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漢 書 九
元 紀 第 九
孝 元 皇 帝 ， 宣 帝 太 子 也 。 母 曰 共 哀 許 皇 后 ， 宣 帝 微 時 生 民 間 。 年 二 歲 ， 宣 帝 即 位 。 八 歲 ， 立為 太 子 。
壯 大 ， 柔 仁 好 儒 。 見 宣 帝 所 用 多 文 法 吏， 以 刑 名 繩 下 ， 大 臣 楊 惲 、 盍 寬 饒 等坐 刺 譏 辭 語 為 罪 而 誅 ， 嘗 侍 燕 從 容 言 ： 「 陛 下 持 刑 太 深 ， 宜 用 儒 生 。 」
宣 帝 作 色 曰 ： 「漢 家 自 有 制 度 ， 本 以 霸 王 道 雜 之 ， 奈 何 純 住德 教 ， 用 周 政 乎 ！ 且 俗 儒 不 達 時 宜 ， 好 是 古 非 今， 使 人 眩 於 名 實 ， 不 知 所 守 ， 何 足 委 任 ！ 」 乃 歎曰 ： 「 亂 我 家 者 ， 太 子 也 ！ 」
繇 是 疏 太 子 而 愛 淮 陽 王 ， 曰 ： 「 淮 陽 王 明 察 好 法 ， 宜 為 吾 子 。 」 而 王 母張 婕 妤 尤 幸 。 上 有 意 欲 用 淮 陽 王 代 太 子 ， 然 以 少 依 許 氏， 俱 從 微 起 ， 故 終 不 背 焉 。
黃 龍 元 年 十 二 月 ， 宣 帝 崩 。 癸 巳 ， 太 子 即 皇 帝 位， 謁 高 廟 。 尊 皇 太 后 曰 太 皇 太 后 ， 皇 后 曰 皇 太 后。
初 元 元 年 春 正 月 辛 丑 ， 孝 宣 皇 帝 葬 杜 陵 。賜 諸 侯 王 、 公 主 、 列 侯 黃 金 ， 吏 二 千 石 以 下 錢 帛 ， 各 有差 。 大 赦 天 下 。
三 月 ， 封 皇 太 后 兄 侍 中 中 郎 將 王 舜 為 安平 侯 。 丙 午 ， 立 皇 后 王 氏 。 以 三 輔 、 太 常 、 郡 國 公 田 及苑 可 省 者 振 業 貧 民 ， 貲 不 滿 千 錢 者 賦 貸 種 、 食 。 封 外 祖 父 平 恩 戴 侯 同 產 弟 子 中 常 侍 許 嘉 為 平 恩 侯， 奉 戴 侯 後 。
夏 四 月 ， 詔 曰 ： 「 朕 承 先 帝 之 聖 緒 ， 獲 奉 宗 廟 ，戰 戰 兢 兢 。 間 者 地 數 動 而 未 靜 ， 懼 於 天 地 之 戒 ， 不 知 所繇 。 方 田 作 時 ， 朕 憂 蒸 庶 之 失 業 ， 臨 遣 光祿 大 夫 褒 等 十 二 人 循 行 天 下 ， 存 問 耆 老 鰥寡 孤 獨 困 乏 失 職 之 民 ， 延 登 賢 俊 ， 招 顯 側 陋 ， 因覽 風 俗 之 化 。 相 守 二 千 石 誠 能 正 躬 勞 力 ， 宣 明 教化 ， 以 親 萬 姓 ， 則 六 合 之 內 和 親 ， 庶 幾 虖 無 憂 矣 。 書 不云 乎 ？ 『 股 肱 良 哉 ， 庶 事 康 哉 ！ 』 布 告 天 下 ， 使明 知 朕 意 。 」
又 曰 ： 「 關 東 今 年 穀 不 登 ， 民 多 困 乏 。 其令 郡 國 被 災 害 甚 者 毋 出 租 賦 。 江 海 陂 湖 園 池 屬 少 府 者 以假 貧 民 ， 勿 租 賦 。 賜 宗 室 有 屬 籍 者 馬 一 匹 至 二 駟， 三 老 、 孝 者 帛 五 匹 ， 弟 者 、 力 田 三 匹 ， 鰥 寡 孤獨 二 匹 ， 吏 民 五 十 戶 牛 酒 。 」
六 月 ， 以 民 疾 疫 ， 令 大 官 損 膳 ， 減 樂 府 員 ， 省 苑馬 ， 以 振 困 乏 。
秋 八 月 ， 上 郡 屬 國 降 胡 萬 餘 人 亡 入 匈 奴 。
九 月 ， 關 東 郡 國 十 一 大 水 ， 饑 ， 或 人 相 食 ， 轉 旁郡 錢 穀 以 相 救 。 詔 曰 ： 「 間 者 陰 陽 不 調 ， 黎 民 饑 寒 ， 無以 保 治 ，惟 德 淺 薄 ， 不 足 以 充 入 舊 貫 之 居 。 其 令 諸 宮 館 希 御 幸 者 勿 繕 治 ，太 僕 減 穀 食 馬 ，水 衡 省 肉 食 獸 。 」
二 年 春 正 月 ， 行 幸 甘 泉 ， 郊 泰 畤 。 賜 雲 陽 民 爵 一級 ， 女 子 百 戶 牛 酒 。
立 弟 竟 為 清 河 王 。 三 月 ， 立 廣 陵 厲 王 太 子 霸 為 王 。
詔 罷 黃 門 乘 輿 狗 馬 ， 水 衡 禁 囿 、 宜 春 下 苑、 少 府 佽 飛 外 池 、 池 田 假 與 貧民 。
詔 曰 ： 「 蓋 聞 賢 聖 在 位 ， 陰 陽 和 ， 風 雨 時 ， 日 月 光， 星 辰 靜 ， 黎 庶 康 寧 ， 考 終 厥 命 。 今 朕 恭 承 天 地， 託 于 公 侯 之 上 ， 明 不 能 燭 ， 德 不 能 綏 ， 災 異 並 臻 ， 連年 不 息 。 乃 二 月 戊 午 ， 地 震 于 隴 西 郡 ， 毀 落 太 上 皇 廟 殿壁 木 飾 ， 壞 敗 豲 道 縣 城 郭 官 寺 及 民 室 屋 ， 壓 殺 人 眾 。
山 崩 地 裂 ， 水 泉 湧 出 。 天 惟 降 災 ， 震 驚 朕 師 。治 有 大 虧 ， 咎 至 於 斯 。 夙 夜 兢 兢 ， 不 通 大 變 ， 深 惟 鬱悼 ， 未 知 其 序 。 間 者 歲 數 不 登 ， 元 元 困 乏 ， 不 勝饑 寒 ， 以 陷 刑 辟 ， 朕 甚 閔 之 。
郡 國 被 地 動 災 甚 者 無 出 租賦 。 赦 天 下 。 有 可 蠲 除 減 省 以 便 萬 姓 者 ， 條 奏 ， 毋 有 所諱 。 丞 相 、 御 史 、 中 二 千 石 舉 茂 材 異 等 直 言 極 諫 之 士 ，朕 將 親 覽 焉 。 」
夏 四 月 丁 巳 ， 立 皇 太 子 。 賜 御 史 大 夫 爵 關 內 侯 ，中 二 千 石 右 庶 長 ， 天 下 當 為 父 後 者 爵 一 級 ， 列 侯錢 各 二 十 萬 ， 五 大 夫 十 萬 。
六 月 ， 關 東 饑 ， 齊 地 人 相 食 。 秋 七 月 ， 詔 曰 ： 「歲 比 災 害 ， 民 有 菜 色 ，慘 怛 於 心 。 已 詔 吏虛 倉 廩 ， 開 府 庫 振 救 ， 賜 寒 者 衣 。
今 秋 禾 麥 頗 傷 。 一 年中 地 再 動 。 北 海 水 溢 ， 流 殺 人 民 。 陰 陽 不 和 ， 其 咎 安 在？ 公 卿 將 何 以 憂 之 ？ 其 悉 意 陳 朕 過 ， 靡 有 所 諱 。 」
冬 ， 詔 曰 ： 「 國 之 將 興 ， 尊 師 而 重 傅 。 故 前 將 軍望 之 傅 朕 八 年 ， 道 以 經 書 ， 厥 功 茂 焉 。 其 賜 爵 關內 侯 ， 食 邑 八 百 戶 ， 朝 朔 望 。 」 十 二 月 ， 中 書 令 弘 恭 、 石 顯 等 譖 望 之 ， 令 自 殺 。
三 年 春 ， 令 諸 侯 相 位 在 郡 守 下 。
珠 崖 郡 山 南 縣 反 ， 博 謀 群 臣 。 待 詔 賈 捐 之 以 為 宜棄 珠 崖 ， 救 民 饑 饉 。 乃 罷 珠 崖 。
夏 四 月 乙 未 晦 ， 茂 陵 白 鶴 館 災 。 詔 曰 ： 「 乃 者 火災 降 於 孝 武 園 館 ， 朕 戰 栗 恐 懼 。 不 燭 變 異 ， 咎 在 朕 躬 。 群 司 又 未 肯 極 言 朕 過 ， 以 至 於 斯 ， 將 何 以 寤 焉 ！百 姓 仍 遭 凶 阨 ， 無 以 相 振 ， 加 以 煩 擾 虖 苛 吏 ， 拘牽 乎 微 文 ， 不 得 永 終 性 命 ， 朕 甚 閔 焉 。 其 赦 天 下。 」
夏 ， 旱 。
立 長 沙 煬 王 弟 宗 為 王 。封 故 海 昏侯 賀 子 代 宗 為 侯 。
六 月 ， 詔 曰 ： 「 蓋 聞 安 民 之 道 ， 本 繇 陰 陽 。 間 者 陰 陽 錯 謬 ， 風 雨 不 時 。 朕 之 不 德 ， 庶 幾 群 公 有 敢言 朕 之 過 者 ， 今 則 不 然 。 媮 合 苟 從 ， 未 肯 極 言 ， 朕 甚 閔 焉 。
永 惟 烝 庶 之 饑 寒 ， 遠 離 父 母 妻 子 ， 勞 於 非 業之 作 ， 衛 於 不 居 之 宮 ，恐 非 所 以 佐 陰 陽 之 道 也 。
其 罷 甘 泉 、 建 章 宮 衛 ， 令 就 農 。 百 官 各 省 費 。 條奏 毋 有 所 諱 。 有 司 勉 之 ， 毋 犯 四 時 之 禁 。 丞 相 御 史 舉 天下 明 陰 陽 災 異 者 各 三 人 。 」 於 是 言 事 者 眾 ， 或 進 擢 召 見， 人 人 自 以 得 上 意 。
四 年 春 正 月 ， 行 幸 甘 泉 ， 郊 泰 畤 。 三 月 ， 行 幸 河東 ， 祠 后 土 。 赦 汾 陰 徒 。 賜 民 爵 一 級 ， 女 子 百 戶 牛 酒 ，鰥 寡 高 年 帛 。 行 所 過 無 出 租 賦 。
五 年 春 正 月 ， 以 周 子 南 君 為 周 承 休 侯 ， 位次 諸 侯 王 。
三 月 ， 行 幸 雍 ， 祠 五 畤 。
夏 四 月 ， 有 星 孛 于 參 。 詔 曰 ： 「 朕 之 不 逮 ， 序 位不 明 ， 眾 僚 久 ， 未 得 其 人 。 元 元 失 望 ，上 感 皇 天 ， 陰 陽 為 變 ， 咎 流 萬 民 ， 朕 甚 懼 之 。
乃 者 關 東連 遭 災 害 ， 饑 寒 疾 疫 ， 夭 不 終 命 。 詩 不 云 乎 ？ 『 凡 民 有喪 ， 匍 匐 救 之 。 』 其 令 太 官 毋 日 殺 ， 所 具各 減 半 。 乘 輿 秣 馬 ， 無 乏 正 事 而 已 。
罷 角抵 、 上 林 宮 館 希 御 幸 者 、 齊 三 服 官 、北 假 田 官 、鹽 鐵 官 、 常 平 倉 。 博 士 弟 子 毋 置 員 ， 以 廣 學 者 。
賜 宗 室 子 有 屬 籍 者 馬 一 匹 至 二 駟 ， 三 老 、 孝 者 帛 ， 人 五匹 ， 弟 者 、 力 田 三 匹 ， 鰥 寡 孤 獨 二 匹 ， 吏 民 五 十 戶 牛 酒。 」
省 刑 罰 七 十 餘 事 。
除 光 祿 大 夫 以 下 至 郎 中 保 父 母 同產 之 令 。
令 從 官 給 事 宮 司 馬 中 者 ， 得 為 大 父 母 父母 兄 弟 通 籍 。
冬 十 二 月 丁 未 ， 御 史 大 夫 貢 禹 卒 。
衛 司 馬 谷 吉 使 匈 奴 ， 不 還 。
永 光 元 年 春 正 月 ， 行 幸 甘 泉 ， 郊 泰 畤 。 赦 雲 陽 徒。 賜 民 爵 一 級 ， 女 子 百 戶 牛 酒 ， 高 年 帛 。 行 所 過 毋 出 租賦 。
二 月 ， 詔 丞 相 、 御 史 舉 質 樸 敦 厚 遜 讓 有 行 者 ， 光祿 歲 以 此 科 第 郎 、 從 官 。
三 月 ， 詔 曰 ： 「 五 帝 三 王 任 賢 使 能 ， 以 登 至 平 ，而 今 不 治 者 ， 豈 斯 民 異 哉 ？ 咎 在 朕 之 不 明 ， 亡 以知 賢 也 。 是 故 壬 人 在 位 ， 而 吉 士 雍 蔽 。 重以 周 秦 之 弊 ， 民 漸 薄 俗 ， 去 禮 義 ， 觸 刑 法 ， 豈 不哀 哉 ！ 繇 此 觀 之 ， 元 元 何 辜 ？
其 赦 天 下 ， 令 厲 精自 新 ， 各 務 農 畝 。 無 田 者 皆 假 之 ， 貨 種 、 食 如 貧 民 。賜 吏 六 百 石 以 上 爵 五 大 夫 ， 勤 事 吏 二 級 ， 為 父 後 者民 一 級 ， 女 子 百 戶 牛 酒 ， 鰥 寡 孤 獨 高 年 帛 。 」
是 月 雨 雪， 隕 霜 傷 麥 稼 。
秋 罷 。
二 年 春 二 月 ， 詔 曰 ： 「 蓋 聞 唐 虞 象 刑 而 民 不 犯 ，殷 周 法 行 而 姦 軌 服 。 今 朕 獲 承 高 祖 之 洪 業， 託 位 公 侯 之 上 ， 夙 夜 戰 栗 ， 永 惟 百 姓 之 急 ， 未 嘗 有 忘焉 。 然 而 陰 陽 未 調 ， 三 光 晻 昧 。 元 元 大 困 ， 流 散道 路 ， 盜 賊 並 興 。 有 司 又 長 殘 賊 ， 失 牧 民 之 術 。 是 皆 朕之 不 明 ， 政 有 所 虧 。 咎 至 於 此 ， 朕 甚 自 恥 。 為 民 父 母 ，若 是 之 薄 ， 謂 百 姓 何 ！
其 大 赦 天 下 ， 賜 民 爵 一 級， 女 子 百 戶 牛 酒 ， 鰥 寡 孤 獨 高 年 、 三 老 、 孝 弟 力 田 帛 。」 又 賜 諸 侯 王 、 公 主 、 列 侯 黃 金 ， 中 二 千 石 以 下 至 中 都官 長 吏 各 有 差 ， 吏 六 百 石 以 上 爵 五 大 夫 ， 勤 事 吏 各 二 級。
三 月 壬 戌 朔 ， 日 有 蝕 之 。 詔 曰 ： 「 朕 戰 戰 栗 栗 ，夙 夜 思 過 失 ， 不 敢 荒 寧 。 惟 陰 陽 不 調 ， 未 燭 其 咎。 婁 敕 公 卿 ， 日 望 有 效 。
至 今 有 司 執 政 ， 未 得 其中 ， 施 與 禁 切 ， 未 合 民 心 。 暴 猛 之 俗 彌 長， 和 睦 之 道 日 衰 ， 百 姓 愁 苦 ， 靡 所 錯 躬 。
是 以 氛邪 歲 增 ， 侵 犯 太 陽 ， 正 氣 湛 掩 ， 日 久 奪 光 。乃 壬 戌 ， 日 有 蝕 之 。 天 見 大 異 ， 以 戒 朕 躬 ， 朕甚 悼 焉 。 其 令 內 郡 國 舉 茂 材 異 等 賢 良 直 言 之 士 各 一 人 。」
夏 六 月 ， 詔 曰 ： 「 間 者 連 年 不 收 ， 四 方 咸 困 。 元元 之 民 ， 勞 於 耕 耘 ， 又 亡 成 功 ， 困 於 饑 饉 ， 亡 以 相 救 。朕 為 民 父 母 ， 德 不 能 覆 ， 而 有 其 刑 ， 甚 自 傷 焉 。 其 赦 天下 。 」
秋 七 月 ， 西 羌 反 ， 遣 右 將 軍 馮 奉 世 擊 之 。 八 月 ，以 太 常 任 千 秋 為 奮 威 將 軍 ， 別 將 五 校 並 進 。
三 年 春 ， 西 羌 平 ， 軍 罷 。
三 月 ， 立 皇 子 康 為 濟 陽 王 。
夏 四 月 癸 未 ， 大 司 馬 車 騎 將 軍 接 薨 。
冬 十 一 月 ， 詔 曰 ： 「 乃 者 己 丑 地 動 ， 中 冬 雨 水 ，大 霧 ， 盜 賊 並 起 。 吏 何 不 以 時 禁 ？ 各 悉 意 對 。 」
冬 ， 復 鹽 鐵 官 、 博 士 弟 子 員 。 以 用 度 不 足， 民 多 復 除 ， 無 以 給 中 外 繇 役 。
四 年 春 二 月 ， 詔 曰 ： 「 朕 承 至 尊 之 重 ， 不 能 燭 理百 姓 ， 婁 遭 凶 咎 。 加 以 邊 竟 不 安 ， 師 旅 在 外 ， 賦斂 轉 輸 ， 元 元 騷 動 ， 窮 困 亡 聊 ， 犯 法 抵 罪 。 夫 上 失 其 道而 繩 下 以 深 刑 ， 朕 甚 痛 之 。 其 赦 天 下 ， 所 貸 貧 民 勿 收 責。 」
三 月 ， 行 幸 雍 ， 祠 五 畤 。
夏 六 月 甲 戌 ， 孝 宣 園 東 闕 災 。 戊 寅 晦 ， 日 有 蝕 之 。 詔 曰 ： 「 蓋 聞 明 王 在 上 ， 忠賢 布 職 ， 則 群 生 和 樂 ， 方 外 蒙 澤 。
今 朕 晻 于 王 道 ， 夙 夜 憂 勞 ， 不 通 其 理 ， 靡 瞻 不 眩 ， 靡 聽 不 惑 ，是 以 政 令 多 還 ， 民 心 未 得 ， 邪 說 空 進 ， 事 亡 成 功。 此 天 下 所 著 聞 也 。
公 卿 大 夫 好 惡 不 同 ，或 緣 姦作 邪 ， 侵 削 細 民 ， 元 元 安 所 歸 命 哉 ！ 乃 六 月 晦 ， 日 有 蝕之 。 詩 不 云 虖 ？ 『 今 此 下 民 ， 亦 孔 之 哀 ！ 』自 今以 來 ， 公 卿 大 夫 其 勉 思 天 戒 ， 慎 身 修 永 ， 以 輔 朕 之 不 逮。 直 言 盡 意 ， 無 有 所 諱 。 」
九 月 戊 子 ， 罷 衛 思 后 園 及 戾 園 。 冬 十 月 乙丑 ， 罷 祖 宗 廟 在 郡 國 者 。 諸 陵 分 屬 三 輔 。
以 渭 城壽 陵 亭 部 原 上 為 初 陵 。詔 曰 ： 「 安 土 重 遷 ， 黎 民之 性 ； 骨 肉 相 附 ， 人 情 所 願 也 。 頃 者 有 司 緣 臣 子之 義 ， 奏 徙 郡 國 民 以 奉 園 陵 ， 令 百 姓 遠 棄 先 祖 墳 墓 ， 破業 失 產 ， 親 戚 別 離 ， 人 懷 思 慕 之 心 ， 家 有 不 安 之 意 。 是以 東 垂 被 虛 耗 之 害 ， 關 中 有 無 聊 之 民 ， 非 久 長 之策 也 。 詩 不 云 虖 ？ 『 民 亦 勞 止 ， 迄 可 小 康 ， 惠 此 中 國 ，以 綏 四 方 。 』 今 所 為 初 陵 者 ， 勿 置 縣 邑 ， 使 天 下咸 安 土 樂 業 ， 亡 有 動 搖 之 心 。 布 告 天 下 ， 令 明 知 之 。 」又 罷 先 后 父 母 奉 邑 。
五 年 春 正 月 ， 行 幸 甘 泉 ， 郊 泰 畤 。 三 月 ， 上 幸 河東 ， 祠 后 土 。
秋 ， 潁 川 水 出 ， 流 殺 人 民 。 吏 、 從 官 縣 被 害 者 與告 。 士 卒 遣 歸 。
冬 ， 上 幸 長 楊 射 熊 館 ， 布 車 騎 ， 大 獵 。
十 二 月 乙 酉 ， 毀 太 上 皇 、 孝 惠 皇 帝 寢 廟 園 。
建 昭 元 年 春 三 月 ， 上 幸 雍 ， 祠 五 畤 。
秋 八 月 ， 有 白 蛾 群 飛 蔽 日 ， 從 東 都 門 至 枳 道 。
冬 ， 河 間 王 元 有 罪 ， 廢 遷 房 陵 。
罷 孝 文 太 后 、 孝昭 太 后 寢 園 。
二 年 春 正 月 ， 行 幸 甘 泉 ， 郊 泰 畤 。 三 月 ， 行 幸 河東 ， 祠 后 土 。
益 三 河 郡 太 守 秩 。 戶 十 二 萬 為 大 郡。 夏 四 月 ， 赦 天 下 。
六 月 ， 立 皇 子 興 為 信 都 王 。
閏 月 丁 酉， 太 皇 太 后 上 官 氏 崩 。
冬 十 一 月 ， 齊 楚 地 震 ， 大 雨 雪 ， 樹 折 屋 壞。淮 陽 王 舅 張 博 、 魏 郡 太 守 京 房 坐 窺 道 諸 侯 王 以 邪意 ， 漏 泄 省 中 語 ， 博 要 斬 ， 房 棄 市 。
三 年 夏 ， 令 三 輔 都 尉 、 大 郡 都 尉 秩 皆 二 千 石 。
六 月 甲 辰 ， 丞 相 玄 成 薨 。
秋 ， 使 護 西 域 騎 都 尉 甘 延 壽 、 副 校 尉 陳 湯 撟 發 戊 己 校 尉 屯 田 吏 士 及 西 域 胡 兵 攻 郅 支 單 于 。 冬 ， 斬 其 首 ， 傳 詣 京 師 ， 縣 蠻 夷 邸 門 。
四 年 春 正 月 ， 以 誅 郅 支 單 于 告 祠 郊 廟 。 赦 天 下 。群 臣 上 壽 置 酒 ， 以 其 圖 書 示 後 宮 貴 人 。
夏 四 月 ， 詔 曰 ： 「 朕 承 先 帝 之 休 烈 ， 夙 夜栗 栗 ， 懼 不 克 任 。 間 者 陰 陽 不 調 ， 五 行 失 序 ， 百 姓 饑 饉。 惟 烝 庶 之 失 業 ， 臨 遣 諫 大 夫 博 士 賞 等 二 十 一 人 循 行 天下 ， 存 問 耆 老 鰥 寡 孤 獨 乏 困 失 職 之 人 ， 舉 茂 材 特立 之 士 。 相 將 九 卿 ， 其 帥 意 毋 怠 ， 使 朕 獲 觀 教 化 之 流 焉。 」
六 月 甲 申 ， 中 山 王 竟 薨 。
藍 田 地 沙 石 雍 霸 水 ， 安 陵 岸 崩 雍 涇 水 ， 水 逆 流 。
五 年 春 三 月 ， 詔 曰 ： 「 蓋 聞 明 王 之 治 國 也 ， 明 好惡 而 定 去 就 ， 崇 敬 讓 而 民 興 行 ， 故 法 設 而 民 不 犯 ， 令 施而 民 從 。
今 朕 獲 保 宗 廟 ， 兢 兢 業 業 ， 匪 敢 解 怠 ，德 薄 明 晻 ， 教 化 淺 微 。 傳 不 云 虖 ？『 百 姓 有 過 ， 在 予 一 人 。 』 其 赦 天 下 ， 賜 民 爵 一級 ， 女 子 百 戶 牛 酒 ， 三 老 、 孝 弟 力 田 帛 。 」
又 曰 ： 「 方春 農 桑 興 ， 百 姓 戮 力 自 盡 之 時 也 ， 故 是 月 勞農 勸 民 ， 無 使 後 時 。
今 不 良 之 吏 ， 覆 案 小 罪 ， 徵 召 證 案 ， 興 不 急 之 事 ， 以 妨 百 姓 ， 使 失 一 時 之 作， 亡 終 歲 之 功 ， 公 卿 其 明 察 申 敕 之 。 」
夏 六 月 庚 申 ， 復 戾 園 。 壬 申 晦 ， 日 有 蝕 之 。 秋 七 月 庚 子 ， 復 太 上 皇 寢 廟 園 、 原 廟 、 昭靈 后 、 武 哀 王 、 昭 哀 后 、 衛 思 后 園 。
竟 寧 元 年 春 正 月 ， 匈 奴 虖 韓 邪 單 于 來 朝 。詔 曰 ： 「 匈 奴 郅 支 單 于 背 叛 禮 義 ， 既 伏 其 辜 ， 虖 韓 邪 單于 不 忘 恩 德 ， 鄉 慕 禮 義 ，復 修 朝 賀 之 禮 ， 願 保 塞傳 之 無 窮 ， 邊 垂 長 無 兵 革 之 事 。 其 改 元 為 竟 寧 ， 賜 單 于待 詔 掖 庭 王 檣 為 閼 氏 。 」
皇 太 子 冠 。 賜 列 侯 嗣 子 爵 五 大 夫 ， 天 下 為父 後 者 爵 一 級 。
二 月 ， 御 史 大 夫 延 壽 卒 。
三 月 癸 未 ， 復 孝 惠 皇 帝 寢 廟 園 、 孝 文 太 后 、 孝 昭太 后 寢 園 。
夏 ， 封 騎 都 尉 甘 延 壽 為 列 侯 。 賜 副 校 尉 陳 湯 爵 關內 侯 ， 黃 金 百 斤 。
五 月 壬 辰 ， 帝 崩 于 未 央 宮 。
毀 太 上 皇 、 孝 惠 、 孝 景 皇 帝 廟 。 罷 孝 文 、 孝 昭 太后 、 昭 靈 后 、 武 哀 王 、 昭 哀 后 寢 園 。
秋 七 月 丙 戌 ， 葬 渭 陵 。
贊 曰 ： 臣 外 祖 兄 弟 為 元 帝 侍 中 ， 語 臣 曰 元帝 多 材 藝 ， 善 史 書 。 鼓 琴 瑟 ， 吹 洞 簫 ，自度 曲 ， 被 歌 聲 ， 分 刌 節 度 ， 窮 極 幼 眇 。
少 而 好 儒 ， 及 即 位 ， 徵 用 儒 生 ， 委 之 以 政 ， 貢 、 薛、 韋 、 匡 迭 為 宰 相 。而 上 牽 制 文 義 ， 優 游 不 斷 ， 孝 宣 之 業 衰 焉 。 然 寬 弘 盡 下 ， 出 於 恭 儉 ， 號 令 溫雅 ， 有 古 之 風 烈 。
Translation and Notes
The Ninth [Imperial Annals]
The Annals of [Emperor Hsiao]-Yüan
Emperor Hsiao-Yüan was the Heir-apparent of Emperor Hsüan. His mother was entitled Empress Kung-ai [née] Hsü. At the time when Emperor Hsüan was [still] an unimportant person, [the future Emperor Yüan] was born as a commoner. When 1 he was in his second year, Emperor Hsüan ascended the throne [and began his own reign], 2 and when [the future Emperor Yüan] was in his eighth year, he was made Heir-apparent.
When he had grown up, he was condescending and kind and liked Confucian scholars. He saw that there were many written statutes among those employed by Emperor Hsüan; that his [father's] officials ruled their subjects in accordance with [the principle of] circumstances and names; 3 and that [his father's] great courtiers, Yang Yün, Kai 4 K'uan-jao and others, had been sentenced for critical and derogatory sayings, which were made crimes, so that they were executed. [Hence] once when he was waiting upon [Emperor Hsüan] at a banquet, he said, with a deferential bearing, "Your Majesty is too severe in applying the laws. It would be proper to employ Confucian masters [in your government]."
Emperor Hsüan changed color and said, "The Han dynasty has its own institutes and laws, which are variously [taken from] the ways of the Lords Protector and the [ideal] Kings. 5 How could I trust 6 purely to moral instruction and use [the kind of] government [exercised by] the Chou [dynasty]? The vulgar Confucians moreover do not understand what is appropriate to the time; they love to approve the ancient and disapprove the present, making people to be confused about names and realities, so that they do not know what they should cherish. How could they be capable of being entrusted with responsibility?" Thereupon he sighed and said, "The one who will confound my dynasty will be my Heir-apparent."
From this [time on], he became distant to his Heir-apparent and loved [another son], the King of Huai-yang, [Liu Ch'in]. He said, "The King of Huai-yang is intelligent concerning, has examined minutely, and loves the laws. He is worthy to be my son." Since, moreover, the King's mother, the Favorite Beauty [née] Chang, was favored the most, the Emperor had the intention of making the King of Huai-yang [his heir] in place of the Heir-apparent. But when [the Emperor] had been young, he had depended upon the Hsü clan, [that of the Heir-apparent's maternal grandfather], together with whom [the Emperor] had arisen from an unimportant station, hence in the end he was not [willing] to turn his back on it [by changing his Heir-apparent].
In [the year-period] Huang-lung, the first year, 7in the twelfth month, Emperor Hsüan died; on [the day] kuei-szu, the Heir-apparent ascended the imperial throne and was announced in the Temple of [Emperor] Kao. He honored the Empress Dowager [née Shang-kuan] with the title, Grand Empress Dowager, and the [Ch'iung-ch'eng] Empress [née Wang] with the title, Empress Dowager. 8
In [the year-period] Ch'u-Yüan, the first year, in the spring, the first month, on [the day] hsin-ch'ou, Emperor Hsiao-hsüan was buried in the Tu Tomb, 9 and there were granted: to the vassal kings, the princesses, and the full marquises, actual gold; 10 and to officials [ranking at] two thousand piculs and under, cash and silk; to each proportionately. A general amnesty [was granted] to the empire.
In the third month, [the Emperor] enfeoffed the older brother of the [Ch'iung-ch'eng] Empress Dowager [née Wang], the Palace Attendant and General 11 of the Gentlemen-at-the-Palace, Wang Shun(4a), as Marquis of An-p'ing, and on [the day] ping-wu he established the Empress née Wang [as Empress]. The public [plowed] fields, together with the parks which could be dispensed with in [the districts of] the Three Adjuncts and the Grand Master of Ceremonies and in the commanderies and kingdoms, were used to assist the poor people in their occupations; to those whose property did not amount to fully one thousand cash there were given loans of seed and food. [The Emperor] enfeoffed as the Marquis of P'ing-en the Regular Palace Attendant Hsü Chia, the son of the full brother to [the Emperor's deceased] maternal grandfather, Marquis Tai of P'ing-en, [Hsü Kuang-han], to uphold the [ancestral sacrifices that should be performed by] the posterity of Marquis Tai.
In the summer, the fourth month, an imperial
edict said, "We have received [the opportunity to
continue] the sage succession of [Our] deceased [ancestors], the emperors, and
have obtained [the opportunity] to uphold [the sacrifices in the imperial]
ancestral temples, [in doing which We have been] fearful and circumspect. [But]
recently the Earth has shaken several times and has not been quiet. [We] are
dismayed by the warnings of Heaven and Earth, not knowing for what reason [they
have come]. It was just at the time for cultivating the
fields, and We are solicitous lest the multitude of
ordinary people should lose [the results of] their work. [Hence We] in person
send the Imperial Household Grandee Pao(1a) and others, twelve persons [in all],
to travel about and inspect the empire, to visit and inquire about the common
people who are aged, widowers, widows, orphans, childless, in suffering,
indigent, or unemployed, to invite and present [to the throne] capable and
distinguished [persons], to summon and make appear [worthy persons in] poor or
and to use the opportunity to observe the development of [the people's] customs. If
the Chancellors [of kingdoms], the Administrators [of commanderies, and the
officials ranking at] two thousand piculs can in truth make themselves upright
and toil to make known clearly [Our] instruction and transforming influence, in
order that [We] may come close to all the
people , then within
[all will live in] peace and friendship, almost without any worries. Does not the
Book of History say,
It also said, "East of the [Han-ku] Pass, the grain has not ripened this year and many of the common people are suffering or indigent. Let it be ordered that those kingdoms and commanderies which have been injured severely by this calamity shall not pay the land or capitation taxes, and that [the revenues of] the rivers, the Ocean, the reservoirs, the lakes, the gardens, and the ponds which are under the supervision of the Privy Treasurer shall be used to lend to poor people and [they shall] not pay the land or capitation taxes. [We] grant: to those enregistered as belonging to the imperial house, [from] one horse to two quadrigae of [horses to each]; to the Thrice Venerable and the Filially Pious, five bolts of silk; to the Fraternally Respectful and the [Diligent] Cultivators of the Fields, three bolts; to widowers, widows, orphans, and childless, two bolts; and to the officials and common people of fifty households, an ox and wine."
In the sixth month, because the common people were [suffering from] sickness and pestilence, [the Emperor] ordered the Grand Provisioner to diminish the [imperial] food, [ordered the regular number of] persons in the Bureau of Music reduced, and dispensed with the horses of the pastures, 15 in order to assist the suffering and indigent.
In the autumn, the eighth month, more than ten thousand surrendered northwestern barbarians (Hu), [who had been under the supervision of the Chief Commandant] of Dependent States in Shang Commandery, escaped and entered Hun [territory].
In the ninth month, in eleven commanderies and kingdoms east of [Han-ku] Pass, there was high water and famine so that there were cases of people eating one another. Cash and grain from neighboring commanderies were transported to succor them. An imperial edict said, "Recently the Yin and Yang have not been in accord, so that the many people have [suffered] famine and cold, and there has been no means of safeguarding peace and good order. Verily, [Our] virtue is shallow and thin, insufficient to fill or enter into the old [imperial] dwellings. 16 Let it be ordered that the palaces and lodges which the emperor rarely favors [with a visit] shall not be repaired or prepared, that the Grand Coachman shall reduce the grain for feeding his horses, and that [the Chief Commandant of] Waters and Parks shall dispense entirely with 17 the flesh for feeding the animals [in the Shang-lin Park menagerie and elsewhere]."
In the second year, in the spring, the first month, [the Emperor] traveled and favored Kan-ch'üan [Palace with a visit, where he performed] the suburban sacrifice at the altar to the Supreme [One]. He granted to the common people of Yün-yang [Commandery] one step in noble rank and to the women of a hundred households an ox and wine.
[In the second month], 18 he established his younger brother, [Liu] Ching(4), as King of Ch'ing-ho. In the third month, he established [Liu] Pa, the Heir-apparent of King Li of Kuang-ling, [Liu Hsü], as King [of Kuang-ling].
An imperial edict [ordered] the disestablishment of the chariots, carriages, dogs, and horses [under control of] the Yellow Gate, of the [imperial] private gardens under [the supervision of the Chief Commandant] of Waters and Parks, of the Lower Park at Yi-ch'un(b), of the outer ponds of the Sharpshooters [who were under the supervision of] the Privy Treasurer, and of the hiding-places in the preserves, the ponds, and the fields [in the imperial parks]. 19 They were lent to the poor people.
An imperial edict said, "Verily, [We] have heard that when a capable and sage [ruler] is on the throne, the Yin and Yang are harmonious, the wind and rain are timely, the sun and moon are brilliant [without eclipses], the stars and zodiacal signs are in repose, and the many people are prosperous and peaceable and end in old age [the days allotted to them by] their fate. Now that We have respectfully succeeded to [the care of] Heaven and Earth and have been confided with [a place] above that of the highest nobles, [Our] understanding has not been able to light up [the universe and Our] virtue has not been able to tranquillize [it, so that] visitations and prodigies have arrived simultaneously and have not ceased for successive years. Moreover, in the second month, on [the day] mou-wu, there was an earthquake in Lung-hsi Commandery, 20 which destroyed and made the wooden decorations on the wall of the [great] hall in the Temple of the Grand Emperor fall, 21 ruined and demolished the inner and outer city walls and the official buildings of Huan-tao Prefecture, 22 together with the houses and buildings of the common people, and crushed to death a multitude of people.
"Mountains have fallen down and the earth has been rent, streams and springs have gushed 23 forth. Heaven has in truth sent down visitations to terrify and frighten Us and [Our] multitude. [Our] rule must be greatly deficient for the calamities [sent by Heaven] to have reached such [a magnitude]. Morning and night, [We] have been circumspect and fearful, [but] have not comprehended these great [unfortunate] vicissitudes. [We] have pondered deeply, [but] have been baffled and chagrined [that We] have not understood the [proper] order [of things]. 24 Recently for several years, there has been no good harvest, so that the great multitude are suffering and indigent, are unable to endure [the extremes of] famine and cold, and hence have become involved in punishments and chastisements. We pity them very much.
"[Let] those commanderies and kingdoms which have suffered severe visitations of earthquakes not pay the land or capitation taxes. [Let] an amnesty [be granted] to the empire. If there is anything [in the laws and ordinances] that can be suppressed, abolished, reduced, or dispensed with for the benefit of all people, [let] it be memorialized in detail, and let nothing be kept hidden. 25 [Let] the Lieutenant Chancellor, [Yü Ting-kuo], the [Grandee] Secretary, [Ch'en Wan-nien], and [officials ranking at] fully two thousand piculs recommend [persons who are] Accomplished Talents of Unusual Degree, gentlemen who [are able] to speak frankly and admonish unflinchingly, and We shall Ourself interview them."
In the summer, the fourth month, on [the day] ting-szu, [the Emperor] appointed his Imperial Heir-apparent, [Liu Ao], and granted: to the Grandee Secretary, [Ch'en Wan-nien], the noble rank of Kuan-nei Marquis; to [officials ranking at] fully two thousand piculs, [the noble rank of] Senior Chief of the Multitude; to those in the empire who would be the successors of their fathers, one step in noble rank; to each full marquis, two hundred thousand cash; and to Fifth [Rank] Grandees, one hundred thousand [cash].
In the sixth month, there was famine east of [Han-ku] Pass and in the region of Ch'i people ate each other. In the autumn, the seventh month, an imperial edict said, "For successive years there have been visitations and disasters, so that the common people are anaemic. 26 [We] are suffering and saddened in heart and have already [issued] an imperial edict [ordering] the officials to empty the storehouses and granaries, to open the warehouses and depots, to aid and rescue [the people], and to make grants of clothes to those who are cold.
"This autumn the grain and wheat have been considerably injured; within one year the Earth has twice shaken; 27 in Po-hai [Commandery] streams have overflowed and carried away and killed people. The Yin and Yang are not harmonious. Wherein lies the blame for these [circumstances]? In what way should the ministers be solicitous for this [situation]? Let them do their utmost to make known Our faults and not be silent about anything."
In the winter, an imperial edict said, "If a state is to prosper, [its ruler must] reverence his teachers and esteem his tutors. The former General of the Van, [Hsiao] Wang-chih, tutored [Us] to the eighth year, guiding [Us] by the Classics. His achievements are abundant. Let him be granted the noble rank of Kuan-nei Marquis with the income of an estate of eight hundred households; he shall pay court on the first and fifteenth of the month." 28[But] in the twelfth month, the Chief Palace Writer, Hung Kung, [together with] Shih Hsien and others, slandered [Hsiao] Wang-chih [to the Emperor] and caused [Hsiao Wang-chih] to commit suicide.
In the third year, in the spring, [the Emperor] ordered that Chancellors of vassal [kings] should be ranked below [Grand] Administrators of commanderies.
[Because] the prefectures south of the mountains 29 in Chu-yai Commandery had rebelled, [the Emperor asked] the various officials generally for plans [to deal with this rebellion]; the Expectant Appointee, Chia Chüan-chih, considered that it would be proper to abandon Chu-yai [Commandery], in order to aid the common people [of northeastern China] in their famine of grain and vegetables. Thereupon Chu-yai [Commandery] was abolished.
In the summer, the fourth month, on [the day] yi-wei, 30 there was a visitation [of fire] in White Crane Lodge at the Mou Tomb. The imperial edict said, "Recently a visitation of fire descended upon a Lodge in the [funerary park of Emperor] Hsiao-wu. We tremble with respectful awe, being afraid and fearful and not comprehending [this] grievous vicissitude and prodigy. The blame [must lie] upon Us Ourself. The many high officials have, moreover, not yet been willing to tell Us [Our] faults to the end, so that [things] have been brought to this [pass]. How can they be awakened [to the situation]? The people have continued to meet with baneful distresses, so that there is no means of helping them. They have furthermore been molested and troubled by exacting officials and by being held down and tied to the details of written [laws], 31 so that they are not allowed to prolong their lives to a [natural] end. We pity them greatly. Let an amnesty [be granted] to the empire."
In the summer, there was a drought.
[The Emperor] established [Liu] Tsung, the younger brother of King Yang of Ch'ang-sha, [Liu Tan(4b)], as King [of Ch'ang-sha], and enfeoffed [Liu] Tai-tsung, a son of the deceased Marquis of Hai-hun, [Liu] Ho(4b), as Marquis [of Hai-hun].
In the sixth month, an imperial edict said, "Verily, [We] have heard that the way to tranquillize the people has its source in [tranquillizing] the Yin and Yang. [But] recently the Yin and Yang have been disordered and are in disaccord, so that the wind and rain have not been timely. We are not virtuous and hoped that among the highest ministers some would have the daring to speak to Us of [Our] faults. But now it has been otherwise. They have frivolously agreed [with Our ideas], have negligently followed [Our wishes], and have not been able to speak unflinchingly. 32 We pity them greatly.
"[We] have long 33 pondered that when the multitude of people are in famine and cold [some] have been sent far away from their fathers and mothers, their wives and children, to toil at unnecessary work or to act as guards in uninhabited palaces. [We] fear that this is not a way of aiding the Yin and Yang [to attain their harmony].
"Let the guards at Kan-ch'üan and Chien-chang Palaces be disestablished and [let each 34 person] be ordered to go to [his home and devote himself to] agriculture. [Let] all the officials each reduce their expenses. [Let matters] be memorialized in detail without keeping silent about anything. [Let] the high officials exert themselves and not violate the prohibitions for the four seasons. [Let] the Lieutenant Chancellor, [Yü Ting-Kuo], and the [Grandee] Secretary, [Ch'en Wan-nien], each present the three [best] persons in the empire who understand the visitations and prodigies [caused by] the Yin and Yang." 35 Thereupon a multitude [of so-called experts] discussed these matters; some were advanced and promoted and summoned to an [imperial] audience, and [each] 36 considered that he had divined the Emperor's opinion.
In the fourth year, in the spring, the first month, [the Emperor] traveled and favored Kan-ch'üan [Palace with a visit, where he performed] the suburban sacrifice at the altar to the Supreme [One]. In the third month, he [again] traveled and favored Ho-tung [Commandery with a visit, where he] sacrificed to Sovereign Earth. He granted an amnesty to the convicts in Fen-yin and granted: to the common people, one step in noble rank; to the women of a hundred households, an ox and wine; and to widowers, widows, and aged, silk. The places through which he passed were not to pay the land tax or capitation taxes. 37
In the fifth year, in the spring, the first month, [the Emperor] made the Baronet Baron Descendant of the Chou [Dynasty, Chi Yen-nien], the Marquis Who Succeeds to the Greatness of the Chou [Dynasty], with a rank next to that of the vassal kings.
In the third month, [the Emperor] traveled and favored Yung [with a visit, where he] sacrificed at the altars to the Five [Lords on High].
In the summer, the fourth month, a comet appeared in [the constellation] Shen, 38 and an imperial edict said, "Since We are inadequate [to Our position], the ranking [of persons] in their positions is not carefully scrutinized, and many offices have long been unoccupied and have not been filled with the [proper] persons, so that the great multitude has lost its hope [of good rulers. This situation] has affected August Heaven above, so that the Yin and Yang have produced grievous vicissitudes, hence [Our] fault has spread to the many common people. We are greatly dismayed at [this situation].
"Recently, for successive [years], east of [Han-ku]
Pass there have occurred visitations and disasters of famine, cold, sickness,
and epidemics, so that premature death has not [permitted the people] to live
out their lives. Does not the Book of Odes say,
"Let there be abolished: the competitive games, 41 the Palaces and Lodges in Shang-lin Park that are rarely favored with an imperial [visit], the Three Offices for Garments in Ch'i [Commandery], the offices for [public] fields in Po-chia, 42 the offices of the Salt and Iron [Government Monopoly], 43 and the Constantly Equalizing Granaries. Let no [restricted] number be established for the Disciples of the Erudits, in order to increase [the number of] students [in the Imperial University. 44
"Let] there be granted: to the members of the imperial house who are enregistered, [from] one horse to two quadrigae of [horses to each]; to the Thrice Venerable and the Filially Pious, five bolts of silk per person; to the Fraternally Respectful and the [Diligent] Cultivators of the Fields, three bolts; to widowers, widows, orphans, and childless, two bolts; and to the officials and common people of fifty households, an ox and wine.
"Let the punishments be reduced" in more than seventy matters. 45
"Let there be expunged, for Imperial Household Grandees and under, down to Gentlemen-of-the-Palace, the ordinance [requiring punishment for those] who had made themselves responsible for their fathers, mothers, or own brothers or sisters. 46
"Let it be ordered that the Retinue and those who serve within the Majors' [Gates] to the palaces shall be permitted [to secure] for their grandfathers, grandmothers, fathers, mothers, and older and younger brothers, registration [permitting them] to enter [the palaces]." 47
In the winter, the twelfth month, on [the day] ting-wei, the Grandee Secretary, Kung Yü, died. 48
A Major of the [Palace] Guard, Ku Chi, [was sent] as an envoy to the Huns, [but] did not return. 49
In [the period] Yung-kuang, the first year, in the spring, the first month, [the Emperor] traveled and favored Kan-ch'üan [Palace with a visit, where he performed] the suburban sacrifice at the altar to the Supreme [One], and [granted] pardon to the convicts in Yün-yang [Commandery]. He granted: to the common people, one step in the noble rank; to the women of a hundred households, an ox and wine; and to the aged, silk. [Those places] through which he had passed in traveling were not 50 to pay the land-tax or capitation taxes. 51
In the second month, an imperial edict [ordered] the Lieutenant Chancellor, [Yü Ting-kuo], and the [Grandee] Secretary, [Hsieh Kuang-tê], to recommend persons who were simple and straightforward, sincere and honest, humble and yielding to others, and who showed good behavior. The [Superintendent of] the Imperial Household should yearly examine and rank the Gentlemen and [Imperial] Retinue according to these [four qualities]. 52
In the third month, an imperial edict said, "The Five Lords and the Three Kings gave office to the capable and employed the able in order to attain to extreme tranquility. Yet how could the misgovernment of today [come from the fact that] these common people are different [from those of ancient times]? 53 The blame lies in Our lack of intelligence and lack of means in becoming acquainted with capable [persons]. For this reason flatterers are in office and `admirable gentlemen' 54 are prevented [from securing office] and hide themselves. [These evils] are aggravated by the corruption 55 [coming from] the Chou and Ch'in [periods], so that the common people are being permeated with despicable customs. They depart from the rules of proper conduct and right principles, and [as a result] bring upon themselves the punishments of the law. Is not this indeed sad? Looking at it in this way, what guilt has the great multitude?
"Let an amnesty be granted to the empire and [let] it be ordered that [the people to whom amnesty has been granted] shall improve their personalities, renew themselves, and each pay attention to cultivating his acres. [Let] those [amnestied people] who have no cultivated fields all be loaned [fields] and be made loans of seed and food the same as for [ordinary] poor people. [Let] there be made grants: to officials [ranking at] six hundred piculs and above, the noble rank of Fifth [Rank] Grandee; to officials who are diligent in doing their duty, two steps [in noble rank]; to the common people, 56 one step; to the women of a hundred households, an ox and wine; to widowers, widows, orphans, childless, and aged, silk."
In this month it snowed and there was a fall of frost which injured the wheat harvest. 57
In the autumn, it was abolished. 58
In the second year, in the spring, the second month, an imperial edict said, "Verily, [We] have heard that when T'ang [Yao] and Yü [Shun employed] punishments [which merely portrayed] the likenesses [of the mutilating punishments in criminals' clothing], 59 the common people did not transgress, and when the Yin and Chou [dynastic] laws were put into practise, 60 evil-doers and traitors submitted. 61 Now We have had the opportunity of succeeding to the great 62 patrimony of the Eminent Founder, [Emperor Kao], and have been entrusted with a position above that of the highest nobles. Morning and night [We] have trembled with respectful awe, pondering long on the necessities of the people, which [We] do not allow to leave [Our] mind. But the Yin and Yang have not yet accorded [with each other], the three luminaries have been veiled and indistinct, 63 the great multitude have suffered greatly, have wandered, and have been scattered on the highways and paths. Robbers and brigands have arisen simultaneously. The high officials are, moreover, habitually injurious and hard [upon the people] and have been defective in the art of shepherding the common people. The foregoing is all [because of] Our lack of insight and [because Our] government shows a deficiency. [Since Our] faults have produced such [a situation], We are very much ashamed of Ourself. If [We], the father and mother of the common people, have been so incapable, what [can We] say to [Our] subjects?
"Let a general amnesty [be granted] to the empire, and [let there be] granted: to the common people, one step in noble rank; to the women of a hundred households, an ox and wine; to widowers, widows, orphans, childless, aged, the Thrice Venerable, the Filially Pious, the Fraternally Respectful, and the [Diligent] Cultivators of the Fields, silk. [Let there] also be granted: to the vassal kings, the princesses, and the full marquises, actual gold; to the [officials ranking at] fully two thousand piculs and those of lower [rank] down to the chief officials in the offices at the imperial capital, [money], to each proportionately; to the officials [ranking at] six hundred piculs and above, the noble rank of Fifth [Rank] Grandee; to each official who is diligent in doing his duty, two steps [in noble rank]."
In the third month, on [the day] jen-hsü, the first day of the month, there was an eclipse of the sun. 64 The imperial edict said, "We have been trembling and in respectful awe, day and night thinking of [Our] faults and defects, and have not dared to be negligent or at peace. [We] have pondered that the Yin and Yang have not been harmonized and [We] have not yet [secured] enlightenment [concerning what is] to blame. [We] have frequently ordered the ministers [to find where the fault lies] and have daily hoped that [Our efforts] would bring results.
"Down to the present, the [high] officials who control the government have not yet attained to the mean [in their government]. In their grants and gifts [of favor] and in their prohibitions and sentences, they have not yet accorded with the opinions of the common people. Violent and cruel customs increase more and more, and ways of peace and friendliness are daily enfeebled, so that the people are sad and suffering, with no place to rest themselves.
"For this reason evil emanations have yearly increased and have encroached upon and violated the great Yang [being, the sun], so that good emanations have been submerged and arrested, and the sun for a long time has been robbed of his light. Recently, on [the day] jen-hsü, there was an eclipse of the sun--- Heaven made a great prodigy appear in order to forewarn Us Ourself. We are very much saddened. Let it be ordered that the inner 65 commanderies and kingdoms should each recommend one gentleman who is an Accomplished Talent of Unusual Degree [or] who is capable, good, and [able to] speak frankly."
In the summer, the sixth month, an imperial edict said, "Recently for consecutive years, [the harvest] has not been gathered and the four quarters [of the empire] are all suffering. The great multitude of common people work hard at plowing and weeding, but it does not produce any results, so that they suffer from a famine of grain and vegetables, and there is no means by which they can be saved. We are the father and mother of the people, [but Our] virtue is not able to protect them. Yet [We must at times] punish them, which hurts Ourself greatly. 66Let an amnesty [be granted] to the empire."
In the autumn, the seventh month, the Western Ch'iang rebelled, and [the Emperor] sent the General of the Right, Feng Feng-shih, to attack them. In the eighth month, the Grand Master of Ceremonies, Jen Ch'ien-ch'iu, was made the General Displaying his Majesty, 67 with a separate command over five colonels. He advanced together with [Feng Feng-shih]. 68
In the third year, in the spring, the Western Ch'iang were pacified and the armies were demobilized.
In the third month, [the Emperor] set up his Imperial Son [Liu] K'ang as King of Chi(4)-yang.
In the summer, the fourth month, on [the day] kuei-wei, the Commander-in-chief and General of Chariots and Cavalry, [Wang] Chieh(5), died.
In the winter, the eleventh month, an imperial edict said, "Recently, in the second [month] of winter [i.e., the eleventh month], 69 on [the day] chi-ch'ou, there was an earthquake and a rain of water and a great fog. Robbers and brigands have arisen simultaneously; why do not the officials conform to the prohibitions for the seasons? 70 Let each one express his whole mind in reply."
In the winter, 71 there were reestablished the offices of the Salt and Iron [Government Monopoly] and a [restricted] number for the Disciples of the Erudits, because the [government] income was insufficient and too many of the common people had been exempted, so that there were not [enough persons] to furnish the required labor and required military service in the central [states] and at the borders. 72
In the fourth year, in the spring, the second month, an imperial edict said, "We have succeeded to the cares of the most honorable [station, yet We] have not been able to enlighten or direct the people aright. Baneful calamities have frequently occurred, added to which the border regions have not been at peace and the armies [have had to be sent] out of [the border, so that, because of] taxes and transportation [of supplies], the great multitude have been troubled and agitated, are exhausted and suffering without any assistance, and have violated the laws and fallen into crime. Verily, their superiors have failed in their duty and have drawn their inferiors deeply into punishment. We are greatly afflicted by this [situation]. Let an amnesty [be granted] to the empire. [Let] their debts not be collected from the poor people to whom loans were made."
In the third month, [the Emperor] traveled and favored Yung [with a visit, where he] sacrificed at the altars to the Five [Lords on High].
In the summer, the sixth month, on [the day] chia-hsü, there was a visitation [of fire] to the Eastern Portal of the Funerary Park of [Emperor] Hsiao-hsüan, 73 and on [the day] mou-yin, the last day of the month, there was an eclipse of the sun. The imperial edict said, "Verily, [We] have heard that when an intelligent king is in control and faithful and capable [subordinates] display [a proper attention to] their duties, the many living things are in harmony and rejoice, and [even those] outside the [empire at the four] quarters receive benefits.
"[But] now We are ignorant about the Way of [true] kings. Day and night [We] have solicitously toiled, [yet We] have not penetrated to its principles. There is nothing that [We] have looked at which has not been confused and nothing that [We] have heard that has not been misleading. For this reason many of the governmental ordinances have been returned, 74 the affections of the common people have not been secured, erroneous explanations have been vainly presented, and nothing has been achieved. The foregoing is what [everyone in] the empire has heard openly.
"The ministers and grandees are not alike in their
likes and dislikes; some associate with the wicked and act corruptly,
encroaching upon and extorting from the uninfluential common people---how can
great multitude find refuge for their lives? Thereupon, on the last day of the sixth month, there was
an eclipse of the sun. Does not the Book of Odes
In the ninth month, on [the day] mou-tzu, [the Emperor] abolished the funerary park of the Empress Szu [née] Wei, together with the funerary park of [Heir-apparent] Li, [Liu Chü]. 77 In the winter, the tenth month, on [the day] yi-ch'ou, [the Emperor] disestablished the temples in the commanderies and kingdoms to the [Eminent] Founder, [Emperor Kao], and the [Great and Epochal] Successors, [Emperors Hsiao-wen and Hsiao-wu]. The various [imperial] tomb-[towns] were divided and put under the charge of the Three Adjuncts. 78
On the [northern]
plain in the Shou-ling Commune section of
Wei-ch'eng [prefecture] there was being made the Emperor's tomb,
and an imperial edict said, "It is
the nature of the many common people to be contented with their locality and to
consider transportation [to a different locality] as a serious matter. To have
one's flesh and blood attached to [and near] oneself is what human affections
desire. A short time ago, some high officials memorialized that, according to
the principles [involved in the relationship of] a subject [to his ruler],
common people from the commanderies and kingdoms should be transported [to Our
tomb] to uphold [the sacrifices at Our] funerary park and tomb, [thus] causing
the people to leave and abandon the tombs and mounds of their deceased
ancestors, ruining their patrimonies and losing their property, [making]
relatives to be divided and separated from each other, people [to be tormented
by] thoughts of longing and affection, and families to have feelings of
In this way the
eastern extremities of the empire would suffer the injury of being depopulated
and ruined and Kuan-chung would possess common people who have no resources,
which is not an expedient [for one who plans] far ahead. Does not the
Book of Odes say,
In the fifth year, in the spring, the first month, [the Emperor] traveled and favored Kan-ch'üan [Palace with a visit, where he] sacrificed at the altar to the Supreme [One]. In the third month, the Emperor favored Ho-tung [Commandery with a visit, where he] sacrificed at the altar to Sovereign Earth.
In the autumn, in Ying-ch'uan [Commandery], the streams overflowed, carrying away and killing people. 84 The officials and [imperial] retinue whose [native] prefectures had suffered injury were given a vacation, 85 and the officers and soldiers [among the drafted men who came from those prefectures] were sent home.
In the winter, the Emperor favored [with a visit] the Lodge for Shooting Bears in Ch'ang-yang [Palace] and arrayed his chariots and horsemen for a great hunt.
In the twelfth month, on [the day] yi-yu, the funerary chambers, the temples, and the funerary parks of the Grand Emperor and of Emperor Hsiao-hui were done away with. 86
In [the period] Chien-chao, the first year, in the spring, 87 the third month, the Emperor favored Yung [with a visit, where he] sacrificed at the altars to the Five [Lords on High].
In the autumn, the eighth month, from Tung-tu Gate to Chih-tao there were white butterflies flying in swarms that hid the sun. 88
In the winter, the King of Ho-chien, [Liu] Yüan(2b), who had committed crimes, was dismissed and exiled to Fang-ling. 89
The funerary chambers and funerary parks of the Empress Dowager [née Po of Emperor] Hsiao-wen and of the Empress Dowager [née Chao of Emperor] Hsiao-chao were abolished. 90
In the second year, in the spring, the first month, [the Emperor] traveled and favored Kan-ch'üan [Palace with a visit, were he performed] the suburban sacrifice at the altar to the Supreme [One]. In the third month, [the Emperor] traveled and favored Ho-tung [Commandery with a visit, where he] sacrificed to Sovereign Earth.
[The Emperor] increased the rank of the Grand Administrators of the three Ho Commanderies [and of large] commanderies [to that of fully two thousand piculs. 91 Commanderies with] 120,000 households were made `large commanderies'. In the summer, the fourth month, an amnesty [was granted to the empire.
In the sixth month, the Emperor] set up his Imperial Son [Liu] Hsing 92 as the King of Hsin-tu(a).
In the intercalary month, on [the day] ting-yu, the Grand Empress Dowager née Shan-kuan died.
In the winter, the eleventh month, there was an earthquake and a great fall of snow in [the kingdoms of] Ch'i and Ch'u. 93 Trees were broken and houses fell in ruin. Chang Po, the maternal uncle of the King of Huai-yang, [Liu Ch'in], and the Grand Administrator of the Wei Commandery, Ching Fang, were sentenced for having led astray a vassal king by perverse notions, and having divulged [imperial] conversations [that occurred] in the inner palace apartments, [respectively. Change]Po was executed by being cut in two at the waist and [Ching] Fang was publicly executed. 94
In the third year, in the summer, [the Emperor] ordered that the Chief 95 Commandants to the Three Adjuncts and the Chief Commandants in large commanderies 96 should be all ranked at two thousand piculs. 97
In the sixth month, on [the day] chia-ch'en, the Lieutenant Chancellor, [Wei] Hsüan-ch'eng, died.
In the autumn, the Chief Commandant of Cavalry who had been sent out as Protector-[general] of the Western Frontier Regions, Kan Yen-shou, and his Associate, Colonel Ch'en T'ang, by fraud mobilized the officials and troops of the agricultural garrison under the Mou-and-Chi Colonel, together with the northwestern barbarian (hu) troops of the Western Frontier Regions, and attacked Shan-Yü Chih-chih. In the winter, they cut off his head and sent it to the [imperial] capital, where it was hung on the gate of the Lodge for Barbarian Princes. 98
In the fourth year, in the spring, the first month, because Shan-Yü Chih-chih had been executed, information was made [to the Lords on High] in the Suburban Sacrifice and in the sacrifices [to the imperial ancestors in their] Temples, and an amnesty was granted to the empire. The courtiers [wished] the Emperor long life. A feast was held [by the Emperor] and the documents and charts concerning [Shan-Yü Chih-chih] were shown [even] to the honored ladies in the [imperial] harem. 99
In the summer, the fourth month, an imperial edict said, "We have succeeded to the glorious achievements of our imperial predecessors. Morning and night [We] have been respectfully attentive, fearing lest [We may] not be capable in [Our] duties. Recently the Yin and Yang have not 100 accorded [with each other], and the five elements have lost their order, so that the people have been famished. [We] have been pondering that the multitude [of people] have lost their occupations and [We] have visited and sent the Grandee-remonstrant and Erudit Ch'ang and others, twenty-one persons [in all], to travel about and examine the empire, to visit and inquire about the aged, widowers, widows, orphans, childless, and the people who are indigent, suffering, or have lost their work, and to recommend gentlemen who are Accomplished Talents and have especial eminence. [Let] the chancellors, generals, and nine high ministers apply themselves with all their minds 101 and be not negligent, so that We shall be able to observe the propagation of [Our] instruction and civilizing efforts."
In the sixth month, on [the day] chia-shen, the King of Chung-shan, [Liu] Ching, died.
In Lan-t'ien [prefecture], there was an earth[quake and a mountain collapsed], 102 and gravel and stones blocked the Pa River. At the An Tomb, the [river] bank collapsed and blocked the Ching River, so that its water flowed backwards.
In the fifth year, in the spring, the third month, an imperial edict said, "Verily, [We] have heard that when an intelligent king rules the country, he makes plain what to like and dislike and fixes what should be rejected and accepted; he exalts respectfulness and yielding [to others], and then the common people cultivate their conduct. Hence when his laws are instituted, the common people do not violate them, and when his ordinances are promulgated, the common people follow them.
"Now that We have secured [the opportunity to] protect the [Imperial] ancestral temples, [We] have been careful and fearful, and have not dared to be lax or negligent. [But Our] virtue has been slight and [Our] intelligence has been obscured, so that [Our] teaching and civilizing influence has been shallow and slight. Does not the Memoir say, `When the people commit faults, [the blame] rests upon Us'? 103 Let an amnesty [be granted] to the empire and let there be granted: to the common people, one step in noble rank; to the women of a hundred households, an ox and wine; and to the Thrice Venerable, the Filially Pious, the Brotherly Respectful, and the [Diligent] Cultivators of the Fields, silk."
[The edict] also said, "Just now it is spring, the time when farmers and cultivators of silkworms begin their work, when the people unite 104 their forces and use their energies to the utmost. Hence in this month [We] encourage the farmers and exhort the common people not to permit themselves [to leave their work undone until] after [the proper] time.
"[But] now evil 105 officials, in reconsidering law-cases involving small crimes, in calling and summoning witnesses in [such] cases, take up matters that are not pressing and so trouble the people. By making [the people] lose the one time [when their] work [can be done, the officials cause them] to bring to naught a whole year's labor. Let the ministers examine and investigate [such cases] and inform and warn the [officials about this matter]."
In the summer, the sixth month, on [the day[ keng-shen, the Funerary Park of [Heir-apparent] Li, [Liu Chü], was reestablished. On [the day] jen-shen, 106 the last day of the month, there was an eclipse of the sun. In the autumn, the seventh month, on [the day] keng-tzu, the Funerary Chamber, the Temple, and the Funerary Park of the Grand Emperor, the Second Temple [of Emperor Kao], and the Funerary Parks of Empress Chao-ling, King Wu-ai, Queen Chao-ai, and Empress Szu [née] Wei were reestablished. 107
In the period Ching-ning, 108 the first year, in the spring, the first month, the Hun Shan-Yü Hu-han-hsieh came to pay court. The imperial edict said, "The Hun Shan-Yü Chih-chih abandoned and rebelled against the rules of proper conduct and principles of fealty and so has already suffered for his crimes, [whereas] Shan-Yü Hu-han-hsieh has not forgotten [Our] favors and benefits. He has turned toward and striven to follow the rules of proper conduct and principles of fealty, [and now] has again renewed the rites of [presenting his] congratulations at the [great annual] court. He wishes to guarantee the [border] barriers and to continue [this practise] endlessly, so that the borders and frontiers will eternally be without any warlike affairs. Let the year-period be changed to be Ching-ning and [let] the [Lady] Awaiting an Imperial Edict in the Lateral Courts, Wang Ch'iang, be granted to the Shan-Yü to be his Yen-chih."
The Imperial Heir-apparent, [Liu Ao], was capped; heirs of full marquises were granted the noble rank of Fifth [Rank] Grandee and those in the empire who would be the successors to their fathers [were granted] one step in noble rank.
In the second month, the Grandee Secretary, P'an] 109 Yen-shou, died.
[In the third month, on [the day] kuei-wei, there were reestablished the Funerary Chamber, the Temple, and the Funerary Park of Emperor Hsiao-hui, and the Funerary Chambers and Funerary Parks of the Empress Dowager [née Po of Emperor] Hsiao-wen and of the Empress Dowager [née Chao of Emperor] Hsiao-chao. 110
In the summer, [the Emperor] enfeoffed the Chief Commandant of Cavalry, Kan Yen-shou, as a full marquis and granted to his Associate [Protector-General of the Western Frontier Regions], Colonel Ch'en T'ang, the noble rank of Kuan-nei Marquis and a hundred catties of actual gold.
In the fifth month, on [the day] jen-ch'en, the Emperor died at the Wei-yang Palace.
The Temples of the Grand Emperor and of Emperors Hsiao-hui and Hsiao-ching were done away with and the Funerary Chambers and Funerary Parks of the Empresses Dowager [née Po and née Chao of Emperors] Hsiao-wen and Hsiao-chao [respectively], of Empress Chao-ling, of King Wu-ai, and of Queen Chao-ai were abolished. 111
In the autumn, the seventh month, on [the day] ping-hsü, [the Emperor] was buried in the Wei Tomb. 112
In eulogy we say: The elder and younger brothers of your servant, [Pan Piao's], maternal grandfather, were Emperor Yüan's Palace Attendants, 113 and spoke to your servant, saying, "Emperor Hsüan had much ability in polite arts and was good at the clerkly [style of] writing, 114 at playing the guitar and lute, and at blowing the open flute. 115 He himself composed new songs, clothed them with melodies for singing, 116 distinguished and indicated the cadences [of the verses and music], 117 and understood to the utmost the delicacies [of poetry and music]."
When he was young, he liked the Confucians, and when he ascended the throne, he summoned and gave office to Confucian masters, entrusting the government to them. Kung [Yü], Hsieh [Kuang-tê], Wei [Hsüan-ch'eng], and K'uang [Heng] were successively his ruling chancellors. 118 The Emperor, however, tied and controlled himself by written principles, 119 so that he hesitated to settle matters, and thus the achievements of [Emperor] Hsiao-hsüan decayed. Yet he was broad-minded and had his inferiors express themselves completely. 120 He was outstanding in respectfulness and self-restraint. His proclamations and ordinances are polished and elegant, and have the spirit and fire of the ancients. 121
1. HS 97 A: 22a says, "In the same [calender] year [that she was married, the future Empress née Hsü] gave birth to Emperor Yüan, and in several months the [Imperial] Great-grandson, [Emperor Hsüan], was made Emperor." Hence Liu Shih, the future Emperor Yüan, was actually born a few months before Sept., 74 B.C., when Emperor Hsüan ascended the throne, probably in the last months of Yüan-feng VI, about February, 74 B.C. Thus he could not have been in his second full year at the accession of Emperor Hsüan, although he might have been in his second calendar year. Or it might be that this passage in the "Annals" is counting time not from the actual date that Emperor Hsüan ascended the throne, but from the first year of his reign, which did not begin until the first month of the year after that in which his predecessor died. The remainder of the year in which an emperor dies continues to belong to the reign of the deceased emperor; his successor does not nominally begin to reign until the new year. Liu Pin (1022-1088) remarks that this practice follows that of the Dukes of Lu in the Spring and Autumn, who considered the first year of their reign to begin with the first New Year's day on which they were reigning. Because Yen Shih-ku (581-645) neglected these possibilities, he thought that the chronology in this passage was mistaken; through a similar misinterpretation, Hsün Yüeh's (148-209) Han-chi twice notices the appointment of Liu Shih as Heir-apparent. Lin Shih's birth in February, 74 is, however, quite consistent with his appointment as Heir-apparent in his eighth year, on May 24, 67 B.C.
2. HS 97 A: 22a says, "In the same [calender] year [that she was married, the future Empress née Hsü] gave birth to Emperor Yüan, and in several months the [Imperial] Great-grandson, [Emperor Hsüan], was made Emperor." Hence Liu Shih, the future Emperor Yüan, was actually born a few months before Sept., 74 B.C., when Emperor Hsüan ascended the throne, probably in the last months of Yüan-feng VI, about February, 74 B.C. Thus he could not have been in his second full year at the accession of Emperor Hsüan, although he might have been in his second calendar year. Or it might be that this passage in the "Annals" is counting time not from the actual date that Emperor Hsüan ascended the throne, but from the first year of his reign, which did not begin until the first month of the year after that in which his predecessor died. The remainder of the year in which an emperor dies continues to belong to the reign of the deceased emperor; his successor does not nominally begin to reign until the new year. Liu Pin (1022-1088) remarks that this practice follows that of the Dukes of Lu in the Spring and Autumn, who considered the first year of their reign to begin with the first New Year's day on which they were reigning. Because Yen Shih-ku (581-645) neglected these possibilities, he thought that the chronology in this passage was mistaken; through a similar misinterpretation, Hsün Yüeh's (148-209) Han-chi twice notices the appointment of Liu Shih as Heir-apparent. Lin Shih's birth in February, 74 is, however, quite consistent with his appointment as Heir-apparent in his eighth year, on May 24, 67 B.C.
3. Yen Shih-ku quotes Liu Hsiang's (ca. 79-8 B.C.) Pieh-lu (a lost book) as saying, "The teaching of Shen-tzu [Shen Pu-hai, a legalist, cf. SC 63: 13] is called `Circumstances and names 刑名. [The meaning of] `circumstances and names' is `to use names to demand their realities, in order to honor the prince and humble his subjects, to reverence the superior and curb his inferiors,' [probably a quotation from Shen-tzu, whose book is now lost]. Emperor Hsüan liked to look at the chapter [of Shen-tzu entitled] `The Prince and His Subjects'." For the meaning of the above philosophical phrases, cf. Fung Yu-lan, History of Chinese Philosophy, trans. by D. Bodde, I, 192, 323-5.The text reads hsing(1)-ming 刑名, lit. "punishments and their names", i.e., penological terminology; anciently hsing(1) and hsing(2) 形 "circumstances" were interchanged. Wang Ming-sheng (1722-1798), in his Shih-ch'i-shih Shang-chüeh, ch. 5, has shown that the phrase hsing(1)-ming originally read hsing(2)-ming, so that it should be translated as above.Ancient Chinese logic was concerned with the problem of the subsumption of particulars under general terms, i.e., the proof for the minor premise to a syllogismmises or the tree of Porphyry; the Chinese school of "circumstances and names" discussed problems of subsumption. Since this problem was chiefly treated in connection with legal cases, in which the discussion was, the name (ming) under which to subsume the acts (hsing) of the accused, the phrase hsing2-ming consequently came to be written as hsingming, i.e., the more general problem of logical subsumption came to be identified with its most common particular case, the identification of the particular crime under which the acts of an accused person were to be subsumed, i.e., penological terminology. Cf. also Duyvendak, The Book of Lord Shang, pp. 101, 327-335.
4. The Southern Academy ed. (1528-31), the Fukien ed. (1549), the Official ed. (1739), and the Wang ed. (1546) write this surname as Kai 葢; the Ching-yu ed. (1034-5) writes Ho 盇. Wang Nien-sun (1744-1832) remarks that anciently ho was borrowed to use for kai, and that the surname of Kai K'uan-jao was anciently pronounced ko 公盍反, so that these two words could be interchanged. The Yi-wen Lei-ch'u (by Ou-yang Hsün, 557-641), "Birds", A, quotes the Han-shih Wai-chuan (by Han Ying, fl. 179-141 B.C.) as writing the surname of a man by the name of Kai Hsü as Ho 盍胥. Wang Nien-sun says that in this place in the "Annals" the word ho has been emended to kai by persons who did not understand that these two words were anciently interchanged. Chou Shou-ch'ang (1814-1884) adds that there is a stele of T'ang times to a certain Kai Wen-ta, in which his surname is written ho, and that in Heng-shui 衡水 Hsien, Chihli, the vulgar pronunciation for the surname Kai is Ho 合. Karlgren, (Grammata Serica 642, n and q) gives for both ho and kai the archaic pronunciation g'âp.
5. T'ai-p'ing Yü-lan (978-983) 89: 6a quotes this sentence with the word 理 after the 雜. "The ways of the Lords Protector (pa)" is the technical term used by Mencius for non-Confucian teaching; "the ways of the ideal kings" refers to the Confucian doctrines; cf. Fung Yu-lan, History of Chinese Philosophy, I, 112.
6. The Ching-yu ed. and the Official ed. read 任; Wâng Hsien-ch'ien reads 住, noting that Ch'ien Ta-chao approves the former reading.
7. Cf. HS 8: 24b.
8. T'ai-p'ing Yü-lan 89: 6b quotes Ying Shao's (ca. 140-206) Han-kuan-yi as saying, "In the time of [Emperor] Hsiao-wu, the Son of Heaven and his subordinates did not yet wear conical caps 幘, [which cover the hair]. Above his forehead, Emperor Yüan had stiff hairs, and did not wish to let people see them, hence he for the first time employed a conical cap. All the officials followed him [in this practise]." These stiff hairs are also mentioned in HS 97 B: 12b(1).
9. Fu Tsan (fl. ca. 285) comments, "From his death to his burial was altogether 28 days."
10. Sung Ch'i (998-1061) notes that the Ancient text (before vii cent.) lacked the word 黃; Han-chi 21: 1a (by Hsün Yüeh) also lacks it.
11. Cf. HS 18: 16b; 27 Ba: 13a, trans. in 100 A: n. 16.2.
12. A reminiscence of Book of History I, iii, 12 (Legge, p. 26).
13. Wei Chao says, "The six directions are Heaven [above], Earth [beneath], and the four cardinal points."
14. Book of History I, iv, iii, 11 (Legge, p. 90).
15. Wang Hsien-ch'ien (1842-1918) suggests that these "horses of the pastures" were those established by Emperor Ching (24 A: 15b). The Han-kuan-yi (by Ying Shao), A: 11a, says that the various imperial pastures were located in 36 places on the northern and western borders, where 300,000 horses were raised. HHS, Tr. 25: 9b, 10a says that these pastures were located in the six commanderies of Ho-hsi (present Ninghsia and Kansu). They must have been reestablished after Emperor Yüan's disestablishment, for they are mentioned in HS 19 A: 12b; in 19 A.D., Wang Mang had his high officials pay for rearing horses in these pastures (HS 99 C: 4b), and they were again disestablished by Emperor Kuang-wu (HHS, Tr. 25: 10a).
16. An allusion to Analects XI, xiii, 2. Yen Shih-ku explains that the Emperor is saying in humility that he is not worthy of occupying the palaces or rooms of his imperial ancestors. In 11: 1b Emperor Ai similarly says he is not worthy of occupying the Heir-apparent's palace.
17. Yen Shih-ku remarks," Chien 減 means reducing its number; sheng 省 is dispensing entirely with it."
18. The Chinese characters for the words in brackets seem to have dropped out of the text, for HS 14: 23a lists the appointment of Liu Ching in the second month on the day ting-szu (Apr. 18), which day did not occur in the first month.
19. Su Lin (fl. 196-227) comments, "Yen 嚴 is to camouflage 飾 buildings on the ponds, together with their regions." Fu Ch'ien (cf. 8: n. 9.3) explains yen-Yü 籞 as camouflaged bird-traps in the reservoirs and fields. Chin Shao (fl. ca. 275) says, "Yen-Yü are the parks for shooting. Hsü Shen [d. 121, in his Shuo-wen 5 A: 3b] says, `Yen are where fowlers and archers hide themselves.' Ch'ih-t'ien 池田 are the cultivated fields within the parks," and Yen Shih-ku says that Chin Shao's explanation is correct. Ch'ien Ta-chao (1744-1813) says that yen is the ancient word 此字為“竹“字頭下“嚴“ and that Yü are the prohibited parks. Cf. 8: 9a for a similar edict.
20. Ch'ien Ta-chao says that since this earthquake is mentioned in the edict, it was omitted from the annals of the second month, in order to avoid repetition. A second earthquake seems to have happened in the third month (cf. n. 4.3), so that the annals Pan Ku was using as a source for this chapter probably did not record earthquakes.
21. Ch'ien Ta-chao comments, "The `Annals of Emperor Kao', in the tenth year, eighth month, [(1 B: 15b), contains] an ordinance that vassal kings should all establish temples to the Grand Emperor in their capital cities. [But] Lunplained how [Lung-hsi Commandery came] to have this temple. Moreover, according to the `Annals of Emperor Hui' [2: 3b] there was an ordinance that the commanderies and vassal kings should establish temples to [Emperor] Kao. Was the [temple] that was destroyed and made to collapse perhaps a temple to [Emperor] Kao?"
22. Yen Shih-ku says, "All places where there are yamens or courts are called szu 凡府庭所在皆謂之寺."
23. For 湧 the Official ed. writes 涌.
24. Dr. Duyvendak explains, "If the Emperor had been able to observe the proper order of things in his action, nature would also have done so and there would have been no calamities."
25. This sentence of the edict seems to be condensed from that recorded in 23: 16b; it was followed by the enactment on 9: 6b.
26. Lit., "have a vegetable color, ts'ai-sê 菜色." Yen Shih-ku remarks, "The five [kinds of] grains were not harvested, so men ate only vegetables; hence their color changed for the worse."
27. The second earthquake is not recorded in this chapter or in ch. 27, but HS 36: 8a says, "In the third month, there was a great earthquake." The quake on Apr. 19 was then followed by another one.
28. Szu-ma Kuang (1019-1086), in his Tzu-chih T'ung-chien K'ao-yi 1: 13b, remarks, "HS 36: [8a] says, `Previously Hung Kung [and Shih Hsien] had memorialized that [Hsiao] Wang-chih and others should be sent to prison and it was so decided. [They were, however, not actually put in prison, but were pardoned and made commoners.] In the third month, there was a great earthquake.' Then [Hsiao] Wang-chih and the others had been degraded and dismissed in the spring, before the earthquake. [HS 36: 7a] also says, `That spring there were earthquakes. In the summer, a wandering star appeared among [the constellations] Mao, Chüan, and Shê. The Emperor was moved and became conscious of [his fault], so he issued an imperial edict granting to [Hsiao] Wang-chih the noble rank of Kuan-nei Marquis.' HS 78: [11b tells of the dismissal of Hsiao Wang-chih and the others by the Emperor, and adds], `Several months later an imperial edict of decree to the Grandee Secretary said, "If a state is to prosper [etc., quoting the edict in the text]. Let there be granted to [Hsiao] Wang-chih the noble rank of Kuan-nei Marquis." ' Probably [the writer of this] "Annals" saw that [Hsiao] Wang-chih died in the twelfth month, hence [mistakenly] placed this edict [just] before that [event]." Tzu-chih T'ung-chien 28: 5b accordingly dates the edict ennobling Hsiao Wang-chih in the fourth month, the first month of summer.There were thus two attacks upon Hsiao Wang-chih: the first in the spring, after which he was dismissed and later (probably in the summer) ennobled. Then in Jan./ Feb., Emperor Yüan was induced to order his imprisonment, in order to humble him, whereupon he committed suicide in order to avoid the disgrace of imprisonment.
29. Shan-nan 山南 might be the name of a prefecture, but 64 B: 15a makes it plain that more than one prefecture revolted, so that this phrase should be taken as a common noun.
30. The text adds, "The last day of the month," but this day could not have been the last day of the month; it was the eleventh day of the month. This date is also given in 27 A: 14b and in 75: 18b, both times without the word meaning "the last day of the month." Ch'ien Ta-hsin accordingly concludes that this word is an interpolation; I have omitted it in the translation.
31. Su Yü (fl. 1913) remarks that the Emperor is referring to the same thing that Emperor Hsüan does in his phrase, "juggling the law in either direction [that suits them]" (8: 13a). Emperor Yüan did not care for profound investigations into `circumstances and their names' such as officials had been accustomed to make for Emperor Hsüan.Dr. Duyvendak points out that the repetition of hu 虖(= 乎) gives these phrases an explanatory character.
32. There had been no lack of admonitions to the Emperor regarding Shih Hsien (cf. Introduction to this chapter and Glossary, sub voce), in spite of the danger of doing so, but Emperor Yüan was not open-minded regarding his favorite eunuch.
33. The Sung Ch'i ed. (ca. xii cent.) remarks that one ed. lacked the word 永.
34. The Sung Ch'i ed. notes that the T'ang text (before xi cent.) and the Ching-te Academy ed. (1004-5) have the word ko 各 after the 衛. Han-chi 31: 9b likewise has it. Wang Nien-sun says that this ko is necessary for parallelism with the ko in the next clause.This disestablishment was the result of Kung Yü's advice, cf. 72: 14a. Chou Shou-ch'ang remarks that the reason the guard of Ch'ang-lo Palace was not also disestablished was that this Palace was then inhabited by the Grand Empress nee Shang-kuan.
35. Ho Ch'uo (1661-1722) remarks that the vogue of the Yin and Yang doctrine and the doctrine concerning the conditions appropriate for each month began with Wei Hsiang (cf. 74: 5a ff) and flourished especially at this time. Cf. n. 9.4 and also Emperor Ch'eng's edict in 10: 6b.
36. The Sung Ch'i ed. notes that the Chiang-nan Text (x cent.) has only one jen 人, and Wang Nien-sun says that that reading is correct, for otherwise Yen Shih-ku's explanation of the jen-jen in the present text would be unnecessary. He says that the second jen has been added from conflation with 81: 5b, where both are read, and where Yen Shih-ku does not consider it necessary to explain the phrase.
37. Wang Hsien-ch'ien remarks that 27 Bb: 6a notes a portent and that (according to 27 Ba: 26a and Bb: 6b), Wang Mang was born in this year.
38. Williams, Observations of Comets, lists this comet as no. 49, but gives a different heavenly location. This may have been the comet said by Suetonius (De Vita Caesarum I, lxxxviii [Loeb ed., I, 119]) to have indicated the admission of Julius Caesar's soul into the ranks of the immortal gods. Cf. Chambers, Descriptive Astronomy, I, p. 556.
39. Book of Odes, I, iii, x, 4 (Legge, p. 57).
40. Yen Shih-ku explains that the proper business of the imperial equipages is to transport the emperor to make offerings or sacrifices and to hunt, but not to go on pleasurable expeditions.
41. Cf. HS 6: 27b and 6: appendix IV.
42. For the very interesting Three Offices for Garments, cfGlossary. sub voce.Concerning the office for public fields in Po-chia, Li Fei (prob. iii cent.) comments, "They had charge of renting the existing government fields to the common people and of collecting the rent and taxes. Hence there were established offices for cultivated fields and agriculture."
43. It was revived in the winter of 41 B.C., when revenue was needed. Cf. 9: 9a.
44. The purpose of this order is explained by a sentence in HS 88: 6a, "Emperor Yüan loved the [Confucian] scholars and those who were able to understand one of the classics were all exempted." Thus the abolition of a definite number for the Disciples of the Erudits (who were teachers) meant that anyone who could pass an examination in any of the Classics would be given exemption from taxes and an allowance. Tzu-chih T'ung-chien 28: 10b, 11a couples this abolition with the exemption. The number of scholars exempted proved too great, however, for in 41 B.C. the number of the Disciples to the Erudits was limited to one thousand persons, and the commanderies and kingdoms were ordered to establish Retainers for the Five Classics, who were ranked at 100 piculs. Cf. 9: 9a. Thus a government school system for the provinces was inaugurated.
45. Pan Ku has plainly summarized this long edict at this point. HS 23: 16b (and 9: 4a) records that Emperor Yüan in his first years issued an edict requesting that the throne should be memorialized in detail concerning any penal laws that could be dispensed with. HHS, Mem. 24: 1b quotes a memorial of Liang T'ung, which says, "I saw that Emperors Yüan and Ai lightened the punishment of irrevokable death [sentence] by 123 matters, and reduced the death [sentence] by one degree, for those who with [their own] hand, killed others," and Li Hsien (651-684) quotes the Tung-kuan Han-chi (ii cent.) as saying, "Emperor Yüan, in the fifth year of [the period] Ch'u-Yüan, lightened the punishment for an irrevokable death [sentence in] thirty-four matters. Emperor Ai, in the first year of [the period] Chien-p'ing [6 B.C.], lightened the punishment for an irrevokable death [sentence in] eighty-one matters. Of these, forty-two matters [were concerned with] the killing of another by [one's own] hand, the death [punishment for which] was reduced one degree." Chou Shou-ch'ang remarks that after the fixing of the code, there were contradictory records of the number of matters that were abolished and that the "Annals of Emperor Ai" only records a general amnesty in the second year of Chien-p'ing, without saying anything about lightening punishments.
46. Ying Shao comments, "In former times, when [people] became responsible for each other, if one person had committed a fault, all must be sentenced for it." Yen Shih-ku adds, "[anking] higher, in order to accord them favorable treatment."
47. Ying Shao comments, "The retinue were the eunuchs, together with the As Rapid As Tigers, the Feathered Forest, the Grand Physician, and the Grand Provisioner." But Yen Shih-ku says, "Ying [Shao's] explanation is mistaken. The Retinue were those who came near to the Son of Heaven; the Regular Attendants and followers were both such [persons]. Hence it says below [9: 7a], `shall examine and rank the Gentlemen and Retinue.' "Ying Shao says, " `Inside the Major's [gates]' means [inside] the inner gates of the palace. The Major had charge of the military. The meaning [of this phrase] is that their troops prohibited [entrance into the palace]." But Yen Shih-ku says, "The Major's gates were the outer gates of the palaces. The Commandants of the [Palace] Guards had eight encampments. The Captains and Majors of the Guard had charge of the [Palace] guards who patrolled and constantly guarded [the palaces]. Each face [of a palace] had two majors. Hence I say that the outer gates of the palace were the Major's gates." The Han-chiu-yi (by Wei Hung, fl. dur. 25-57) 1: 1a says, "When the Emperor occupies the ceremonial palaces, within the Major's [gates], the many officials go in and out according to their registrations. The encamped guard, whose quarters are all around, night and day [question them, saying], `Who are you? Why [do you come]?' " Wang Hsien-ch'ien approves of Yen Shih-ku's explanation and says that Ying Shao was mistaken on this matter.Ying Shao says, "The registers were two foot [long] bamboo slips, [on which] were recorded one's age, name, style, and features. These [registers] were hung up at the gate of the palace. [When anyone wanted to enter], this list was examined; if he corresponded [to the register], he was then permitted to enter." In a note to the Chou-li 3: 11b (Biot, I, p. 65), sub the Kung-cheng, Cheng Chung (5 B.C.?-A.D. 83) says, "[The sentence in the text of the Chou-li,] `He examines those who go out and in,' refers to [a situation] like that at the present time, when in the palace, . . . . unless one has a registration [to serve as] a permit, one is not allowed to enter into the palace or the gates of the Majors or of the Hall."
48. Ch'ien Ta-chao remarks that, [according to 66: 14a and 19 B: 36a], Grandee Secretary Ch'en Wang-nien died in this year, before Kung Yü did, but his death is not mentioned in the "Annals".
49. He was killed by the Hun Shan-Yü Chih-chih; the Chinese later took full vengeance for this murder. Cf. Glossary. sub voce.
50. The Sung Ch'i ed. notes that the Old text (before vi cent.) had the word 令 after 毋.
51. Wang Hsien-ch'ien remarks that when the rites were over the Emperor stopped to hunt, and at that time accepted an admonition of Hsieh Kuang-tê, then returned to the capital on the same day. Cf. 71: 8b.
52. Ch'i Shao-nan (1703-1768) states that the use of the phrase, "chü Kuang-lu szu-hsing 擧光祿四行, recommended by [the Superintendant of] the Imperial Household [as possessing] the four [kinds of] behavior," began with this edict. HHS, Mem. 54: 2a recounts that Wu Yu, "[because he possessed] the four [kinds of] behavior [examined for by the Superintendant of] the Imperial Household, was promoted to be Chancellor to the Marquis of Chiao-tung", and Li Hsien (651-684) quotes Han-kuan Yi A: 8a (by Ying Shao) as saying, "The four [kinds of] behavior are sincerity and honesty, simplicity and straightforwardness, humility and yielding to others, and self-restraint and economy," i.e., the ones enumerated in Emperor Yüan's edict, to which are added 節儉 (restraint and economy). Ch'i Shao-nan continues, "Probably in the time of the Han [dynasty, the Imperial] Retinue at the court was all subordinate to the Superintendant of the Imperial Household. The Grand Palace Grandees, the Palace Grandees, the Grandee-remonstrants, together with the Gentlemen-consultants, the Gentlemen-of-the-Household, the Gentlemen-in-attendance, and the Gentlemen-of-the-Palace numbered as many as a thousand persons, hence [the Emperor] ordered the Superintendant of the Imperial Household to rank them according to their capacities." Ho Ch'uo (1661-1722) remarks that this practise is referred to in Chou-li 3: 10a (Biot, I, pp. 63f), sub the Tsai-fu, which says, "in the first month of the year, . . . . he writes down those [of the palace officials] who are capable, and those who are good [in conduct], and thereby gives information [of that report] to his superiors, [the Hsiao-tsai and the Ta-tsai]." Cheng Chung (5 B.C.?-A.D. 83), in a note to that passage, however, says that this practise "is like the recommending at the present time of the filially pious and incorrupt, the capable and good, the sincere and upright, and the Accomplished Talents of Unusual Degree." This practise consisted in adding a second and moral examination to the first and literary examination in the civil service system.
53. An allusion to Analects XV, xxiv, 2, where Confucius says, "These common people [of today are the same as those who supplied the ground] whereby the three dynasties pursued their straight forward course."
54. An allusion to the same phrase in Book of Odes III, ii, viii, 7 (Legge, p. 493).
55. For 弊, the Official ed. reads 敝.
56. The text at this point has the four words meaning "who will be the successors to their fathers", but the Sung Ch'i ed. says that the Yüeh ed. (possibly xi-xii cent.) does not have these words. The Ching-yu ed. (1034-5) does not have them: Han-chi 22: 1b quotes this edict without them and with the word 民 instead. Wang Nien-sun suggests that these words have been derived from the edict which made grants at the appointment of the Heir-apparent, on 9: 4a, and are not suited to this place. The similar edicts making grants on pp. 9: 3a, 5b, 7a, 8a, 12a all grant to the common people one step in noble rank, but none of them restricts the grant to those who will be the successors of their fathers. In view of the textual difficulties and the uniform practise of making grants, I have excised these words in the translation.
57. Chin Shao suggests that perhaps chia 稼 (harvest) should be sang 桑 (mulberries) or possibly 霖 (prolonged rain). The Southern Academy ed. and the Fukien ed. have emended chia to sang. HS 27 Bb: 15a says, "In the third month, frost fell, killing the mulberries; in the ninth month [Oct.], frost fell for two days, killing the harvest, and there was a great famine in the whole empire." HS 27 Cb: 17a says, "In the fourth month [May/June], the color of the sun was pale blue and it cast no shadows; when it was exactly at the zenith it cast shadows [but] showed no brilliance. That summer was cold. In the ninth month [Oct.], the sun, however, showed brilliance."
58. Ju Shun (fl. cur. 189-265) remarks, "It ought to say what office or what matter was abolished; [the manuscript] has been injured and [part] lost." Chin Shao, however, suggests that possibly the word 稼 should either be deleted, or should come after the word or "autumn", and says that it means, "[The frost] injured the wheat harvest and in the autumn [the people] were reduced to the last extremity," which interpretation, implying the famine (cf. n. 7.10), is approved by Yen Shih-ku. But Liu Pin (1022-1088), Shen Ch'in-han (1775-1832), and Chou Shou-ch'ang approve Ju Shun's interpretation. The latter argues that Chin Shao's interpretation is impossible and points out that in 6: 11a and 10: 3a, where the phrase, "In the autumn, it was abolished," is found, what is abolished is each time specified. HS 19 B: 38a states that on Aug. 21 the Commanderin-chief and the General of Chariots and Cavalry, Shih Kao, was dismissed; Shen Ch'in-han says that perhaps the phrase "in the autumn it was abolished" refers to that dismissal. HS 19 A: 8a states, "In the first year of [the period] Yung-kuang, the various [imperial] tombs and their towns, [which had previously been under the charge of the Grand Minister of Ceremonies], were divided and put under the charge of the Three Adjuncts;" Shen Ch'in-han also suggests that "in the autumn it was abolished" should be emended to add the abolition that "the Grand Master of Ceremonies should have charge of the [Imperial] tomb prefectures." But the latter event is separately recorded on 9: 10a. Ju Shun's explanation seems the only satisfactory one.
59. For this legend, cf. 6: 4b and 6: Appendix II.
60. The Sung Ch'i ed. notes that the T'ang text (before xi cent.) inverts the words to read 行法.
61. Yen Shih-ku, (repeating a statement of Cheng Hsüan), says, "Disorder outside [of the court] is called chien 姦; inside [the court], it is called kuei 軌 [or 宄]." But elsewhere chien is defined in the way he defines kuei and kuei is defined as he defines chien.
62. The Sung Ch'i ed. remarks that one text did not have the word 洪.
63. For the "three luminaries", cf. 100 B: n. 21.4; for the meteorological phenomena, cf. 9: n. 7. 10.
64. Cf. Appendix III.
65. Cf. 8: n. 4.4.
66. Instead of 有, Han-chi 22: 6b has 加, making the meaning clearer.
67. HS 79: 4b entitles him the General Displaying his Military [Might] 奮武將軍. Han-chi 22: 8b quotes his title as in ch. 9; Tzu-chih T'ung-chien 28: 20a quotes it as in ch. 79.
68. HS 27 Bb: 7a says, "In the eighth month, Heaven rained plants like rushes knotted together, as large as crossbow-pellets."
69. HS 27 Ca: 9a says, "In the winter, there was an earthquake." Wang Hsien-ch'ien says that the words 中冬 have been transposed, in transmitting the text, from just above the words chi-ch'ou.
70. Yen Shih-ku points out that the reference is to the ordinances for the months, the sort of thing now expressed in Bk IV of the Li-chi, the "Yüeh-ling."As an example of the prohibitions for the seasons in Former Han times, there is the long reply of Li Hsün to Emperor Ai in HS 75: 24b-31a, which says in part, "The zodiacal signs and the stars rule the four seasons. . . . . When the four seasons lose their order, then the zodiacal signs and the stars produce prodigies. Now they have appeared in the first month of the year. Heaven has therefore sent them to give information to your Majesty. . . . . Moreover, the [government] orders and ordinances have not accommodated themselves to the four seasons. . . . . Recently when in the spring, the third month, a trial involving capital punishment was decided, at that time, the Robber (Tsê) [Star, the essence of Venus] retrograded, so that it was to be feared that the year would bring a small harvest. When, in the third month of summer, military punishments were applied, at that time a cold emanation responded, so that it was to be feared that latts of noble ranks were made, in those months the ground was wet and damp, so that it was to be feared that later there would be vicissitudes of thunder and hail."
71. Wang Hsien-ch-ien thinks that the word for "winter" is an interpolation here; but perhaps Pan Ku did not know the exact date for this reestablishment, so dated it generally "in the winter."
72. These two institutions had been abolished in May/June 44 B.C. Cf. 9: 6b and n. 6.5. According to 88: 6a, the number for the Disciples of the Erudits was fixed at a thousand. The commanderies and kingdoms also established officials for the Five Classics, ranking at 100 piculs, who were teachers of local government schools.
73. HS 27 A: 14b says, "On [the day] chia-hsü, there was a visitation [of fire] to the southern part of the Eastern Portal to the Funerary Park of the Tu Tomb for [Emperor] Hsiao-hsüan."
74. Li Ch'i (fl. ca. 200) comments, "Huan 還 [means] to return. The Book of Changes [6: 7b; Hex. 59, 5; Legge, p. 195; Wilhelm, I, 173] says, `Dissolving as perspiration are his great proclamations.' It means that when an [ideal] king sends out his proclamations and gives forth his ordinances, they are like perspiration which goes forth and cannot return." Han-chi 22: 9b writes 違 for huan, "[Our] instructions and ordinances have been disobeyed." Since an imperial ordinance, once issued, cannot be returned, "returned" means "disobeyed".
75. Book of Odes, II, iv, ix, 1 (Legge, p. 321).
76. An allusion to Book of History II, iii, i, 1 (legge, p. 69). Yen Shih-ku (581-645) says that because this allusion was not understood, some vulgar copies have here interpolated the word 職 before the 永.
77. Wang Hsien-ch'ien notes that 9: 12b records, under the sixth and seventh months of 34 B.C., the reestablishment, not only of these two funerary parks, but also of the three funerary parks for Empress Chao-ling, King Wu-ai, and Queen Chao-ai, and says that if this reestablishment is recorded, their abolition must also have been recorded. HS 73: 11b records the abolition of all five at the same time, together with the funerary park of Queen Li. Han-chi 22: 9b, 10a quotes in this year both the order for the abolition of these two funerary parks, dating it in the seventh month, and also that for the abolition of all six parks, taking them from HS ch. 73; Tzu-chih T'ung-chien 29: 2a dates the abolition of all six in the seventh month, on the day mou-tzu, Aug. 10. Wang Hsien-ch'ien says that probably the names of these other funerary parks have dropped out here. But possibly Pan Ku mentioned only two abolitions in his "Annals" in order to avoid undue duplication of matter in the "Memoirs".The abolition of these funerary parks and temples was due to the efforts of Kung Yü and Wei Hsüan-ch'eng, for the purpose of economy in the administration and to follow ancient practices. Cf. Introduction, pp. 288-289; 72: 15b; 73: 11b.
78. Previously they had been under the Grand Master of Ceremonies; cf. n. 7.11Glossary. sub voce.
79. Wang Nien-sun notes that Han-chi 22: 10a has at this point the word for "northern", and says that it has dropped out of the present text.
80. Fu Ch'ien (ca. 125-195) says, "[This was] the tomb established for Emperor Yüan. It did not yet have a name, hence it was called ch'u 初" The same word is found with this meaning again on this page and in 8: 11b and 11: 6a.
81. Ch'ien Ta-chao says that the Fukien ed. (1549) adds the word 自 in the middle of the phrase 不安.
82. Book of Odes, III, ii, ix, 1 (Legge, p. 495).
83. HS 97 A: 23b states that the income of an estate of 300 families with a Chief and Assistant had been established by Emperor Hsüan for the support and care of the tomb for Hsü Kuang-han.
84. HS 27 A: 22a says, "In the summer and in the autumn, there was high water in Ying-ch'uan, Ju-nan, Huai-yang, and Lu-chiang [Commanderies]. The rain destroyed the dwellings of the common people in the districts and burgs and the streams carried away and killed the people." That passage attributes this calamity to the Emperor's previous abolition of the imperial ancestral temples in the commanderies and kingdoms and his decision (given below) to abolish the older imperial ancestral temples in the capital.
85. Fu Tsan writes, "Kao means to be given a vacation 告休假也."
86. These ancestors were considered so distant that the relationship to them had become exhausted. Their tablets were removed to the Temple of the Eminent Founder (Emperor Kao), where they were to be given a great sacrifice every five years. Thus only the five immediately preceding generations were separately sacrificed to. Cf. 73: 11b-13a. These funerary chambers, temples, and parks were reestablished in 34 and 33 B.C., but were done away with again in the latter year after Emperor Yüan's death. Cf. 9: 12b, 13a.
87. HS 27 Cb: 25a says, "In the first month, on [the day] mou-ch'en [Mar. 13], six meteorites fell in the kingdom of Liang."
88. Dr. W. Schaus of the United States National Museum, Washington, D. C., writes that he has "never heard of migrations of moths (except the American Alabama argillacea Hübner, which migrates late in autumn), but the butterflies, especially species of Pieridae, have been observed in many parts of the world and are of frequent occurrence. The migrants are chiefly species of the Pierid genus Catopsilia, which are generally white or pale yellow, those of the latter color appearing white when in flight."
89. He had murdered his concubines and their relatives. Cf. Glossary, sub voce.
90. These funerary chambers and parks were reestablished on Apr. 30, 33 B.C. and again abolished in the same year. Cf. 9: 13a.
91. Han-chi 23: 1a, in copying this order, has the words, "fully two thousand piculs," which I have added in the translation. Wang Nien-sun says that previously Grand Administrators had been ranked at two thousand piculs, so that if their rank was increased, it could be only to fully two thousand piculs. In the next year, the salaries of Chief Commandants to the Three Adjuncts and to the large commanderies were likewise increased, they being ranked at two thousand piculs. The Official ed. has also emended the text by adding the word 大 before the 郡, which emendation seems necessary because of the next sentence and the first ordinance in the next year.
92. The Sung Ch'i ed. says that the Yüeh ed. (xi or xii cent.) writes this man's personal name as 輿, and that according to his "Memoir" and the "Table", that reading is correct; but the present text of the HS in both those places, 80: 10a and 14: 23b, has Hsing as here.
93. HS 27 Bb: 13b adds that the snow was five feet deep, and attributes the calamity to Shih Hsien's machinations against Ching Fang and Chang Po.
94. Cf. Glossary sub Liu Ch'in and the others.
95. The Sung Ch'i ed. says that the T'ang text (before xi cent.) does not have the word 都.
96. The Sung Ch'i ed. says that the Old text (before vi cent.), the Chiang-nan ed. (x cent.), and the T'ang text do not have the word 郡. The [HS] K'an-wu (1034) added it.
97. Chou Shou-ch'ang says that previously these Chief Commandants were ranked at equivalent to two thousand piculs and received one hundred hu of grain per month; now, being ranked at two thousand piculs, they received 120 hu per month.
98. For this very remarkable expedition, cf. Introduction to this chapter, pp. 281-283, and Glossary sub Ch'en T'ang; also H. H. Dubs, "An Ancient Military Contact between Romans and Chinese," Amer. Jour. of Philology, vol. 62, 3 (July, 1941), pp. 322-330; and "A Roman Influence upon Chinese Painting," Classical Philology, vol. 38, 1 (Jan., 1943), pp. 13-19.
99. Fu Ch'ien (ca. 125-195) comments, "They were the documents and charts concerning the punishment of [Shan-Yü] Chih-chih. Someone says they were the documents [giving] the configuration of the Shan-Yü's land, mountains, and streams." Yen Shih-ku asserts that the latter interpretation is mistaken. These documents and charts were probably the report of Ch'en T'ang, giving his account of his victory (now excerpted in HS 70: 7a-10b), together with the maps of his route (it was the practise of Han generals to make maps of unknown territories; Li Ling is specifically said to have done so, cf. HS 54: 11a and Glossary, sub voce), which maps, in this case, were either ornamented with or accompanied by paintings depicting the capture of the Shan-Yü's city; cf. J. J. L. Duyvendak in T'oung Pao, vol. 34, no. 4 (1939) pp. 249-264, "An Illustrated Battle Account in the History of the Former Han Dynasty," also ibid. 35: 211-214 and 36: 6480, "A Military Contact Between Chinese and Romans in 36 B.C."
100. The Sung Ch'i ed. says that the T'ang text (before xi cent.) reads 未 for the text's 不.
101. Wang Hsien-ch'ien remarks that 帥 and 率 were interchanged. He states that in the Yi-li, sub the 大射, the commentator says that in the ancient style, the second word was always written for the first. (We have not been able to find that passage.) He also says that in the HS the phrases Shuai-yi 帥意, shuai-yi, 率意, hsi-yi 悉意, and chin-yi 盡意, all mean about the same thing. Cf. also HFHD, I, 262, n. 2.
102. Han-chi 23: 6b and Tzu-chih T'ung-chien 29: 13b add at this point the words 震山崩. Wang Nien-sun says that they have dropped out of the text and are needed to explain the event. T'ai-p'ing Yü-lan 880: 2a quotes this sentence with the first of these omitted words, and blames the portent upon the fact that Shih Hsien was controlling the government.
103. Analects XX, i, 5; King Wu of the Chou Dynasty is speaking of the tyrant Chou. This sentence is quoted by the Analects from the Book of History V, i, ii, 7 (Legge, p. 292).
104. The Official ed. has correctly emended 戮 to 勠.
105. The Sung Ch'i ed. says that the T'ang text (before xi cent.) omitted the 之.
106. Cf. App. III, iii.
107. This restoration was because of Emperor Yüan's dream. Cf. Introduction, p. 290; Glossary sub Wei Hsüan-ch'eng. These temples were abolished again in the next year. Cf. 9: 10a, b, 13a.
108. Ying Shao says, "Shan-Yü Hu-han-hsieh wished to guarantee that the barriers at the border and the frontiers (ching(1)) should obtain peace and tranquillity (ning). Hence [the Emperor] crowned the year-period accordingly." Yen Shih-ku objects, saying that according to Ying Shao's explanation, the ching(1) 竟 of the text must be read as ching(3) 境 (frontiers), and that although ching(1) and ching(3) were anciently interchanged, according to the imperial edict [9: 13a], ching(1) should be interpreted to mean perpetual. Couvreur, Dict., ed. III, p. 404, subching(1), has followed this interpretation.But Ch'ien Ta-chao declares that if in Han times the ching in this phrase had meant perpetual, the word 永 would have been used instead of ching, and Chou Shou-ch'ang points out that in HS 70: 18a the memorial of Keng Yü praising Ch'en T'ang says that Emperor Yüan should properly "change [the title of] the year-[period, because] the borders have been put in order, so that [this event] will be transmitted [to posterity] endlessly," which "plainly points out that the year-period Ching-ning was [named thus] because the Shan-Yü [wanted to] guarantee the barriers and give peace to the borders." In Tzu-chih T'ung-chien 29: 14a, Hu San-hsing also refutes Yen Shih-ku. Wang Hsien-ch'ien says that the edict cannot bear Yen Shih-ku's interpretation.
109. Ch'ien Ta-chao remarks that the omission of the surname here, contrary to the usual practise, is probably due to a copyist's mistake.
110. Cf. 9: 11a and n. 11.2.
111. Cf. 9: 12b, 13a. This move was at the request of K'uang Heng. The Temple of the Grand Emperor was reestablished in 28 B.C.; Cf. 10: 5b.
112. From the death to the burial 54 days elapsed.
113. These Palace Attendants would most naturally be the maternal uncles of the Favorite Beauty nee Pan, Emperor Ch'eng's favorite. She was a daughter of Pan K'uang, who was Pan Piao's grandfather, so that "your servant" is very likely Pan Ku's father. Ying Shao says, "The `Annals of Emperors Yüan' and `Cheng' were both composed by Pan Ku's father, [Pan] Piao. `Your servant' is then [Pan] Piao's own saying. His maternal grandfather was Chin Ch'ang(2)." (Ju Shun, however, says, "Pan Ku's maternal grandfather was Fan Shu-p'i," but we have not been able to find this name in the HS or HHS, and Yen Shih-ku says that Ying Shao's explanation is correct. Shu-p'i was moreover Pan Piao's own style.) According to 68: 21a, the four sons of Chin An-shang were named Ch'ang1, Ch'ang2, Ming, and Ts'en. Chin Ch'ang(1) became an Imperial Household Grandee. Chin Ch'ang(2) became an Imperial Household Grandee, General of the Gentlemen-at-the-Palace, and Palace Attendant to Emperor Yüan. Chin Ts'en and Chin Ming both became Division Heads and Generals of the Gentlemen-at-thePalace. The four brothers were thus all courtiers close to the emperor. According to 17: 29b, Chin Ch'ang1 died in 55 B.C.; according to 19 B: 43a, Chin Ch'ang2 died in 21 B.C. Traditions concerning Emperor Yüan w a marquis until the death of Wang Mang.In addition to the eulogies in chaps. 9 and 10, Pan Piao is mentioned by name as the composer of the eulogies in HS 73: 21a, 84: 20b, and 98: 15b.
114. Cf. App. I.
115. Ju Shun says, "It is a flute without a
bottom." Wang Pao (d. 61 B.C.), in his "Tung-hsiao Fu
(The Fu on the Pandaen
Pipes)", in Ch'üan-Han-wen, 42: 1a, (Emperor Yüan is said to have liked this
poem, cf. HS 64 B: 14b), says,
116. Ying Shao explains, "He himself in his privacy composed new songs. Thereupon he would take the new song and make for it a melody for singing the poem." (Ch'ü 曲 in ancient times denoted the words of a song; now it denotes the melody.) Hsün Yüeh adds, "Pei-sheng 被聲 [means] it can be played with music." Fu Tsan says, "Tu-ch'ü 度曲 means at the end of a song to cap it [by another]. The next one is called the tu-ch'ü." Yen Shih-ku and Ho Ch'uo approve Ying Shao's explanation.
117. The Tz'u-tung, II, ch. 20, p. 68 says that tu 度 is dittography for the preceding tu, and was originally either 奏 or 族 (both words mean the same).
118. Kung Yü and Hsieh Kuang-tê only rose to be Grandee Secretaries. They died or retired shortly after attaining that office, which was regularly the stepping-stone to the position of Lieutenant Chancellor, to which they would probably have also attained, had they been younger. Hence Pan Piao includes them among Emperor Yüan's chancellors.
119. Pan Ku is said not to have studied the classics "by chapter and verse, but he merely picked out the general principles 大義 [of what he was studying]." HHS, Mem. 30 A: 5b.
120. Wang Hsien-ch'ien comments, "It means that in his edicts he asked for frank speech and was able to have his inferiors express their ideas completely."
121. Ch'ien Ta-chao says that the Fukien ed. (1549) has the word 也 at the end; T'ai-p'ing Yü-lan (978-983) 89: 6a quotes this passage with that word.
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