to the Works of this class mentioned in my former volumes.

Dr. Bretschneider of Beijing having stated in the Chinese Recorder for December 1870, p. 173, that the Chunqiu had been translated into European languages, I made inquiry on the subject, to which that gentleman replied, in the Recorder for July, 1871, pp. 51, 52. 'Some 40 years ago,' he says, 'Father Daniel, of the Russian Ecclesiastical Mission at Peking, translated the Ch'un-ts'iu into Russian; but, so far as I know, this translation has never been published. The manuscript exists still. Besides this, parts of the Ch'un-ts'iu were translated into Russian, and published by other Russian Sinologues.' I have not seen these translations. Dr. Bretschneider refers also to a translation of the first book of the Chunqiu by Bayer, with a Latin translation, which appeared in the 'Commentaria Academiæ Petropolitanæ,' vol. 7; but neither have I met with this.

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