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Chapter XXI. Illustrations of Lao Tzŭ's Teachings 1

Chapter XLVI. Moderation of Desire2

When All-under-Heaven follows Tao, there is no emergency, tranquillity increases daily, 3 and couriers are not employed. Hence the saying: "Race-horses are reserved for hauling dung."

When All-under-Heaven does not follow Tao, there is constant warfare, and self-defence against each other lasts for years without stopping, till the troops cannot return home, even though armour and helmets bring about lice and moths and swallows and sparrows nest in the tents of the generals. Hence the saying: "War horses are bred in the suburb."

Once a man of Ti presented to Duke Wên of Chin fox furs with thin haired tails and leopard fur with black spots. Accepting the guest's presents, Duke Wên heaved a sigh, saying, "Because of the beauty of their skin, these animals became the victims of a chastisement." Indeed, the ruler of a state who fell a victim to a chastisement because of his popularity, was King Yen of Hsü 4 ; those who fell victims to chastisements because of their cities and territories, were Yü and Kuo. Hence the saying: "No greater crime than submitting to desire."

Earl Chih, having annexed the fiefs of Fan and Chung-hang, attacked Chao incessantly. Meanwhile, as Han and Wey betrayed him, his army was defeated at Chin-yang, he was killed to the east of Kao-liang, his territory was partitioned, and his skull was lacquered and made into a liquor vessel. Hence the saying: "No greater misery than not knowing sufficiency."

The Ruler of Yü wanted the team of the Ch`ü breed and the Jade from Ch`ui-chi and took no advice from Kung Chi-Ch`i. In consequence his state went to ruin and he himself to death. Hence the saying: "No greater fault than avarice."

Any country, if able to preserve itself, is fair, and, if able to attain hegemony, is excellent. Anybody, if able to live on, is fair, and, if wealthy and noble, is excellent. Therefore, if not self-destructive, the state will not go to ruin and the self will not be killed. Hence the saying: "Who knows sufficiency's sufficiency 5 is always 6 sufficient."

Chapter LIV. 7 Cultivating of the Observing Ability8

King Chuang of Ch`u, after winning the war with Chin, 9 held a hunt at Ho-yung. Upon his return, he gave a reward to Sun-shu Ao. However, Sun-shu Ao asked for the sandy and stony land by the Han River. According to the Law of the Ch`u State, allotments to feudal nobles should be confiscated after two generations, but only Sun-shu Ao's fief was left intact. The reason why his fief 10 was not confiscated was because the land was sterile. Accordingly, sacrifices at his family shrine lasted for nine generations unbroken. Hence the saying: "What is well planted is not uprooted; what is well preserved cannot be looted. For by sons and grandsons the sacrificial celebrations shall not cease." Thus was the case with Sun-shu Ao.

Chapter XXVI. The Virtue of Gravity

The heavy is of the light the root, and rest is motion's master.

Therefore the superior man11in his daily walk does not depart from gravity. Although he may have magnificent sights, he calmly sits with liberated mind.

But how is it when the ruler of ten thousand chariots in his personal conduct is too light for All-under-Heaven? If he is too light, he will lose his vassals. If he is too restless, he will lose the throne.

If the ruler has the reins of government in his grip, he is said to be "heavy". If the ruler does not depart from his seat, he is said to be "resting". If heavy, he can control the light. If resting, he can subdue the moving. Hence the saying: "The heavy is of the light the root, and rest is motion's master. Therefore the superior man in his daily work does not depart from gravity."

The state is the gravity of the ruler of men. The Father Sovereign while still alive alienated the state. In other words, he departed from gravity. Therefore, though he enjoyed himself at Tai and Yün-chung, he had already slipped the Chao State off his grip. Thus, the Father Sovereign, having been a sovereign of ten thousand chariots, became in his personal conduct too light for All-underHeaven. To lose one's own position 12 is said to be "light" and to depart from one's seat is said to be "moving". Therefore, the Father Sovereign was imprisoned alive and eventually put to an end. Hence the saying: "If he is too light, he will lose his vassals. If he is too restless, he will lose the throne." This was the case with the Father Sovereign.

Chapter XXXVI. The Revelation of Secrets

When you are about to contract anything, you would first expand it. When you are about to weaken anything, you would first strengthen it. When you are about to set down anything, you would first set it up. When you are about to take, you would give.

This is a revelation of the secrets whereby the soft conquer the hard and the weak the strong.

As the fish should not escape from the deep, so should the state's sharp tools not be shown to anybody.

The position that is influential is the deep to the ruler of men. Who rules men, his position must be more 13 influential than the ministers' position. Once lost, it would not be recovered. After Duke Chien lost it to T`ien Ch`êng and the Duke of Chin lost it to the Six Nobles, their states went to ruin and they were put to death. Hence the saying: "The fish should not escape from the deep."

True, reward and punishment are the state's sharp tools. If held in the hands of the ruler, they control the ministers. If held in the hands of the ministers, they control the ruler. If the ruler shows the tool of reward, the ministers will minimize it and thereby distribute private favours. If the ruler shows the tool of punishment, the ministers will aggravate it and thereby overawe the people. Since if the ruler of men shows the tool of reward, the ministers will abuse his position, and if he shows the tool of punishment, they will utilize his authority, hence the saying: "The state's sharp tools should not be shown to anybody."

The King of Yüeh, after surrendering himself to Wu, 14 showed its ruler how to invade Ch`i with a view to exhausting its strength. The troops of Wu, having defeated Ch`i's men at the Mugwort Mound, expanded their forces from the Chiang and the Ch`i 15 and displayed their strength at the Yellow Pool. 16 As a result, it became possible for the King of Yüeh to rout Wu's men at Lake Five. 17 Hence the saying: "When you are about to weaken anything, you would strengthen it."

When Duke Hsien of Chin was about to raid Yü, he presented to them a jade and a team of horses. When Earl Chih was about 18 to raid Ch`ou-yu, he presented to them grand chariots. Hence the saying: "When you are about to take, 19 you would give."

To carry out a plan before it takes shape and thereby accomplish a great achievement in All-under-Heaven, is "a revelation of secrets". To be small and weak but willing to keep humble, is the way "the weak conquer the strong". 20

Chapter LXIII. Considering Beginnings

Assert non-assertion.

Practise non-practice.

Taste the tasteless.

Make great the small.

Make much the little.

Requite hatred with virtue.

Contemplate a difficulty when it is easy. Manage a great thing when it is small.

The most difficult undertakings in All-under-Heavennecessarily originate while easy, and the greatest undertakings in All-under-Heaven necessarily originate while small.

Therefore, the saintly man to the end does not venture to play the great, and thus he can accomplish his greatness.

Rash promises surely lack faith, and many easy things surely involve in many difficulties.

Therefore, the saintly man regards everything as difficult, and thus to the end encounters no difficulties.

What has a form, always begins its greatness from smallness. What endures a long time, always begins its abundance from scarcity. Hence the saying: "The most difficult undertakings in All-under-Heaven necessarily originate while easy, and the greatest undertakings in All-under-Heaven necessarily originate while small." Therefore, who wants to control anything, starts when it is small. 21 Hence the saying: "Contemplate a difficulty when it is easy. Manage a great thing when it is small."

A dike ten thousand feet long begins its crumbling with holes made by ants; a room one hundred feet square begins its burning with sparks of fire 22 leaping through cracks of chimneys. For the same reason, 23 Pai Kuei on inspecting the dikes blocked up all holes; old man 24 on suppressing fire plastered all cracks. Therefore, Pai Kuei met no disaster of any flood and old man met no fire disaster. Both were thus good examples of taking precautions against things when they are easy in order to avoid difficulties and paying attention to things when they are small in order to prevent their greatness.

Pien Ch`iao once had an interview with Duke Huan of Ch`i. 25 After standing for a while, Pien Ch`iao said: "Your Highness has a disease in the capillary tubes. If not treated now, it might go deep." "I have no disease," replied Marquis 26 Huan. After Pien Ch`iao went out, Marquis Huan remarked: "Physicians are fond of treating healthy men so as to display their attainments."

Ten days later, Pien Ch`iao again had an interview and said: "The disease of Your Highness is in the flesh and skin. If not treated now, it will go still deeper." To this advice Marquis Huan made no reply. Pien Ch`iao went out. Marquis Huan was again displeased.

After ten more days, Pien Ch`iao had another interview and said: "The disease of Your Highness is in the stomach and intestines. If not treated now, it will go still deeper." Again Marquis Huan made no reply to the advice. Pien Ch`iao went out. Marquis Huan was again displeased.

After ten more days, Pien Ch`iao, looking at Marquis Huan, turned back and ran away. The Marquis sent men out to ask him. "Diseases that are in the capillary tubes," said Pien Ch`iao, "can be reached by hot water or flat irons. Those in the flesh and skin can be reached by metal or stone needles. Those in the stomach and intestines can be reached by well-boiled drugs. But after they penetrate the bones and marrow, the patients are at the mercy of the Commissioner of Life 27 wherefore nothing can be done. Now that the disease of His Highness is in his bones and marrow, thy servant has no more advice to give."

In the course of five more days, Marquis Huan began to feel pain in his body, and so sent men out to look for Pien Ch`iao, who, however, had already gone to the Ch`in State. Thus ended the life of Marquis Huan.

For this reason, good physicians, when treating diseases, attack them when they are still in the capillary tubes. This means that they manage things when they are small. Hence, 28 the saintly man begins to attend to things when it is early enough.

Chapter LXIV. Mind the Minute

What is still at rest is easily kept quiet. What has not as yet appeared is easily prevented. What is still feeble is easily broken. What is still minute is easily dispersed.

Treat things before they come into existence. Regulate things before disorder begins. The stout tree has originated from a tiny rootlet. A tower of nine stories is raised by heaping up bricks of clay. A thousand li's journey begins with a foot.

He that makes mars. He that grasps loses.

The saintly man does not make; therefore he loses not. The people on undertaking an enterprise are always near completion, and yet they fail.

Remain careful to the end as in the beginning and you will not fail in your enterprise.

Therefore the saintly man desires to be desireless, and does not prize articles difficult to obtain. He learns to be not learned, and reverts to what multitudes of people pass by.

He assists the myriad things in their natural development, but he does not venture to interfere.

Of yore, when Prince of Chin, Ch`ung-erh, was living in exile, once he passed through the Chêng 29 State. The Ruler of Chêng behaved impolitely to him. Against the manner Shu Chan remonstrated with him, saying: "He is a worthy prince. May Your Highness treat him with great courtesy and thereby place him under an obligation!" To this counsel the Ruler of Chêng never listened. Therefore Shu Chan again admonished him, saying: "If your Highness does not treat him with great courtesy, the best way is to put him to death and let no calamity appear in the future." Again the Ruler 30 of Chêng never listened. After the Prince's return to the Chin State, he raised an army and sent an expedition against Chêng, routing them by long odds and taking eight cities from them.

When Duke Hsien of Chin with the Jade from Ch'ui-chi as present was going to borrow the way through Yü, to attack Kuo, High Officer Kung Chi-ch`i admonished the Ruler of Yü, saying: "The request should not be granted. When the lips are gone, the teeth are cold. Yü and Kuo ought to rescue each other, not because they want to place each other under any obligation, but because if Chin destroys Kuo to-day, to-morrow Yü will follow on its heels to ruin." The Ruler of Yü, taking no advice from him, accepted the jade and lent them the way. After taking Kuo, Chin withdrew and destroyed Yü in turn.

Thus, these two ministers both strove to suppress troubles when they were still in capillary tubes, but both their rulers failed to adopt their counsels. Thus, Shu Chan and Kung Chi-ch`i were the Pien Ch`iao of Chêng and Yü, to whose words both their rulers paid no heed. As a result, Chêng was routed and Yü destroyed. Hence the saying: "What is still at rest is easily kept quiet. What has not as yet appeared is easily prevented."

Chapter LII. Returning to the Origin

When All-under-Heaven takes its beginning, Tao becomes the mother of All-under-Heaven.

As one knows his mother, so she in turn knows her child; as she quickens her child, so he in turn keeps to his mother, and to the end of life he is not in danger. Who closes his mouth, and shuts his sense-gates, in the end of life he will encounter no trouble; but who opens his mouth and meddles with affairs, in the end of life he cannot be saved.

Who beholds smallness is called enlightened. Who preserves tenderness is called strong. Who uses Tao's light and return home to its enlightenment does not surrender his person to perdition. This is called practising the eternal.

Of old, Chow made chop-sticks of ivory. Thereby was the Viscount of Chi frightened. He thought: "Ivory chop-sticks would not be used with earthen-wares but with cups made of jade or of rhinoceros horns. Further, ivory chop-sticks and jade cups would not go with the soup made of beans and coarse greens but with the meat of longhaired buffaloes and unborn leopards. Again, eaters of the meat of long-haired buffaloes and unborn leopards would not wear short hemp clothes and eat in a thatched house but would put on nine layers of embroidered dresses and move to live in magnificent mansions and on lofty terraces. Afraid of the ending, I cannot help trembling with fear at the beginning."

In the course of five years, Chow made piles of meat in the form of flower-beds, raised roasting pillars, walked upon mounds of distiller's grains, and looked over pools of wine. In consequence ended the life of Chow. Thus, by beholding the ivory chop-sticks, the Viscount of Chi foreknew the impending catastrophe of All-under-Heaven. Hence the saying: "Who beholds smallness is called enlightened."

Kou-chien, after surrendering himself to Wu, held shield and spear and became a front guard of the horses 31 of King Wu. Therefore, he became able to kill Fu-ch`a at Ku-su. Likewise, King Wên was insulted at the Jade Gate, 32 but his facial colour showed no change. In the long run, King Wu took Chow prisoner at the Pastoral Field. Hence the saying: "Who preserves tenderness is called strong."

Chapter LXXI. The Disease of Knowledge

To know the unknowable, that is elevating. Not to know the knowable, that is sickness.

Only by becoming sick of sickness can we be without sickness.

The saintly man is not sick. Because he is sick of sickness, therefore he is not sick.

The King of Yüeh could become hegemonic because he was not sick of surrender. King Wu could become supreme because he was not sick of insult. Hence the saying: "The saintly man is not sick. As he is not sick, he can get rid of sickness." 33

Chapter LXIV. Mind the Minute34

Once a countryman of Sung came by a jade stone, which he presented to Tzŭ-han. 35 This Tzŭ-han refused to accept. "It is a treasure," remarked the countryman, "and should become a gentleman's possession but not for a rustic's use." In reply Tzŭ-han said: "You regard the jade as treasure, I regard the refusal to accept the jade as treasure." Thus, the countryman desired the possession of the jade, but Tzŭ-han did not desire it. Hence the saying: "The saintly man desires to be desireless, and does not prize articles difficult to get."

Once Wang Shou carried books on his back when travelling, and met Hsü Fêng in Chou. To him Hsü 36 Fêng said: "Any task is an act; action arises from the needs of the time; and time 37 has no permanent tasks. Books contain sayings; sayings arise from knowledge; and a well-informed person does not have to keep books around. Now, why should you carry them around?" Hearing this, Wang Shou burned the books and danced with joy. For the same reason, well-informed persons do not teach with sayings and intelligent persons do not fill cases with books. 38 This is what the world passes by, and Wang Shou reverted to it. In other words, he learned to be not learned. Hence the saying: "He learns to be not learned and reverts 39 to what multitudes of people pass by."

Indeed, everything has a definite shape. It should accordingly be put to use. Accordingly, one should follow its shape. Therefore, if reposed, one should stand on Teh; if moving, he should act on Tao.

Once a man of Sung made for the ruler mulberry leaves of ivory. 40 It took him three years to complete them. Having stems and branches, wide and narrow, and tiny buds and colourful 41 gloss, they were scattered amidst real mulberry leaves and showed no difference from them. After all, this man was on account of his skilfulness endowed with a bounty in the Sung State.

When Lieh Tzŭ heard this, he said: "Supposing heaven and earth made a leaf in three years, then things that have leaves would be few." Therefore, if you do not count on the natural resources of heaven and earth but look to one man for everything, or if you do not follow the course of reason and principle but learn from the wisdom of one man, it is the same as to make a single leaf in three years. For this reason, farming in winter, even the Master of Grains 42 would not be able to turn out good crops; but rich harvests in years of abundance even bondmen and bondmaids could not spoil. Thus, if you depend on the power of one man, even the Master of Grains would not be sufficient; but if you follow the course of nature, then bondmen and bondmaids would be plenty. Hence the saying: "He assists 43 the myriad things in their natural development, but he does not venture to interfere."

Chapter XLVII. Viewing the Distant

"Without passing out of the door
The Course of All-under-Heaven I prognosticate.
Without peeping through the window
The Way of Heaven I contemplate.
The farther one goes,
The less one knows."

Therefore the saintly man does not travel, and yet he has knowledge. He does not see things, and yet he defines them. He does not labour, and yet he completes.

Holes are the doors and windows of the spirit. The ears and the eyes are exhausted by sounds and colours. Mental energy is exhausted by outer attractions. As a result, there is no master inside the body. If there is no master inside the body, then though all kinds of good and bad luck pile like hills and mountains, there is no way to know them. Hence the saying: "Without passing out of the door the Course of All-under-Heaven I prognosticate. 44 Without peeping through the window the Way of Heaven I contemplate." 45 This amounts to saying that the spirit never goes astray from its real abode.

Once upon a time Viscount 46 Hsiang of Chao learned driving from Prince Yü 47 -ch`i. All at once he started racing with Yü-ch`i. He changed his horses three times, but thrice he lagged behind. Thereupon Viscount Hsiang said: "You teach me how to drive, but the course is not as yet completed." "The course is completed," said Yü-ch`i in reply, "but the fault lies in the way it is applied. In general, what is important in driving is to fix the bodies of the horses firmly to the carriage and the mind of the driver to the horses. Then one can drive fast and far. Now, Your Highness, whenever behind, wants to get ahead of thy servant, and, whenever ahead, is afraid of lagging behind thy servant. To be sure, when one runs a race with others on the same road, 48 he is either ahead of or behind others. Whether ahead or behind, if the mind of Your Highness is always concentrated on thy servant, how can Your Highness keep the horses under control? This was the reason why Your Highness lagged behind."

When Prince Pai Shêng 49 was planning a rebellion, once after the office hour in the government he held his cane upside down and leaned on it. 50 The tip of the cane, being so sharp, pierced through his chin. Therefrom blood flowed down upon the ground but he never noticed it. At the news of this accident, the Chêngs said: "When he forgot the pain on his chin, for what was it forgotten at all?" 51 Hence the saying: "The farther one goes, the less one knows." This amounts to saying that if one's intelligence hits everything afar, what is missed will be at hand. Therefore, the saintly man has no definite destination, but can know both far and near. Hence the saying: "He does not travel, and yet he has knowledge." He can see both far and near. Hence the saying: "He does not see things, and yet he defines 52 them." He inaugurates works in accordance with the times, accomplishes merits by means of resources, and employs the utilities of the myriad things to get profits out of them. Hence the saying: "He does not labour, and yet he completes."

Chapter XLI. Sameness in Difference

When a superior scholar hears of Tao, he endeavours to practise it.

When an average scholar hears of Tao, he will sometimes practise it and sometimes lose it.

When an inferior scholar hears of Tao, he will greatly ridicule it. Were it not thus ridiculed, it would as Tao be insufficient.

Therefore the poet says:

"The Tao-enlightened seem dark and black,
The Tao-advanced seem going back,
The Tao-straight-levelled seem rugged and slack.

"The high in virtue resembles a vale,
The purely white in shame must quail,
The staunchest virtue seems to fail.

"The solidest virtue seems not alert,
The purest chastity seems pervert,
The greatest square will rightness desert.

"The largest vessel becomes complete slowly,
The loudest sound is heard rarely,
The greatest form has no shape concrete."

Tao so long as it remains latent is unnameable. Yet Tao alone is good for imparting and completing.

King Chuang, for three years after he took the reins of government, issued no decree and formulated no policy. Therefore, one day the Right Commissioner of the Army, when attending on the Throne, made before the King an intimation, saying: "There is a bird which has perched or a hill-top in the south. For three years it has neither fluttered nor flown nor sung but kept silent without making any sound. What is the name of that bird?" In reply the King said: "For three years it has not fluttered in order thereby to grow its wings and feathers, and has neither flown nor sung in order thereby to look at the conditions of the people. Though it has not flown, yet once it starts flying, it will soar high up into the sky. Though it has not sung, yet once it starts singing, it will surprise everybody. Leave it as it has been. I, the King, understand what you mean."

In the course of half a year, the King began to administer the state affairs himself, abolishing ten things, establishing nine things, censuring five chief vassals, and appointing six hitherto unknown personages to office, with the immediate result that the state became very orderly. In the meantime he raised an army to punish Ch`i and defeated them at Hsü-chou. 53 Then he triumphed over Chin at Ho-yung and called a conference of the feudal lords in Sung, till he attained Hegemony in All-under-Heaven. Thus, King Chuang never did good in a small way, 54 wherefore he accomplished a great achievement. Hence the saying: "The largest vessel becomes complete slowly, the loudest sound is rarely heard."

Chapter XXXIII. The Virtue of Discrimination

One who knows others is clever, but one who knows himself is englightened.

One who conquers others is powerful, but one who conquers himself is mighty.

One who knows contentment is rich and one who pushes with vigour has will.

One who loses not his place endures.

One who may die but will not perish, has life everlasting.

When King Chuang of Ch`u was thinking of attacking Yüeh, Chuang Tzŭ admonished him, asking: "For what reason is Your Majesty going to attack Yüeh?" "It is because its government is disorderly and its army weak," replied the King. "Thy servant is afraid," said Chuang Tzŭ, "Your Majesty's wisdom is like eyes able to see over one hundred steps away but unable to see their own eyelashes. Since Your Majesty's troops were defeated by Ch`in and Chin, Ch`u has lost a territory of several hundred li. This proves the weakness of her army. Again, Chuang Ch`iao has dared robberies within the boundaries of the state, but no magistrate has been able to stop him. This proves the disorder of her government. Thus, Your Majesty has been suffering not less weakness and disorder than Yüeh and yet wants to attack Yüeh. This proves that Your Majesty's wisdom is like the eyes." Thereupon the King gave up the plan. Therefore, the difficulty of knowledge lies not in knowing others but in knowing oneself. Hence the saying: "One who knows himself is enlightened."

Once, when Tzŭ-hsia saw Tsêng Tzŭ, Tsêng Tzŭ asked, "Why have you become so stout?" "Because I have been victorious in warfare," replied Tzŭ-hsia. "What do you mean by that?" asked Tsêng Tzŭ. In reply Tzŭ-hsia said: "Whenever I went in and saw the virtue of the early kings I rejoiced in it. Whenever I went out and saw the pleasure of the rich and noble I rejoiced in it, too. These two conflicting attractions waged a war within my breast. When victory and defeat still hung in the balance, I was thin. Since the virtue of the early kings won the war, I have become stout." Therefore the difficulty of volition lies not in conquering others but in conquering oneself. Hence the saying: "One who conquers himself is mighty."

Chapter XXVII. The Function of Skill

"Good Travellers leave no trace nor track,
Good speakers show no fault nor lack,
Good counters need no counting rack.

"Good lockers bolting bars need not,
Yet none their locks can loose.
Good binders need no string nor knot,
Yet none unties their noose."

Therefore the saintly man is always a good saviour of man, for there are no outcast people. He is always a good saviour of things, for there are no outcast things. This is called applied enlightenment.

Thus the good man does not respect multitudes of men. The bad man respects the people's wealth. Who does not esteem multitudes nor is charmed by their wealth, though his knowledge be greatly confused, he must be recognized as profoundly mysterious.

Of old, there were carved jade plates in Chou. Once Chow sent Chiao Li to get them, but King Wên would not give them away. Later, Fei Chung came for them, whereupon King Wên gave them out. It was because Chiao Li was worthy and Fei Chung was not a follower of Tao. Inasmuch as Chou disliked to see any worthy man advancing his career under King Chow, King Wên gave Fei Chung the plates. King Wên raised T`ai-kung Wang from the bank of the Wei River because he held him in high esteem, and presented Fei Chung with the jade plates because he loved his usefulness. Hence the saying: "Who does not esteem multitudes nor is charmed by their wealth, though his knowledge be greatly confused, he must be recognized as profoundly mysterious."


1. 喻老. This chapter contains Han Fei Tzŭ's illustrations of certain teachings selected from Lao Tzŭ's Tao Teh Ching. Compared with the preceding one it has many facts adduced in illustration of Lao Tzŭ's ideas while the content of the preceding chapter is largely composed of Han Fei Tzŭ's interpretations of and commentaries on the Old Philosopher's teachings. As the text of every chapter that Han Fei Tzŭ commented in the preceding work has already been added before each commentary, in this work I have added only the texts of new chapters.

2. Vide supra, p. 187. Italics my addition, and so throughout this chapter.

3. With Ku Kuang-ts`ê 曰 should be 日.

4. As he had practised benevolence and righteousness, thirty-six feudal states situated between the Yangtse River and the Huai River obeyed him. Therefore, King Mu (1001-946 b.c.) of Chou ordered Ch`u to punish Hsü. King Yen, as he loved the people, refused to offer resistance, till his forces were completely routed by Ch`u.

5. In accordance with Lao Tzŭ's text 足 should be supplied below 之.

6. Likewise, 為 should be 常.

7. Wang Hsien-shen's note has 五十三 in place of 五十四. I disagree with him.

8. Vide supra, pp. 203-4.

9. In 597 b.c.

10. With Ku Kuang-ts`ê 邦 should be 封.

11. The modern edition of Lao Tzŭ's text has 聖人 in place of 君子. With Ku it is wrong.

12. The English word "position" is probably the nearest possible equivalent of 勢 as used by Han Fei Tzŭ throughout his works, which Chinese word implies both "influence" subjectively and "circumstance" objectively. To Professor M. S. Bates I owe this rendering (vide infra, Chap. XL).

13. Wang Hsien-shen thought 間 was a mistake for 上.

14. In 494 b.c.

15. Both were rivers, the former referring to the Yangtse and the latter running in the lower valley of the Yellow River.

16. In 482 b.c.

17. In 478 b.c. Lake Five was the present T`ai Lake near Soochow.

18. With Wang Hsien-shen 欲 should be supplied below 將.

19. Lao Tzŭ's text has 奪 in place of 取.

20. With Ku Kuang-ts`ê 而重自卑謂損弱勝強也 should read 而重自卑損,之謂弱勝強也.

21. With Wang Hsien-shen there seem hiatuses below this sentence.

22. With Wang Yin-chi 煙 should be 熛.

23. With Ku Kuang-ts`ê 曰 below 故 is superfluous.

24. 丈人 means 老人. In the Book of Shih Tzŭ, it is said: "He who is old in age plasters cracks and takes precautions against chimneys, wherefore throughout his life he meets no fire disaster. This, however, he never knows to regard as virtue."

25. The Historical Records has 齊桓公 in place of 蔡桓公.

26. Marquis Huan should be Duke Huan and so throughout the illustration.

27. 司命 was the name of a star supposed to superintend the life-anddeath problem of every mortal.

28. With Ku Kuang-ts`ê 曰 below 故 is superfluous.

29. Chap. X has 曹 in place of 鄭.

30. With Wang Hsien-shen 公 should be 君.

31. With Wang Hsien-shen 洗馬 means 先馬.

32. With Lu Wên-shao and Ku Kuang-ts`ê 王門 should be 玉門. With Kao Hêng, this incident was more legendary than actual, however.

33. Instead of 以其不病,是以無病 Lao Tzŭ's text reads 以其病病,是以不病, With Wang Hsien-shen the passage as rendered by Han Fei Tzŭ means: "As he never thought it worth being sick of, he could get rid of sickness."

34. Vide supra, pp. 215-16.

35. This must not have been the Tzŭ-han of Chêng but a different person.

36. With Ku Kuang-ts`ê and Wang Hsien-shen 塗 is a mistake for 徐.

37. With Wang Wei and Wang Hsien-shen 知 above 者 should be 時.

38. With Wang Hsien-ch`ien 書 below 藏 should be above it.

39. Lao Tzŭ's text has no 歸 below 復.

40. The Book of Lieh Tzŭ reads 玉 for 象.

41. With Kao Hêng 繁 above 澤 should be 顏.

42. His name was Ch`i. He taught the people the cultivation of grains at the time of Emperor Yao, and was a remote ancestor of the rulers of the Chou Dynasty.

43. Lao Tzŭ's text has 輔 for 恃.

44. Lao Tzŭ's text has no 可以 above 知 in both sentences.

45. Lao Tzŭ's text has no 可以 above 知 in both sentences.

46. I read 主 for 子.

47. With Ku Kuang-ts`ê and Wang Hsien-shen 於 should be supplied above 期.

48. With Kao Hêng 誘 above 道 means 進.

49. A grandson of King P`ing of Ch`u, and son of Prince Chien. While a refugee in the Chêng State, Chien was killed by its ruler. Thereupon his son, Shêng, sought refuge in the Wu State. Later, after the death of King Chao (the youngest son of King P`ing) and the ascension of King Hui in 488 b.c., Tzŭ-hsi, a half-brother of King P`ing, called Shêng back to Ch`u and enfeoffed him with the district of Yen and the title of Duke of White. Thenceforth Prince Shêng always planned to avenge his father on the Chêngs, but his plan was hampered twice by Tzŭ-hsi, till he was forced to assassinate Tzŭ-hsi and cause a rebellion against King Hui.

50. With Kao Hêng 而 above 策銳 should be below it.

51. If Prince Shêng concentrated his mind upon his plan to avenge his father in such a way as to forget the pain on his chin, it was because he was thinking of the very state on which he was going to avenge his father.

52. Lao Tzŭ's text has 名 in place of 明.

53. According to the Historical Records it was King Wei and not King Chuang of Ch`u who besieged the Ch`i forces at Hsü-chou in 333 b.c.

54. With Wang Hsien-ch`ien 害 between 小 and 善 is superfluous.

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IATHPublished by The Institute for Advanced Technology in the Humanities, © Copyright 2003 by Anne Kinney and the University of Virginia