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28 功名第二十八


非天時,雖十堯不能冬生一穗;逆人心,雖賁、育不能盡人力。故得天時,則〔不〕務而自生; 得人心,則不趣而自勸;因技能,則不急而自疾;得勢位,則不推進而名成。

若水之流,若船之浮。 守自然之道,行毋窮之令,故曰明主。

夫有材而無勢,雖賢不能制不肖。故立尺材於高山之上,則臨千仞之谿, 材非長也,位高也。桀為天子,能制天下,非賢也,勢重也。堯為匹夫,不能正三家,非不肖也, 位卑也。千鈞得船則浮,錙銖失船則沉,非千鈞輕錙銖重也,有勢之與無勢也。故短之臨高也以位, 不肖之制賢也以勢。

人主者,天下一力以共載之,故安;眾同心以共立之,故尊。人臣守所長, 盡所能,故忠。以尊主(主)御忠臣,則長樂生而功名成。名實相持而成,形影相應而立, 故臣〔主〕同欲而異使。

人主之患在莫之應,故曰:一手獨拍,雖疾無聲。人臣之憂在不得一,故曰: 右手畫圓,左手畫方,不能兩成。故曰:至治之國,君若桴,臣若鼓,技若車,事若馬。故人有餘力易於應, 而技有餘巧〔便〕於事。立功者不足於力,親近者不足於信,成名者不足於勢。近者(已)〔不〕親, 而遠者不結,則名不稱實者也。聖人德若堯、舜,行若伯夷,而位不載於世,則功不立,名不遂。

故古之能致功名者, 眾人助之以力,近者結之以成,遠者譽之以名,尊者載之以勢。如此,故太山之功長立於國家,而日月之名久著於天地。 此堯之所以南面而守名,舜之所以北面而效功也。

Chapter XXVIII. Achievement and Reputation1

The factors of the intelligent ruler's success in accomplishing achievement and establishing reputation are four: The first is said to be "the time of heaven"; the second, "the hearts of the people"; the third, "technical ability"; and the fourth, "influential status."

Without the time of heaven, even ten Yaos cannot in winter grow a single ear of grain. Acting contrary to the hearts of the people, even Pên and Yü cannot make them exert their forces to the utmost. Therefore, when grains gain the favour of the time of heaven, they grow of themselves with no need of special care; when the ruler wins the hearts of the people, he elevates himself without being raised. When one relies on his technical ability, he hastens by himself without being hurried. When one occupies an influential status, his name is made without being commended.

Like water flowing and like the ship floating, the ruler follows the course of nature and enacts boundless decrees. Hence he is called "an enlightened sovereign".

Indeed, the possessor of talent who has no position, even though he is worthy, cannot control the unworthy. For illustration, when a foot of timber is placed on the top of a high mountain, it overlooks the ravine a thousand fathoms below. Not that the timber is long, but that its position is high. Chieh, while the Son of Heaven, could rule over All-under-Heaven. Not that he was worthy but that his position was influential. Yao, while a commoner, could not rectify three families. Not that he was unworthy but that his position was low. A weight of one thousand chün, if aboard a ship, floats; but the utmost farthing, if overboard, sinks. Not that one thousand chün is light and the utmost farthing is heavy, but that the former has a favourable position while the latter has none. Therefore, the short thing can by its location overlook the tall one; the unworthy man can by his position rule over the worthy.

The lord of men, because supported by All-under-Heaven with united forces, is safe; because upheld by the masses of the people with united hearts, he is glorious. The minister, because he maintains his merit and exerts his ability, is loyal. If a glorious sovereign 2 rules loyal ministers, everybody in the state can live a long and enjoyable life and accomplish achievement and reputation. Name and reality will support each other and will be accomplished. Form and shadow will coincide with each other and stand together. Hence sovereign and minister have the same desire but different functions.

The anxiety of the lord of men comes from the absence of minister's responses to his call. Hence the saying: "Nobody can clap with one hand, however fast he moves it." The anxiety of the minister lies in the inability to secure a full-time routine of work. Hence the saying: "The right hand drawing a circle and the left hand drawing a square at the same time cannot both succeed." Hence the saying again: "In the state at the height of order the ruler is like the drumstick and the minister like the drum; the technique is like the carriage and the task like the horse." Therefore, men having surplus strength respond easily to calls; techniques having excessive skill are convenient to tasks. On the contrary, if those who accomplish achievements are not sufficiently strong; if those who are near and dear to the ruler are not sufficiently faithful; if those who have made names are not sufficiently influential; if only those who work within the ruler's reach become intimate; and if those who are stationed far away are not familiar; such will instance the discrepancy between name and fact. If the position of a sage like Yao and Shun in virtue and like Po-i in conduct is not supported by the world, his achievement will not be accomplished and his reputation will not be established.

Therefore, the ancients who could secure both achievement and reputation, were all assisted by the multitudes with forces, the near supporting them in earnest, 3 the distant praising them with names, and the honourable supporting them with influences. Such being the case, their achievements as magnificent as Mountain T`ai have stood permanently in the country and their reputations as glorious as the sun and the moon have shone upon heaven and earth for ever and ever. It was in such wise that Yao faced the south and maintained his reputation and Shun faced the north and accomplished his achievement. 4


1. 功名.

2. With Wang Wei 主 should not be repeated.

3. With Kao Hêng 成 reads 誠.

4. This refers to the time when Yao was ruler and Shun was minister.

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IATHPublished by The Institute for Advanced Technology in the Humanities, © Copyright 2003 by Anne Kinney and the University of Virginia