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漢 書 十
成 紀 第 十
孝 成 皇 帝 ， 元 帝 太 子 也 。 母 曰 王 皇 后 ， 元 帝在 太 子 宮 生 甲 觀 畫 堂 ， 為 世 嫡 皇 孫 。 宣 帝 愛 之 ，字 曰 太 孫 ， 常 置 左 右 。
年 三 歲 而 宣 帝 崩 ， 元 帝 即 位 ， 帝為 太 子 。 壯 好 經 書 ， 寬 博 謹 慎 。
初 居 桂 宮 ， 上 嘗急 召 ， 太 子 出 龍 樓 門 ， 不 敢 絕 馳 道 ， 西 至直 城 門 ， 得 絕 乃 度 ， 還 入 作 室 門 。 上 遲 之 ， 問 其故 ， 以 狀 對 。 上 大 說 ， 乃 著 令 ， 令 太 子 得 絕 馳 道云 。
其 後 幸 酒 ， 樂 燕 樂 ， 上 不 以 為 能 。 而定 陶 恭 王 有 材 藝 ， 母 傅 昭 儀 又 愛 幸 ， 上 以 故 常 有 意 欲 以恭 王 為 嗣 。 賴 侍 中 史 丹 護 太 子 家 ， 輔 助 有 力 ， 上 亦 以 先帝 尤 愛 太 子 ， 故 得 無 廢 。
竟 寧 元 年 五 月 ， 元 帝 崩 。 六 月 己 未 ， 太 子 即 皇 帝位 ， 謁 高 廟 。 尊 皇 太 后 曰 太 皇 太 后 ， 皇 后 曰 皇 太 后 。 以元 舅 侍 中 衛 尉 陽 平 侯 王 鳳 為 大 司 馬 大 將 軍 ， 領 尚 書 事 。
乙 未 ， 有 司 言 ： 「 乘 輿 車 、 牛 馬 、 禽 獸 皆 非 禮 ，不 宜 以 葬 。 」 奏 可 。 七 月 ， 大 赦 天 下 。
建 始 元 年 春 正 月 乙 丑 ， 皇 曾 祖 悼 考 廟 災 。
立 故 河 間 王 弟 上 郡 庫 令 良 為 王 。
有 星 孛 于 營 室 。
罷 上 林 詔 獄 。
二 月 ， 右 將 軍 長 史 姚 尹 等 使 匈 奴 還 ， 去 塞 百 餘 里， 暴 風 火 發 ， 燒 殺 尹 等 七 人 。
賜 諸 侯 王 、 丞 相 、 將 軍 、 列 侯 、 王 太 后 、 公 主 、王 主 、 吏 二 千 石 黃 金 ， 宗 室 諸 官 吏 千 石 以 下 至 二百 石 及 宗 室 子 有 屬 籍 者 、 三 老 、 孝 弟 力 田 、 鰥 寡 孤 獨 錢帛 ， 各 有 差 ， 吏 民 五 十 戶 牛 酒 。
詔 曰 ： 「 乃 者 火 災 降 於 祖 廟 ， 有 星 孛 于 東 方 ， 始正 而 虧 ， 咎 孰 大 焉 ！ 書 云 ： 『 惟 先 假 王 正厥 事 。 』 群 公 孜 孜 ， 帥 先 百 寮 ， 輔 朕 不 逮 。 崇 寬 大 ， 長 和 睦 ， 凡 事 恕 己 ， 毋 行 苛 刻 。 其 大赦 天 下 ， 使 得 自 新 。 」
封 舅 諸 吏 光 祿 大 夫 關 內 侯 王 崇 為 安 成 侯 。 賜 舅 王 譚 、 商 、 立 、 根 、 逢 時 爵 關 內 侯 。 夏 四 月 ， 黃 霧 四 塞 ， 博 問 公 卿 大 夫 ， 無 有 所 諱 。六 月 ， 有 青 蠅 無 萬 數 集 未 央 宮 殿 中 朝 者 坐 。
秋 ， 罷 上 林 宮 館 希 御 幸 者 二 十 五 所 。
八 月 ， 有 兩 月 相 承 ， 晨 見 東 方 。 九 月 戊 子 ， 流 星 光 燭 地 ， 長 四 五 丈 ， 委 曲 蛇 形 ，貫 紫 宮 。
十 二 月 ， 作 長 安 南 北 郊 ， 罷 甘 泉 、 汾 陰 祠 。 是 日大 風 ， 拔 甘 泉 畤 中 大 木 十 韋 以 上 。
郡 國 被 災 什 四以 上 ， 毋 收 田 租 。
二 年 春 正 月 ， 罷 雍 五 畤 。 辛 巳 ， 上 始 郊 祀 長 安 南郊 。 詔 曰 ： 「 乃 者 徙 泰 畤 、 后 土 于 南 郊 、 北 郊 ， 朕 親 飭躬 ， 郊 祀 上 帝 。 皇 天 報 應 ， 神 光 並 見 。 三 輔 長 無共 張 繇 役 之 勞 ， 赦 奉 郊 縣 長 安 、 長 陵 及 中都 官 耐 罪 徒 。 減 天 下 賦 錢 ， 算 四 十 。 」
閏 月 ， 以 渭 城 延 陵 亭 部 為 初 陵 。
二 月 ， 詔 三 輔 內 郡 舉 賢 良 方 正 各 一 人 。
三 月 ， 北 宮 井 水 溢 出 。
辛 丑 ， 上 始 祠 后 土 于 北 郊 。
丙 午 ， 立 皇 后 許 氏 。
罷 六 廄 、 技 巧 官 。
夏 ， 大 旱 。
東 平 王 宇 有 罪 ， 削 樊 、 亢 父 縣 。
秋 ， 罷 太 子 博 望 苑 ， 以 賜 宗 室 朝 請 者 。 減 乘 輿 廄 馬 。
三 年 春 三 月 ， 赦 天 下 徒 。 賜 孝 弟 力 田 爵 二 級 。 諸逋 租 賦 所 振 貸 勿 收 。
秋 ， 關 內 大 水 。 七 月 ， 虒 上 小 女 陳 持 弓 聞 大 水 至， 走 入 橫 城 門 ， 闌 入 尚 方 掖 門 ， 至 未 央 宮 鉤 盾 中。 吏 民 驚 上 城 。 九 月 ， 詔 曰 ： 「 乃 者 郡 國 被 水 災 ， 流 殺人 民 ， 多 至 千 數 。 京 師 無 故 訛 言 大 水 至 ， 吏 民 驚恐 ， 奔 走 乘 城 。 殆 苛 暴 深 刻 之 吏 未 息 ， 元 元 冤 失職 者 眾 。 遣 諫 大 夫 林 等 循 行 天 下 。 」
冬 十 二 月 戊 申 朔 ， 日 有 蝕 之 。 夜 ， 地 震 未 央 宮 殿中 。 詔 曰 ： 「 蓋 聞 天 生 眾 民 ， 不 能 相 治 ， 為 之 立 君 以 統理 之 。 君 道 得 ， 則 草 木 昆 蟲 咸 得 其 所 ； 人 君 不 德， 謫 見 天 地 ， 災 異 婁 發 ， 以 告 不 治 。
朕 涉道 日 寡 ， 舉 錯 不 中 ， 乃 戊 申 日 蝕 地 震 ， 朕 甚 懼 焉。 公 卿 其 各 思 朕 過 失 ， 明 白 陳 之 。 『 女 無 面 從 ， 退 有 後言 。 』 丞 相 、 御 史 與 將 軍 、 列 侯 、 中 二 千 石 及 內郡 國 舉 賢 良 方 正 能 直 言 極 諫 之 士 ， 詣 公 車 ， 朕 將 覽 焉 。」
越 嶲 山 崩 。
四 年 春 ， 罷 中 書 宦 官 ， 初 置 尚 書 員 五 人 。
夏 四 月 ， 雨 雪 。
五 月 ， 中 謁 者 丞 陳 臨 殺 司 隸 校 尉 轅 豐 於 殿 中 。
秋 ， 桃 李 實 。 大 水 ， 河 決 東 郡 金 隄 。冬 十月 ， 御 史 大 夫 尹 忠 以 河 決 不 憂 職 ， 自 殺 。
河 平 元 年 春 三 月 ， 詔 曰 ： 「 河 決 東 郡 ， 流 漂 二 州， 校 尉 王 延 世 隄 塞 輒 平 ， 其 改 元 為 河 平 。 賜 天 下吏 民 爵 ， 各 有 差 。 」
夏 四 月 己 亥 晦 ， 日 有 蝕 之 ， 既 。 詔 曰 ： 「 朕 獲 保宗 廟 ， 戰 戰 栗 栗 ， 未 能 奉 稱 。 傳 曰 ： 『 男 教 不 修， 陽 事 不 得 ， 則 日 為 之 蝕 。 』 天 著 厥 異 ， 辜 在 朕 躬 。 公卿 大 夫 其 勉 悉 心 ， 以 輔 不 逮 。 百 寮 各 修 其 職 ， 惇任 仁 人 ， 退 遠 殘 賊 。 陳 朕 過 失 ， 無 有 所 諱 。 」 大赦 天 下 。
六 月 ， 罷 典 屬 國 并 大 鴻 臚 。
秋 九 月 ， 復 太 上 皇 寢 廟 園 。
二 年 春 正 月 ， 沛 郡 鐵 官 冶 鐵 飛 。 語 在 五 行 志 。
夏 六 月 ， 封 舅 譚 、 商 、 立 、 根 、 逢 時 皆 為 列 侯 。
三 年 春 二 月 丙 戌 ， 犍 為 地 震 山 崩 ， 雍 江 水， 水 逆 流 。 秋 八 月 乙 卯 晦 ， 日 有 蝕 之 。
光 祿 大 夫 劉 向 校 中 祕 書 。 謁 者 陳 農 使 ， 使求 遺 書 於 天 下 。
四 年 春 正 月 ， 匈 奴 單 于 來 朝 。 赦 天 下 徒 ， 賜 孝 弟 力 田 爵 二 級 ， 諸 逋 租 賦 所 振 貸勿 收 。二 月 ， 單 于 罷 歸 國 。
三 月 癸 丑 朔 ， 日 有 蝕 之 。 遣 光 祿 大 夫 博 士 嘉 等 十 一 人 行 舉 瀕 河 之 郡 水 所 毀 傷 困 乏 不 能 自 存 者 ， 財 振 貸 。 其 為 水 所 流壓 死 ， 不 能 自 葬 ， 令 郡 國 給 槥 櫝 葬 埋 。 已 葬 者 與錢 ， 人 二 千 。 避 水 它 郡 國 ， 在 所 冗 食 之 ， 謹 遇 以文 理 ， 無 令 失 職 。 舉 惇 厚 有 行 能 直 言 之 士 。
壬 申 ， 長 陵 臨 涇 岸 崩 ， 雍 涇 水 。
夏 六 月 庚 戌 ， 楚 王 囂 薨 。
山 陽 火 生 石 中 ， 改 元 為 陽 朔 。
陽 朔 元 年 。 春 二 月 丁 未 晦 ， 日 有 蝕 之 。 三 月 ， 赦 天 下 徒 。
冬 ， 京 兆 尹 王 章 有 罪 ， 下 獄 死 。
二 年 春 ， 寒 。 詔 曰 ： 「 昔 在 帝 堯 立 羲 、 和 之 官 ，命 以 四 時 之 事 ， 令 不 失 其 序 。 故 書 云 『 黎 民 於 蕃時 雍 』 ， 明 以 陰 陽 為 本 也 。 今 公 卿 大 夫 或 不 信 陰陽 ， 薄 而 小 之 ， 所 奏 請 多 違 時 政 。 傳 以 不知 ， 周 行 天 下 ， 而 欲 望 陰 陽 和 調 ， 豈 不 謬 哉 ！ 其務 順 四 時 月 令 。 」
三 月 ， 大 赦 天 下 。 夏 五 月 ， 除 吏 八 百 石 、 五 百 石 秩 。
秋 ， 關 東 大 水 ， 流 民 欲 入 函 谷 、 天 井 、 壺 口 、 五阮 關 者 ， 勿 苛 留 。 遣 諫 大 夫 博 士 分 行 視 。
八 月 甲 申 ， 定 陶 王 康 薨 。
九 月 ， 奉 使 者 不 稱 。
詔 曰 ： 「 古 之 立 太 學， 將 以 傳 先 王 之 業 ， 流 化 於 天 下 也 。 儒 林 之 官 ， 四 海 淵原 ， 宜 皆 明 於 古 今 ， 溫 故 知 新 ， 通 達 國 體 ， 故 謂之 博 士 。 否 則 學 者 無 述 焉 ， 為 下 所 輕 ， 非 所 以 尊 道 德 也。 『 工 欲 善 其 事 ， 必 先 利 其 器 。 』丞 相 、 御 史 其與 中 二 千 石 、 二 千 石 雜 舉 可 充 博 士 位 者 ， 使 卓 然 可 觀 。」
是 歲 ， 御 史 大 夫 張 忠 卒 。
三 年 春 三 月 壬 戌 ， 隕 石 東 郡 ， 八 。
夏 六 月 ， 潁 川 鐵 官 徒 申 屠 聖 等 百 八 十 人 殺 長 吏 ，盜 庫 兵 ， 自 稱 將 軍 ， 經 歷 九 郡 。 遣 丞 相 長 史 、 御 史 中 丞逐 捕 ， 以 軍 興 從 事 ， 皆 伏 辜 。
秋 八 月 丁 巳 ， 大 司 馬 大 將 軍 王 鳳 薨 。
四 年 春 正 月 ， 詔 曰 ： 「 夫 洪 範 八 政 ， 以 食 為 首 ， 斯 誠 家 給 刑 錯 之 本 也 。先 帝 劭 農 ， 薄 其 租 稅 ， 寵 其 彊 力 ， 令 與 孝 弟 同 科 。
間者 ， 民 彌 惰 怠 ， 鄉 本 者 少 ， 趨 末 者 眾 ， 將 何 以 矯 之 ？
方 東 作 時 ， 其 令 二 千 石 勉 勸 農 桑 ， 出 入 阡 陌， 致 勞 來 之 。 書 不 云 乎 ？ 『 服 田 力 嗇 ， 乃 亦 有 秋。 』 其 勗 之 哉 ！ 」二 月 ， 赦 天 下 。
秋 九 月 壬 申 ， 東 平 王 宇 薨 。
閏 月 壬 戌 ， 御 史 大 夫 于 永 卒 。
鴻 嘉 元 年 春 二 月 ， 詔 曰 ： 「 朕 承 天 地 ， 獲 保 宗 廟， 明 有 所 蔽 ， 德 不 能 綏 ， 刑 罰 不 中 ， 眾 冤 失 職 ， 趨 闕 告訴 者 不 絕 。 是 以 陰 陽 錯 謬 ， 寒 暑 失 序 ， 日 月 不 光， 百 姓 蒙 辜 ， 朕 甚 閔 焉 。 書 不 云 乎 ？ 『 即 我 御 事， 罔 克 耆 壽 ， 咎 在 厥 躬 。 』
方 春 生 長 時 ， 臨 遣 諫大 夫 理 等 舉 三 輔 、 三 河 、 弘 農 冤 獄 。 公 卿 大 夫 、部 刺 史 明 申 敕 守 相 ， 稱 朕 意 焉 。 其 賜 天 下 民 爵 一 級 ， 女子 百 戶 牛 酒 ， 加 賜 鰥 寡 孤 獨 高 年 帛 。 逋 貸 未 入 者 勿 收 。」
壬 午 ， 行 幸 初 陵 ， 赦 作 徒 。 以 新 豐 戲 鄉 為昌 陵 縣 ， 奉 初 陵 ， 賜 百 戶 牛 酒 。
上 始 為 微 行 出 。
冬 ， 黃 龍 見 真 定 。
二 年 春 ， 行 幸 雲 陽 。
三 月 ， 博 士 行 飲 酒 禮 ， 有 雉 蜚 集 于 庭 ， 歷 階 升 堂而 雊 ， 後 集 諸 府 ， 又 集 承 明 殿 。
詔 曰 ： 「 古 之 選 賢 ， 傅 納 以 言 ， 明 試 以 功 ， 故 官 無 廢 事 ， 下 無 逸 民 ， 教 化 流 行 ， 風 雨 和 時， 百 穀 用 成 ， 眾 庶 樂 業 ， 咸 以 康 寧 。
朕 承 鴻 業 十 有 餘 年， 數 遭 水 旱 疾 疫 之 災 ， 黎 民 婁 困 於 飢 寒 ， 而 望 禮義 之 興 ， 豈 不 難 哉 ！ 朕 既 無 以 率 道 ， 帝 王 之 道 日以 陵 夷 ， 意 乃 招 賢 選 士 之 路 鬱 滯 而 不 通 與 ， 將 舉 者 未 得 其 人 也 ？ 其 舉 敦 厚 有 行 義 能 直 言 者 ， 冀 聞切 言 嘉 謀 ， 匡 朕 之 不 逮 。 」
夏 ， 徙 郡 國 豪 傑 貲 五 百 萬 以 上 五 千 戶 于 昌 陵 。 賜丞 相 、 御 史 、 將 軍 、 列 侯 、 公 主 、 中 二 千 石 冢 地 、 第 宅。
六 月 ， 立 中 山 憲 王 孫 雲 客 為 廣 德 王 。
三 年 夏 四 月 ， 赦 天 下 。 令 吏 民 得 買 爵 ， 賈 級 千 錢。
大 旱 。 秋 八 月 乙 卯 ， 孝 景 廟 闕 災 。 冬 十 一 月 甲 寅 ， 皇 后 許 氏 廢 。
廣 漢 男 子 鄭 躬 等 六 十 餘 人 攻 官 寺 ， 篡 囚 徒 ，盜 庫 兵 ， 自 稱 山 君 。
四 年 春 正 月 ， 詔 曰 ： 「 數 敕 有 司 ， 務 行 寬 大 ， 而禁 苛 暴 ， 訖 今 不 改 。 一 人 有 辜 ， 舉 宗 拘 繫 ， 農 民 失 業 ，怨 恨 者 眾 ， 傷 害 和 氣 ， 水 旱 為 災 ， 關 東 流 冗 者 眾 ， 青 、 幽 、 冀 部 尤 劇 ， 朕 甚 痛 焉 。 未 聞 在 位 有 惻 然 者 ，孰 當 助 朕 憂 之 ！
已 遣 使 者 循 行 郡 國 。 被 災害 什 四 以 上 ， 民 貲 不 滿 三 萬 ， 勿 出 租 賦 。 逋 貸 未 入 ， 皆勿 收 。 流 民 欲 入 關 ， 輒 籍 內 。 所 之 郡 國 ， 謹 遇 以理 ， 務 有 以 全 活 之 ， 思 稱 朕 意 。 」
秋 ， 勃 海 、 清 河 河 溢 ， 被 災 者 振 貸 之 。
冬 ， 廣 漢 鄭 躬 等 黨 與 寖 廣 ，犯 歷 四 縣 ， 眾且 萬 人 。 拜 河 東 都 尉 趙 護 為 廣 漢 太 守 ， 發 郡 中 及 蜀 郡 合三 萬 人 擊 之 。 或 相 捕 斬 ， 除 罪 。 旬 月 平 ， 遷 護 為執 金 吾 ， 賜 黃 金 百 斤 。
永 始 元 年 春 正 月 癸 丑 ， 太 官 凌 室 火 。 戊 午， 戾 后 園 闕 火 。 夏 四 月 ， 封 婕 妤 趙 氏 父 臨 為 成 陽 侯 。 五 月 ， 封 舅曼 子 侍 中 騎 都 尉 光 祿 大 夫 王 莽 為 新 都 侯 。 六 月 丙 寅 ， 立皇 后 趙 氏 。 大 赦 天 下 。
秋 七 月 ， 詔 曰 ： 「 朕 執 德 不 固 ， 謀 不 盡 下 ， 過 聽 將 作 大 匠 萬 年 言 昌 陵 三 年 可 成 。 作 治 五 年， 中 陵 、 司 馬 殿 門 內 尚 未 加 功 。 天 下 虛 耗 ， 百 姓 罷 勞 ， 客 土 疏 惡 ， 終 不 可 成 。 朕 惟其 難 ， 怛 然 傷 心 。 夫 『 過 而 不 改 ， 是 謂 過 矣 。 』 其 罷 昌 陵 ， 及 故 陵 勿 徙 吏 民 ， 令 天 下 毋 有 動 搖 之心 。 」
立 城 陽 孝 王 子 俚 為 王 。
八 月 丁 丑 ， 太 皇 太 后 王 氏 崩 。
二 年 春 正 月 己 丑 ， 大 司 馬 車 騎 將 軍 王 音 薨 。
二 月 癸 未 夜 ， 星 隕 如 雨 。 乙 酉 晦 ， 日 有 蝕 之 。 詔曰 ： 「 乃 者 ， 龍 見 于 東 萊 ， 日 有 蝕 之 。 天 著 變 異 ， 以 顯朕 郵 ， 朕 甚 懼 焉 。 公 卿 申 敕 百 寮 ， 深 思 天 誡 ， 有可 省 減 便 安 百 姓 者 ， 條 奏 。 所 振 貸 貧 民 ， 勿 收 。 」
又 曰： 「 關 東 比 歲 不 登 ， 吏 民 以 義 收 食 貧 民 、 入 穀 物助 縣 官 振 贍 者 ， 已 賜 直 ， 其 百 萬 以 上 ， 加 賜 爵 右更 ， 欲 為 吏 補 三 百 石 ， 其 吏 也 遷 二 等 。 三十 萬 以 上 ， 賜 爵 五 大 夫 ， 吏 亦 遷 二 等 ， 民 補 郎 。十 萬 以 上 ， 家 無 出 租 賦 三 歲 。 萬 錢 以 上 ， 一 年 。 」
冬 十 一 月 ， 行 幸 雍 ， 祠 五 畤 。
十 二 月 ， 詔 曰 ： 「 前 將 作 大 匠 萬 年 知 昌 陵 卑 下 ，不 可 為 萬 歲 居 ， 奏 請 營 作 ， 建 置 郭 邑 ， 妄 為 巧 詐 ， 積 土增 高 ， 多 賦 斂 繇 役 ， 興 卒 暴 之 作 。 卒 徒 蒙 辜 ， 死者 連 屬 ， 百 姓 罷 極 ， 天 下 匱 竭 。
常 侍 閎 前為 大 司 農 中 丞 ， 數 奏 昌 陵 不 可 成 。 侍 中 衛 尉 長 數白 宜 早 止 ， 徙 家 反 故 處 。 朕 以 長 言 下 閎 章 ， 公 卿 議 者 皆 合 長 計 。 首 建 至 策 ， 閎 典 主 省 大 費， 民 以 康 寧 。 閎 前 賜 爵 關 內 侯 ， 黃 金 百 斤 。 其 賜長 爵 關 內 侯 ， 食 邑 千 戶 ， 閎 五 百 戶 。
萬 年 佞 邪 不 忠 ， 毒流 眾 庶 ， 海 內 怨 望 ， 至 今 不 息 ， 雖 蒙 赦 令 ， 不 宜 居 京 師。 其 徙 萬 年 敦 煌 郡 。 」
是 歲 ， 御 史 大 夫 王 駿 卒 。
三 年 春 正 月 己 卯 晦 ， 日 有 蝕 之 。 詔 曰 ： 「 天 災 仍重 ， 朕 甚 懼 焉 。 惟 民 之 失 職 ， 臨 遣 大 中 大夫 嘉 等 循 行 天 下 ， 存 問 耆 老 ， 民 所 疾 苦 。 其 與 部刺 史 舉 惇 樸 遜 讓 有 行 義 者 各 一 人 。 」
冬 十 月 庚 辰 ， 皇 太 后 詔 有 司 復 甘 泉 泰 畤 、 汾 陰 后土 、 雍 五 畤 、 陳 倉 陳 寶 祠 。 語 在 郊 祀 志 。
十 一 月 ， 尉 氏 男 子 樊 並 等 十 三 人 謀 反 ， 殺陳 留 太 守 ， 劫 略 吏 民 ， 自 稱 將 軍 。 徒 李 譚 等 五 人 共 格 殺並 等 ， 皆 封 為 列 侯 。
十 二 月 ， 山 陽 鐵 官 徒 蘇 令 等 二 百 二 十 八 人 攻 殺 長吏 ， 盜 庫 兵 ， 自 稱 將 軍 ， 經 歷 郡 國 十 九 ， 殺 東 郡 太 守 、汝 南 都 尉 。 遣 丞 相 長 史 、 御 史 中 丞 持 節 督 趣 逐 捕 。汝 南 太 守 嚴 訢 捕 斬 令 等 。 遷 訢 為 大 司 農 ， 賜 黃金 百 斤 。
四 年 春 正 月 ， 行 幸 甘 泉 ， 郊 泰 畤 ， 神 光 降 集 紫 殿。 大 赦 天 下 。 賜 雲 陽 吏 民 爵 ， 女 子 百 戶 牛 酒 ， 鰥 寡 孤 獨高 年 帛 。 三 月 ， 行 幸 河 東 ， 祠 后 土 ， 賜 吏 民 如 雲 陽 ， 行所 過 無 出 田 租 。
夏 四 月 癸 未 ， 長 樂 臨 華 殿 、 未 央 宮 東 司 馬 門 皆 災。 六 月 甲 午 ， 霸 陵 園 門 闕 災 。 出 杜 陵 諸 未 嘗 御 者 歸家 。 詔 曰 ： 「 乃 者 ， 地 震 京 師 ， 火 災 婁 降 ， 朕 甚懼 之 。 有 司 其 悉 心 明 對 厥 咎 ，朕 將 親 覽 焉 。 」
又 曰 ： 「 聖 王 明 禮 制 以 序 尊 卑 ， 異 車 服 以 章 有 德， 雖 有 其 財 ， 而 無 其 尊 ， 不 得 踰 制 ， 故 民 興 行 ， 上 義 而 下 利 。
方 今 世 俗 奢 僭 罔 極 ， 靡 有 厭足 。 公 卿 列 侯 親 屬 近 臣 ， 四 方 所 則 ， 未 聞 修 身 遵禮 ， 同 心 憂 國 者 也 。 或 乃 奢 侈 逸 豫 ， 務 廣 第 宅 ， 治 園 池， 多 畜 奴 婢 ， 被 服 綺 穀 ， 設 鐘 鼓 ， 備 女 樂 ， 車 服嫁 娶 葬 埋 過 制 。 吏 民 慕 效 ， 以 成 俗 ， 而 欲 望 百姓 儉 節 ， 家 給 人 足 ， 豈 不 難 哉 ！ 詩 不 云 乎 ？ 『 赫 赫 師 尹， 民 具 爾 瞻 。 』 其 申 敕 有 司 ， 以 漸 禁 之 。 青 綠 民 所 常 服 ， 且 勿 止 。 列 侯 近 臣 ， 各 自 省 改 。 司 隸 校 尉 察 不 變 者 。 」
秋 七 月 辛 未 晦 ， 日 有 蝕 之 。
元 延 元 年 春 正 月 己 亥 朔 ， 日 有 蝕 之 。
三 月 ， 行 幸 雍 ， 祠 五 畤 。
夏 四 月 丁 酉 ， 無 雲 有 雷 ， 聲 光 耀 耀 ， 四 面 下 至 地， 昏 止 。 赦 天 下 。 秋 七 月 ， 有 星 孛 于 東 井 。 詔 曰 ： 「 乃 者 ， 日 蝕 星隕 ， 謫 見 于 天 ， 大 異 重 仍 。 在 位 默 然 ， 罕 有 忠 言。 今 孛 星 見 于 東 井 ， 朕 甚 懼 焉 。 公 卿 大 夫 、 博 士 、 議 郎其 各 悉 心 ， 惟 思 變 意 ， 明 以 經 對 ， 無 有 所 諱 ； 與 內 郡 國舉 方 正 能 直 言 極 諫 者 各 一 人 ， 北 邊 二 十 二 郡 舉 勇猛 知 兵 法 者 各 一 人 。 」
封 蕭 相 國 後 喜 為 酇 侯 。
冬 十 二 月 辛 亥 ， 大 司 馬 大 將 軍 王 商 薨 。
是 歲 ， 昭 儀 趙 氏 害 後 宮 皇 子 。
二 年 春 正 月 ， 行 幸 甘 泉 ， 郊 泰 畤 。 三 月 ， 行 幸 河 東 ， 祠 后 土 。
夏 四 月 ， 立 廣 陵 孝 王 子 守 為 王 。
冬 ， 行 幸 長 楊 宮 ， 從 胡 客 大 校 獵 。 宿 萯 陽宮 ， 賜 從 官 。
三 年 春 正 月 丙 寅 ， 蜀 郡 岷 山 崩 ， 雍 江 三 日， 江 水 竭 。
二 月 ， 封 侍 中 衛 尉 淳 于 長 為 定 陵 侯 。
三 月 ， 行 幸 雍 ， 祠 五 畤 。
四 年 春 正 月 ， 行 幸 甘 泉 ， 郊 泰 畤 。
二 月 ， 罷 司 隸 校 尉 官 。
三 月 ， 行 幸 河 東 ， 祠 后 土 。 甘 露 降 京 師 ， 賜 長 安 民 牛 酒 。
綏 和 元 年 春 正 月 ， 大 赦 天 下 。 二 月 癸 丑 ， 詔 曰 ： 「 朕 承 太 祖 鴻 業 ， 奉 宗 廟 二 十五 年 ， 德 不 能 綏 理 宇 內 ， 百 姓 怨 望 者 眾 。 不 蒙 天 祐 ， 至今 未 有 繼 嗣 ， 天 下 無 所 係 心 。 觀 于 往 古 近 事 之 戒 ， 禍 亂之 萌 ， 皆 由 斯 焉 。
定 陶 王 欣 於 朕 為 子 ， 慈 仁 孝 順， 可 以 承 天 序 ， 繼 祭 祀 。 其 立 欣 為 皇 太 子 。 封 中 山 王 舅諫 大 夫 馮 參 為 宜 鄉 侯 ， 益 中 山 國 三 萬 戶 ， 以 慰 其 意 。 賜 諸 侯 王 、 列 侯 金 ， 天 下 當 為 父 後 者 爵 ， 三 老 、 孝弟 力 田 帛 ， 各 有 差 。 」
又 曰 ： 「 蓋 聞 王 者 必 存 二 王 之 後 ， 所 以 通 三 統 也。 昔 成 湯 受 命 ， 列 為 三 代 ， 而 祭 祀 廢 絕 。考 求 其 後 ， 莫 正 孔 吉 。 其 封 吉 為 殷 紹 嘉 侯 。 」 三月 ， 進 爵 為 公 ， 及 周 承 休 侯 皆 為 公 ， 地 各 百 里 。
行 幸 雍 ， 祠 五 畤 。
夏 四 月 ， 以 大 司 馬 票 騎 大 將 軍 根 為 大 司馬 ， 罷 將 軍 官 。 御 史 大 夫 為 大 司 空 ， 封 為 列 侯 。益 大 司 馬 、 大 司 空 奉 如 丞 相 。
秋 八 月 庚 戌 ， 中 山 王 興 薨 。
冬 十 一 月 ， 立 楚 孝 王 孫 景 為 定 陶 王 。
定 陵 侯 淳 于 長 大 逆 不 道 ， 下 獄 死 。 廷 尉 孔 光 使 持節 賜 貴 人 許 氏 藥 ， 飲 藥 死 。
十 二 月 ， 罷 部 刺 史 ， 更 置 州 牧 ， 秩 二 千 石 。
二 年 春 正 月 ， 行 幸 甘 泉 ， 郊 泰 畤 。
二 月 壬 子 ， 丞 相 翟 方 進 薨 。
三 月 ， 行 幸 河 東 ， 祠 后 土 。 丙 戌 ， 帝 崩 于 未 央 宮 。 皇 太 后 詔 有 司 復 長安 南 北 郊 。 四 月 己 卯 ， 葬 延 陵 。
贊 曰 ： 臣 之 姑 充 後 宮 為 婕 妤 ， 父 子 昆 弟 侍帷 幄 ， 數 為 臣 言 成 帝 善 修 容 儀 ， 升 車 正 立 ， 不 內 顧 ， 不疾 言 ， 不 親 指 ， 臨 朝 淵 嘿 ， 尊 嚴 若 神 ， 可 謂 穆 穆天 子 之 容 者 矣 ！ 博 覽 古 今 ， 容 受 直 辭 。 公 卿 稱 職， 奏 議 可 述 。
遭 世 承 平 ， 上 下 和 睦 。 然 湛 于 酒 色， 趙 氏 亂 內 ， 外 家 擅 朝 ， 言 之 可 為 於 邑 。 建 始 以 來 ， 王 氏 始 執 國 命 ， 哀 、 平 短 祚 ， 莽 遂 篡 位 ， 蓋其 威 福 所 由 來 者 漸 矣 ！
Translation and Notes
The Tenth [Imperial Annals]
The Annals of [Emperor Hsiao]-Ch'eng
Emperor Hsiao-ch'eng was the Heir-apparent of Emperor Yüan. His mother was entitled the Empress [née] Wang. While Emperor Yüan [was living] in the Heir-apparent's Palace, [the future Emperor Ch'eng] was born in the Painted Hall of the First Lodge. 1 He was [called] the Imperial Grandson Who is the Heir by the First Wife. Emperor Hsüan loved him, named him the Heir-apparent of the Heir-apparent, 2 and constantly kept him about himself.
When he was in his third year, Emperor Hsüan died, and Emperor Yüan ascended the throne, [whereupon the future] Emperor became the Heir-apparent. 3 When he grew up, he loved the classics, and was large-minded and generous, circumspect and attentive.
Previously, when the Heir-apparent lived in Kuei Palace, Emperor [Yüan] once summoned him [to come] in haste. He went out of the Lung-lou Gate [to his palace], but did not dare to cross the imperial pathway, 4 so went west to the Chih-ch'eng Gate [of the city], where it was permitted to cross [the imperial pathway]. Thereupon he crossed, returned [eastwards], and entered the Artisan's Chamber Gate [of Wei-yang Palace]. The Emperor [said] he was tardy, and asked the reason for it. [The Heir-apparent] replied, [giving] the circumstances, and the Emperor was greatly pleased. Thereupon [the Emperor] published an ordinance, ordering that an Heir-apparent should be allowed to cross the imperial pathway.
Later, [the Heir-apparent grew] fond of wine and "took pleasure in the delights of conviviality," 5 [so that] Emperor Yüan did not think him capable. Moreover [Emperor Yüan's second son], King Kung of Ting-t'ao, [Liu K'ang], showed innate ability and talents; his mother, the Brilliant Companion [née] Fu, was also loved and favored [by the Emperor]; for this reason the Emperor constantly had thoughts of wanting to make King Kung his heir. [But] because of the Palace Attendant Shih(3) Tan, who protected the Heir-apparent's household and effectively aided and assisted [the Heir-apparent], and because, moreover, the deceased Emperor [Hsüan] had especially loved the Heir-apparent, Emperor [Yüan] permitted him not to be dismissed.
In [the period] Ching-ning, the first year, the fifth 6 month, Emperor Yüan died, and in the sixth month, on [the day] chi-wei, 7 the Heir-apparent ascended the imperial throne, presented himself in the Temple of [Emperor] Kao, honored the [Ch'iung-ch'eng] Empress Dowager [née Wang], entitling her the Grand Empress Dowager, [honored] the Empress [née Wang], entitling her the Empress Dowager, and made his eldest maternal uncle, the Palace Attendant and Commandant of the Palace Guard, the Marquis of Yang-p'ing, Wang Feng, Commanderin-chief and General-in-chief, and Intendant of Affairs of the Masters of Writing. 8
On [the day] yi-wei, 9 a high official said that [to bury with the deceased Emperor his] imperial chariot, his carriages, oxen, horses, birds, and beasts was contrary to the [ancient] rites, so that it was improper to bury them [with the Emperor]. The memorial was approved. In the seventh month, a general amnesty [was granted to] the empire.
In [the period] Chien-shih, 10 the first year, in the spring, the first month, on [the first day], yi-ch'ou, there was a visitation [of fire] in the temple of the [Emperor's] imperial great-grandfather, the Deceased [Imperial] Father Tao, [Liu Chin]. 11
The Chief of the Arsenal in Shang Commandery, [Liu] Liang, the younger brother of the former King of Ho-chien, [Liu Yüan(2b)], was set up as King [of Ho-chien].
A comet appeared in [the constellation] Ying-shih. 12
The Imperial Prison in Shang-lin [Park] was abolished.
In the second month, Yao Yin, a Chief Clerk of the General of the Right, [Wang Shang(1a)], who had been sent [as an envoy] to the Huns, and others --when they were on their way back and were a hundred-odd li from the Barrier --a fire which sprang up [in the grass] in a violent wind burnt to death [Yao] Ying and the others, seven persons [in all]. 13
[The Emperor] granted to the vassal kings, the Lieutenant Chancellor [K'uang Heng], the generals, the marquises, the Queens Dowager, the Imperial Princesses, the Royal Princesses, and the officials [ranking at] two thousand piculs, actual gold; to [members of] the imperial house who were in the various offices, and officials [ranking at] a thousand piculs, down to those [ranking at] two hundred piculs, together with members of the imperial house who were enregistered, the Thrice Venerable, the Filially Pious, the Fraternally Respectful, the [Diligent] Cultivators of the Fields, widowers, widows, orphans, and childless, cash and silk, to each proportionately; and to the officials and common people of fifty households, an ox and wine.
An imperial edict said, "Recently a visitation of fire descended upon an [imperial] ancestral temple and a comet appeared in the eastern quarter [of the heavens]---the rectification [of Our government] at its inception has [shown some] defect. What calamity [could be] greater! The Book of History says, `Verily, [when a portent occurred], the greatest kings of former [times] rectified their work.' 14 The highest ministers should be very diligent, should lead and act as examples to the many officials, and should support Us in Our inadequacies, exalting clemency and generosity, and making harmony and concord grow. In all these things they should `treat others as themselves' 15 and not be exacting and oppressive. Let a general amnesty [be granted] to the empire, so that [everyone] may secure [an opportunity] to renew himself."
[The Emperor] enfeoffed his maternal uncle, the Inspector of Officials and Imperial Household Grandee, the Kuan-nei Marquis, Wang Ch'ung(2a), as Marquis of An-ch'eng and granted to [the Emperor's] maternal uncles, Wang T'an(2b), [Wang] Shang(1b), [Wang] Li(5), [Wang] Keng, and [Wang] Feng-shih, the noble rank of Kuan-nei Marquis. In the summer, the fourth month, a yellow fog completely filled the four [quarters. 16 The Emperor] asked the ministers and grandees widely [for an explanation, telling them] not to keep silent about anything. In the sixth month, there were innumerable ten-thousands of blue flies, which collected on the places [for standing] at the court receptions in the Hall of Wei-yang Palace. 17
In the autumn, twenty-five palaces and lodges in Shang-lin [Park] that were rarely visited by the Emperor were abolished.
In the eighth month there were two moons, one above the other, that appeared at dawn in the eastern quarter, 18 and in the ninth month, on [the day] mou-tzu, there was a shooting star whose light lighted up the earth. It was forty or fifty feet (degrees) long, curved and sinuous in the form of a snake, and traversed [the constellation] Tzu-kung.
In the twelfth month, [places] for the suburban sacrifices [to Heaven and Earth and their rulers] were made to the south and north of Ch'ang-an, [respectively], and the sacrifices [to these deities] at Kan-ch'üan [Palace] and at Fen-yin, [respectively], were abolished. On that day a great wind uprooted large trees that were more than ten spans [in circumference] at the place for sacrifice in Kan-ch'üan [Palace]. 19
The commanderies and kingdoms more than four-tenths [of whose fields] had suffered calamitous visitations were [ordered] not to pay the land tax on cultivated fields.
In the second year, in the spring, the first month, the altars to the Five [Lords on High] at Yung were abolished, 20 and on [the day] hsin-szun, the Emperor first performed the suburban sacrifice at the place for the suburban sacrifice south of Ch'ang-an. His imperial edict said, "Recently [We] have moved the altar of the Supreme [One and that of] Sovereign Earth to the place for the suburban sacrifice south [of Chang-an] and the place for the suburban sacrifice north [of Chang-an, respectively]. When we purified Ourself, and in person made the suburban sacrifice to the Lords on High, August Heaven responded, and [several] supernatural lights appeared simultaneously. The elders of the three capital commanderies are not [now] put to the trouble of supplying tents and forced service, 21 [hence We merely grant] an amnesty to the criminals who have been sentenced to shave their whiskers, in the prefectures which support the suburban sacrifices, [namely] Ch'ang-an and Ch'ang-ling, 22 together with [such criminals] in the offices at the imperial capital. [We] reduce the capitation taxes and poll-tax money by forty cash." 23
In the intercalary [first] month, at the Yen-ling Commune section of Wei-ch'eng [prefecture], the Emperor's tomb was made.
In the second month, an imperial edict [ordered] the three capital [commanderies] and the inner commanderies each to recommend one person who was capable and good, sincere and upright.
In the third month the water of a well in the Northern Palace overflowed and ran out. 24
On [the day] hsin-ch'ou, the Emperor first sacrificed to Sovereign Earth at the place for the Suburban Sacrifice north [of Ch'ang-an].
On [the day] ping-wu, [the Emperor] established the Empress née Hsü [as Empress].
[The Emperor] abolished the offices of the Six Stables and the Clever Workmen.
In the summer there was a great drought.
[Because] the King of Tung-p'ing, [Liu] Yü(3), had committed crimes, the prefectures of Fan and K'ang-fu were cut off from [his kingdom]. 25
In the autumn, the Park of Wide Vision was abolished [from the appurtenances of] the Heir-apparent, and it was granted to the members of the imperial house who came to pay their court visits in the spring and autumn. The [imperial] chariots and horses of the stable were reduced.
In the third year, in the spring, the third month, the criminals of the empire were [granted] an amnesty, and two steps in noble rank were granted to the Filially Pious, the Fraternally Respectful, and the [Diligent] Cultivators of the Fields. Defaulted land and capitation taxes, and what had been given in aid as loans were not to be collected.
In the autumn, within the [Han-ku] Pass [region] there was a flood. 26 In the seventh month, a little girl of Szu-shang, Ch'en Ch'ih-kung, who heard that the high water was coming, ran and entered the Kuang city-gate, entered without authorization through the side gate of the Master of the Recipes, and reached [the area of] Wei-yang Palace [under the control of] the Intendant of the [Imperial] Palace Parks, [because] the officials and common people had been frightened and had gone up onto the city wall. 27 In the ninth month, an imperial edict said, "Recently the commanderies and kingdoms have suffered from a visitation of water, which carried away and killed a large [number of] people, reaching to thousands in number. In the imperial capital it was causelessly and falsely rumored that a flood was coming, and the officials and common people were terrified, fled, ran, and mounted the city wall. [This has] perhaps [happened because] vexations, tyrannous, and severely oppressive officials have not yet been suppressed and many of the great multitude have reason for complaint because they have lost their occupations. [We] send the Grandee-remonstrant Lin and others to travel about and inspect the empire."
In the winter, the twelfth month, on [the day] mou-shen, the first day of the month, there was an eclipse of the sun 28 and in the night there was an earthquake in 29 the Hall of Wei-yang Palace. The imperial edict said, "Verily, [We] have heard 30 that when Heaven gave birth to the multitude of common people, they were unable to rule themselves, [hence Heaven] set up princes for them, in order to rule and control them. When the way of a [true] prince is attained, then [even] herbs, trees, and insects 31 find their [proper] places. [But] when the prince of men is not virtuous, a reproach appears in Heaven or Earth, and visitations and prodigies happen frequently, in order to inform him that he is not governing rightly.
"Our experience in governing has been [only] for a brief time, so that [We] have not been correct in [Our] acts, hence on [the day] mou-shen there was an eclipse of the sun and an earthquake. We are greatly dismayed. Let the ministers each think over Our faults and mistakes and state them [to Us] clearly. `You should not assent to [Our] face, and, after you have retired, make other [sorts of] remarks.' 32 [Let] the Lieutenant Chancellor, [K'uang Heng], and the [Grandee] Secretary, [Yin Chung], with the generals, full marquises, and [officials ranking at] fully two thousand piculs, together with the inner commanderies and kingdoms, recommend gentlemen who are capable and good, sincere and upright, and able to speak frankly and admonish unflinchingly. [Let] them go to the [Majors in Charge of] the Official Carriages, and We will interview them."
In Yüeh-sui 33 [Commandery], a mountain collapsed.
In the fourth year, in the spring, 34 the office of the eunuch Palace Writers was abolished and for the first time five Masters of Writing were established. 35
In the summer, the fourth month, there was a fall of snow. 36
In the fifth month, an Assistant Palace Internuncio, Ch'en Lin, killed the Colonel Director of the Retainers, Yüan Feng, in the [Palace] Hall. 37
In the autumn, peach and plum [trees bore fruit and there was a flood. The [Yellow] River broke through the Chin Dike in Tung Commandery. 38 In the winter, the tenth month, the Grandee Secretary, Yin Chung, committed suicide because he had not been careful in his duties and [as a consequence] the [Yellow] River had broken through its dikes.
In [the period] Ho-p'ing, 39 the first year, in the spring, 40 the third month, an imperial edict said, "The [Yellow] River broke through its dikes in Tung Commandery and submerged the two provinces [of Yen and Yü]. The Chief Commandant, Wang Yen-shih, diked and stopped the gap and immediately there was calm. Let the year-period be changed to be Ho-p'ing, and let noble ranks be granted to the officials and common people of the empire, to each proportionately." 41
In the summer, the fourth month, on [the day] chi-hai, the last day of the month, there was an eclipse of the sun, and it was total. The imperial edict said, "[Ever since] We have secured [the opportunity of] protecting the [imperial] ancestral temples, [We] have trembled with respectful fear, [yet] have not yet been able to be worthy of [Our] title. A book says, `If the instructions for males are not followed, since matters concerning the yang [or male principle] are not attained, then there will on this account be an eclipse of the sun and Heaven will manifest this [sort of] a prodigy.' The blame [for this eclipse therefore] lies upon Us Ourself. Let the ministers and grandees exert themselves and do their best to assist [Our] inadequacies, and [let] each of the many officials perfect themselves in their duties. [Let] rich employment be given to benevolent persons and [let] cruel and injurious persons be dismissed and sent away. [Let] Our faults and errors be pointed out without keeping silent about anything. [Let] a general amnesty [be granted] to the empire."
In the sixth month, [the office of] Director of Dependent States was abolished and [his duties] were given to the Grand Herald.
In the autumn, the ninth month, the Funerary Chamber, Temple, and Funerary Park of the Grand Emperor were reestablished. 42
In the second year, in the spring, the first month, in the office for iron in P'ei Commandery, iron that was being cast flew up. A discussion is in the "Treatise on the Five Elements." 43
In the summer, 44 the sixth month, [the Emperor] enfeoffed his maternal uncles, [Wang] T'an(2b), [Wang] Shang(1b), [Wang] Li(5), [Wang] Ken, and [Wang] Feng-shih, all as full marquises. 45
In the third year, in the spring, the second month, on [the day] ping-hsü, in Chien-wei [Commandery] there was an earthquake, and a mountain avalanche blocked the water of the [Min] River, so that the water flowed backwards. 46 In the autumn, the eighth month, on [the day] yi-mao, the last day of the month, there was an eclipse of the sun.
The Imperial Household Grandee Liu Hsiang(4) was collating [the books] in the Palace Private Library, and the Internuncio Ch'en Nung was sent as a Messenger to seek in the empire for lost books. 47
In the fourth year, in the spring, the first month, the Hun Shan-Yü [Fu-chu-lei-jo-ti] came to pay court. 48 An amnesty [was granted] to the criminals of the empire, and there were granted to the Filially Pious, the Fraternally Respectful, and the [Diligent] Cultivators of the Fields two steps in noble rank. Defaulted land and capitation taxes and what had been given in aid as loans were not to be collected. In the second month, the Shan-Yü was dismissed and returned to his state.
In the third month, on [the day] kuei-ch'ou, the first day of the month, there was an eclipse of the sun. [The Emperor] sent the Imperial Household Grandee and Erudit, [Meng] Chia, and others, eleven persons [in all], to inspect and report on the commanderies bordering on the [Yellow] River. [The imperial edict said], 49 "Those whose [property] has been demolished or injured by the floods or who are suffering and indigent and [do not have the means] of keeping themselves alive are [to have their needs] investigated 50 and to be assisted by loans. For those who have been carried away by the water or have been crushed to death and are unable to be buried by their own [relatives, the legates] shall order the commandery or kingdom to supply small coffins and bury them. To [the relatives of] each of those who were already buried, there are to be given two thousand cash, and for those who have gone to other commanderies and kingdoms to escape the floods, the places in which they are, are to distribute food to them. [The legates] are to treat them carefully, with courtesy and equity, and are not to cause them to lose their occupations. [The legates] are to recommend gentlemen who are true and honest, whose conduct is [correct], and who are able to speak frankly."
On [the day] jen-shen, in Ch'ang-ling [prefecture], the high bank on the border of the Ching [River] 51 collapsed, blocking the Ching River.
In the summer, the sixth month, on [the day] keng-hsü, the King of Ch'u, [Liu] Ao, died.
In Shan-yang [Commandery], a fire had started among the rocks and [the Emperor] changed [the name of] the year-period to be Yang-so. 52
In [the year-period] Yang-so, the first year, in the spring, the second month, on [the day] ting-wei, the last day of the month, there was an eclipse of the sun, and in the third month, an amnesty [was granted] to the criminals of the empire.
In the winter, the Governor of the Capital, Wang Chang(1a), who had committed crimes, was sent to prison and died. 53
In the second year, in the spring, it was cold. An imperial edict said, "Anciently, when Lord Yao set up the offices for the Hsi and the Ho, he commanded them to prevent the four seasons from losing their order, by taking care of the matters [concerning these seasons]. Hence the Book of History says, `The many people multiplied and the seasons were harmonious', 54 which makes plain that it considers the Yin and Yang as the fundamental [principles of the universe]. Now some of the ministers and grandees do not believe in the Yin and Yang, misprize and disdantrary to the [proper] governmental acts for the seasons. They propagate [this attitude], so that ignorance [of the rules concerning the seasons] prevails all over the empire. Yet they expect that the Yin and Yang will accord and harmonize. Is not this absurd? Let [the officials] take care to accord with the rules for the four seasons and the months." 55
In the third month, a general amnesty [was granted] to the empire. In the summer, 56 the fifth month, the ranks [in the bureaucracy] of eight hundred piculs and five hundred piculs were eliminated. 57
In the autumn, there was a flood east of [Han-ku] Pass. [An imperial edict ordered that] 58 vagrant people who wished to enter through Han-ku [Pass], T'ien-ching [Pass], Hu Mouth, or Wu-Yüan Pass should not be treated harshly or detained. [The Emperor] sent Grandee-remonstrants and Erudits separately to inspect and observe.
In the eighth month, on [the day] chia-shen, 59 the King of Ting-t'ao, [Liu] K'ang, died.
In the ninth month, those who had received [the imperial appointment] as messengers [were found] not to be suitable. 60
An imperial edict said, "In ancient times, the purpose of establishing an Imperial University was to propagate the principles of the former kings and to spread their transforming influence over the world. The office of the Forest of Literati is the source and spring for [the culture of all within] the four seas, [hence] it is proper that [its occupants] should all understand clearly ancient and present [times], `reviewing what they already know and acquiring new [knowledge],' 61 and being penetratingly understanding about the constitution of the state. Hence they are called Erudits. If they are not [thus learned], then those who study with them will not have anything to transmit [to others] and they will be despized by their inferiors, which is not the way to honor morality and virtue. `A workman who wishes to do his work well must first sharpen his tools.' 62 Let the Lieutenant Chancellor, [Chang Yü(3)], and the [Grandee] Secretary, [Wang Yin], together with [the officials ranking at] fully two thousand piculs and at two thousand piculs, recommend from many [sources] those who can fill the post of Erudit in order to bring it about that [the abilities of the Erudits] may be surpassing and they may be looked up to [by all]."
In this year the Grandee Secretary, Chang Chung(2), died. 63
In the third year, in the spring, the second month, 64 on [the day] jen-hsu, eight meteorites fell in Tung Commandery.
In the summer, the sixth month, a convict [workman] in the office for iron in Ying-ch'uan [Commandery], Shen-t'u Sheng, and others, one hundred eighty persons [in all], killed their Chief Official and took the weapons from the arsenal by force. [Shen-t'u Sheng] called himself a general and overran nine prefectures. 65 [The Emperor] sent a Chief Clerk of the Lieutenant Chancellor and the Palace Assistant Secretary to pursue and arrest them according to [the law] for levying military supplies, 66 and all [the rebels] suffered for their crimes.
In the autumn, the eighth month, on [the day] ting-szu, the Commander-in-chief and General-in-chief, Wang Feng, died. 67
In the fourth year, in the spring, the first month, an imperial edict said, "Verily, the `Great Plan' makes food the first of the eight [concerns of] government. 68 This is truly the fundamental [factor in making every] family self-supporting and in doing away with punishments. [Our] imperial predecessors encouraged agriculturists, lightening their taxes on land and on produce and favoring those who worked diligently [at agriculture]. They ordered that [the Diligent Cultivators of the Fields] should be classed with the Filially Pious and the Fraternally Respectful.
"[But] recently the common people have been more and more indolent and few have inclined towards the fundamental [activity (agriculture), whereas] many have been eager [to give themselves up] to unimportant [matters (merchandizing)]. How can [We] correct them?
"Just now it is the season for the work of spring. 69 Let is be ordered that [the officials ranking at] two thousand piculs shall encourage agriculture and sericulture and shall [send people to] go into the paths between the fields 70 in order to encourage the [farmers]. Does not the Book of History say, `If they labor in the fields, then there will be an [abundant] harvest'? 71 Let [the officials] make strenuous efforts." 72 In the second month an amnesty [was granted] to the empire. 73
In the autumn, the ninth month, on [the day] jen-shen, the King of Tung-p'ing, [Liu] Yü(3), died.
In the intercalary month, on [the day] jen-hsü, the Grandee Secretary, Yü Yung, died.
In [the period] Hung-chia, the first year, in the spring, the second month, an imperial edict said, "We have succeeded [to the care of] Heaven and Earth and have had [the opportunity] to protect the [imperial] ancestral temples, [but Our] insight has in some respects been unclear and [Our] virtue has not been able to bring tranquillity. The punishments have not been appropriate, so that many people have lost their positions through injustice and have [hence] ceaselessly hastened to the [palace] portals to inform and tell [of their wrongs]. Because of this, the Yin and Yang have wandered from their path and are in disorder, so that cold and heat have lost their [proper] succession, the sun and moon have had no brilliance, and people have exposed themselves to criminal punishment. We pity them greatly. Does not the Book of History say, `Among my [officials] who are managing affairs, none is capable or aged. The blame lies upon them themselves'? 74
"Just now it is spring, the season for birth and growth. [We] have visited the Grandee-remonstrant Li(3) and others and send them to report unjust law-cases in the three capital [commanderies], the three Ho [commanderies], and Hung-nung [Commandery]. The ministers, grandees, and Inspectors of Divisions shall inform clearly and warn the Administrators and Chancellors [of commanderies and kingdoms, respectively,] to conform to Our intentions. Let there be granted to the common people of the empire one step in noble rank; to the women of a hundred households, an ox and wine; and [let there be] added grants of silk to widowers, widows, orphans, childless, and the aged. Defaulted loans [from the government] and what has not yet been paid shall not be collected."
On [the day] jen-wu, [the Emperor] traveled and favored his imperial tomb [with a visit, where he granted] an amnesty to the convicts working [on the tomb]. Ch'ang(1)-ling Prefecture was made out of the Hsi District of Hsin-feng [Prefecture]. Those who were to support [the sacrifices at] the imperial tomb were granted an ox and wine for [every] hundred households.
The Emperor for the first time went out to travel incognito. 75
In the winter, a yellow dragon appeared in [the kingdom of] Chen-ting. 76
In the second year, in the spring, [the Emperor] traveled and favored [with a visit] Yün-yang [Prefecture, in which was Kan-ch'üan Palace].
In the third month, when the Erudits were performing the rites for drinking wine, 77 pheasants flew and perched in the courtyard, came up the steps, 78 mounted to the hall, and crowed. Later they perched in various yamens, 79 and also perched in the Ch'eng-ming Hall.
The imperial edict said, "Anciently, when [a ruler] selected capable [officials], he made them express themselves, accepted them `in accordance with their discussions, and tested them clearly by their achievements.' 80 Hence in the government offices affairs were not neglected and among his subordinates there were no negligent people. [Consequently, the ruler's] instruction and civilizing influence spread abroad and was carried out, the winds and rain were harmonious and timely, the various grains therefore ripened, the multitude of commoners rejoiced in their occupations, and all were as a result prosperous and tranquil.
"We have succeeded to [this] great estate for more than ten years, yet have several times met with visitations of flood, drought, sicknesses, and epidemics, so that the many common people have frequently suffered from hunger and cold, [and, as a result, although We] hoped that the rules of proper conduct and moral principles would flourish, how could it not but have been difficult [to achieve anything]? Since We have not had any means of leading and guiding [the people], the way of [the sage] lords and [true] kings has been daily falling into decadence. 81 Is it that the road for inviting and selecting capable gentlemen has been blocked and is not open, or is it that those who recommend [persons for official examination] have not yet found the [right] persons? Let there be recommended persons who are true and honest, whose conduct [is according to] moral principles, and who are able to speak frankly, [so that We may] hope to hear earnest speech and excellent deliberation in order to correct Our inadequacies."
In the summer, 82 braves and stalwarts from the commanderies and kingdoms whose property was five million [cash] or more, [to the number of] five thousand households, were moved to Ch'ang(1)-ling [Prefecture]. There were granted to the Lieutenant Chancellor, [Hsieh Hsüan], the [Grandee] Secretary, [Wang Chün(4a)], the generals, the full marquises, the princesses, and [officials ranking at] fully two thousand piculs, places for tombs and residences [at Ch'ang(1)-ling].
In the sixth month, [the Emperor] set up [Liu] Yün-k'o, a grandson [of a younger brother] 83 of King Hsien of Chung-shan, [Liu Fu(5b)], as King of Kuang-tê.
In the third year, in the summer, the fourth month, an amnesty [was granted] to the empire and it was ordered that officials and common people were to be allowed to purchase noble ranks at the price of a thousand cash per step. 84
There was a great drought. 85 In the autumn, the eighth month, on [the day] yi-mao, there was a visitation [of fire] to the [Northern] 86 Portal of the Temple to [Emperor] Hsiao-ching, and in the winter, the eleventh month, on [the day] chia-yin, the Empress née Hsü was dismissed.
Cheng Kung, a man of Kuang-han [Commandery], and others, more than sixty persons in all, attacked the government offices and buildings, taking by force the prisoners and convicts and robbing arms from the arsenal. He called himself the Lord of the Mountains. 87
In the fourth year, in the spring, the first month, an imperial edict said, "[We] have several times issued a decree to the high officials that they should take care to be liberal and large-minded in their actions and should prohibit tyranny and oppression, [but] down to the present [their behavior] has not changed. If one person commits a crime, they recommend that his clan should be arrested and imprisoned. The farmers and common people who have lost their occupations and who cherish grudges and hatred [against the government] are many, which injures and damages the harmonious emanation, so that water and drought have produced visitations. East of [Han-ku] Pass, vagrants and roving [people] are many, and in the Ch'ing, Yu, and Chi [Provincial] sections [the situation] is especially serious, so that We are greatly pained. [We] have not heard that any one in [high] positions is saddened. Who, [then], is capable of assisting Us by being solicitous in this [situation]?
["We] have already sent messengers to travel about and inspect the commanderies and kingdoms. In [those commanderies and kingdoms] that have been injured by the visitations and disasters [to the extent of] four-tenths [of their normal produce] or more, the common people whose property is not as much as thirty thousand [cash] shall not [be required] to pay the land-tax or capitation taxes. Defaulted loans and what has not yet been paid shall all not be collected. Those wandering people who wish to enter through the passes shall be enregistered and admitted whenever [they arrive]. Those who [wish to] go to [other] commanderies or kingdoms shall be treated respectfully and with equity. [Let the officials] take care that they have the desire to preserve and keep alive [the refugees], in order that they may accord with Our intentions."
In the autumn, in P'o-hai and Ch'ing-ho [Commanderies, the Yellow] River overflowed. Those who suffered from the visitation were assisted by loans. 88
In the winter, in Kuang-han [Commandery], Cheng Kung and others [formed] a faction which gradually spread, invading and passing through four prefectures. His horde [numbered] almost ten thousand persons. [The Emperor] installed the Chief Commandant of Ho-tung [Commandery], Chao Hu, as the Grand Administrator of Kuang-han [Commandery] and mobilized [the people] in that commandery together with [those in] Shu Commandery, altogether thirty thousand men, to attack [the rebels]. Some [of the rebels] seized and beheaded other [rebels], in order to expunge [their own] crimes, and in ten months [the region] was pacified. [The Emperor later] promoted [Chao] Hu to be Chief of Palace Police in the Capital and granted him a hundred catties of actual gold. 89
In [the period] Yung-shih, the first year, in the spring, the first month, on [the day] kuei-ch'ou, there was a fire in the Ice Chamber of the Grand Provisioner, on [the day] mou-wu there was a fire in [the Southern] Portal of the Funerary Park of Queen Li, 90 and in the summer, the fourth month, [the Emperor] enfeoffed [Chao] Lin, the father of the Favorite Beauty née Chao, [Chao Fei-yen], as Marquis of Ch'eng-yang. In the fifth month, [the Emperor] 91 enfeoffed, as Marquis of Hsin-tu(c), the Palace Attendant, Chief Commandant of Cavalry, and Imperial Household Grandee, Wang Mang, who was the son of [the Emperor's] maternal uncle, [Wang] Wan. In the sixth month, on [the day] ping-yin, [the Emperor] established the Empress née Chao, [Chao Fei-yen, as Empress], and [granted] a general amnesty to the empire.
In the autumn, the seventh month, an imperial edict said, "Our grasp of virtue has not been firm and in [Our] plans [We] have not [consulted] all of [Our] subordinates, [so that We] have erred in listening to the Court Architect, [Chieh] Wan-nien, who said that the Ch'ang Tomb could be completed in the third year. He has worked [at it] to the fifth year, [but] has not yet set anyone to work inside the Majors' Gates to its Hall in the central part of the Tomb. 92 The empire's [treasury] is empty and exhausted and the people are worn out and fatigued. The earth taken from other places [distant from the Tomb] is scanty and bad, so that in the end [the Tomb] cannot be completed. When We reflect upon these difficulties, [We] are saddened and afflicted at heart. Verily `to err and not to reform may indeed be called error. 93 Let the Ch'ang Tomb [and the town of Ch'ang(1)-ling] be abolished and [let the imperial tomb] be returned 94 to the former Tomb. Let no officials or common people be moved [to the former Tomb], 95 so that in the empire there may not be caused any disturbance in peoples' hearts." 96
[The Emperor] set up [Liu] Li(4), a son of King Hsiao of Ch'eng-yang, [Liu Ching(3a)], as King [of Ch'eng-yang].
In the eighth month, on [the day] ting-ch'ou, the [Ch'iung-ch'eng] Grand Empress Dowager née Wang died.
In the second year, in the spring, the first month, on [the day] chi-ch'ou, the Commander-in-chief and General of Chariots and Cavalry, Wang Yin, died. 97
In the second month, on [the day] kuei-wei, in the night, stars fell like rain, 98 and on [the day] yi-ch'ou, the last day of the month, there was an eclipse of the sun. The imperial edict said, "Recently a dragon appeared in Tung-lai [Commandery] and there was an eclipse of the sun. Heaven has made grievous vicisitudes and prodigies appear in order to manifest Our faults. We are greatly dismayed. [Let] the ministers inform and decree to the various officials that they should ponder deeply the warning of Heaven. If there is anything that can be economized or reduced to the advantage and peace of the people, let it be memorialized in detail. Let what [has been given] in aid or loaned to povertystricken people not be collected."
It also said, "East of [Han-ku] Pass for successive years there has not been a [good] harvest. To those officials and common people who, because of moral principles, have gathered and fed poverty-stricken people or have contributed grain or goods to assist the imperial government in helping and succoring [the poor], there have already been granted the value [of their contributions]. 99 For those [who have contributed] a million [cash] or more, let there be granted in addition the noble rank of Senior Chieftain of Conscripts and let those who wish to become officials be given vacancies [of the rank of] three hundred piculs; let those who are officials be promoted two steps. [Let those who have contributed] three hundred thousand [cash] or more be granted the noble rank of Fifth [Rank] Grandee; if they are officials, let them also be promoted two steps; if they are common people, let them be given vacancies as Gentlemen. Let the families [of those who have contributed] a hundred thousand [cash] or more not pay the land-tax or capitation taxes for three years, and [let the families of] those [who have contributed] ten thousand cash or more [not pay taxes] for one year." 100
In the winter, the eleventh month, [the Emperor] traveled and favored Yung [with a visit, where he] sacrificed at the altars to the Five [Lords on High]. 101
In the twelfth month, an imperial edict said, "Previously, the Court Architect, [Chieh] Wan-nien, knew that the Ch'ang Tomb [locality] was low and could not be made a habitation for [Our] decease, [but nevertheless] memorialized, begging to plan and build [that Tomb] and to found and establish a town at the outer wall [of the Tomb], deceitfully producing lies. He gathered earth and piled it up high, increased the taxes, exactions, and forced service, and pushed [the laborers] to rapid and hurried work, so that the workmen and convicts have suffered punishment and died in continuous succession. The people are utterly worn out and the empire's [treasury] is empty and exhausted.
"The Regular Attendant, [Wang] Hung, when he was previously the Palace Assistant Grand Minister of Agriculture, memorialized several times that the Ch'ang Tomb could not be completed. The Palace Attendant and Commandant of the Palace Guard, [Shun-Yü] Chang, stated several times that it would be proper very quickly to cease removing families [to Ch'ang(1)-ling] and to return [the tomb] to its former location. Because of [Shun-Yü] Chang's words, We sent the document of [Wang] Hung to [Our] subordinates, and the ministers and consultants all agreed with [Shun-Yü] Chang's calculations. [Shun-Yü Chang] 102 has taken the lead in proposing the best plan. [Wang] Hung, as Director in Charge [of building the Tomb], has saved a great expense and the common people have therefore become tranquil and at peace. [Wang] Hung has previously been granted the noble rank of Kuan-nei Marquis and a hundred catties of actual gold. Let [Shun-Yü] Chang be granted the noble rank of Kuan-nei Marquis with the income of an estate of a thousand households, and [let Wang] Hung [be granted the income of an estate] of five hundred households.
"[Chieh] Wan-nien has been a flatterer, perverse, and disloyal. His evil influence has spread among the multitude of to the present. Although he has received a pardon, it is not proper that he should live in the imperial capital. Let [Chieh] Wan-nien be exiled to Tun-huang Commandery."
In this year the Grandee Secretary, Wang Chün(4a), died. 103
In the third year, in the spring, the first month, on [the day] chi-mao, the last day of the month, there was an eclipse of the sun. The imperial edict said, "Visitations from Heaven have been repeated and frequent, so that We have been greatly dismayed [We] have pondered that [many] common people have lost their occupations and [We] have visited and sent the Grand Palace Grandee Chia and others to travel about and inspect the empire, to visit and ask the aged and common people from what bitternesses they suffer. Let [these messengers] with the Inspectors of Regional Divisions each recommend [to Us] one true and simple, humble and yielding person whose actions accord with moral principles." 104
In the winter, the tenth month, on [the day] keng-ch'en, the Empress Dowager [née Wang] issued an imperial edict [ordering] the high officials to reestablish the [imperial] sacrifices at the altar to the Supreme [One] at Kan-ch'üan [Palace], to Sovereign Earth at Fen-yin, at the altars to the Five [Emperors] at Yung, and to the Jewel of Ch'en at Ch'en-ts'ang. A discussion is in the "Treatise 105 on the Suburban and Other Sacrifices."
In the eleventh month, Fan Ping, a man of Wei-shih, and others, thirteen persons [in all], who had plotted to rebel, killed [Chuang P'u], 106 the Grand Administrator of Ch'en-liu [Commandery], seizing and kidnapping officials and people. [Fan Ping] called himself their general. The convict Li T'an and others, five persons [in all], together struck and killed [Fan] Ping and the others. [Li T'an and his associates] were all enfeoffed as full marquises. 107
In the twelfth month, the convicts in the office for iron in Shan-yang [Commandery], Su Ling and others, 228 persons [in all], attacked and killed their Chief Official and robbed weapons from the arsenal. [Su Ling] called himself their general. They passed through nineteen commanderies and kingdoms, 108 and killed the Grand Administrator of Tung Commandery and the Chief Commandant of Ju-nan [Commandery. The Emperor] sent the Chief Clerk of the Lieutenant Chancellor and the Palace Assistant Secretary, with credentials, to superintend and urge on the pursuit and arresting [of the rebels]. The Grand Administrator of Ju-nan [Commandery], Chuang Hsin, arrested and beheaded [Su] Ling and the others. [The Emperor] promoted [Chuang] Hsin to be Grand Minister of Agriculture and granted him a hundred catties of actual gold.
In the fourth year, in the spring, the first month, [the Emperor] traveled and favored Kan-ch'üan [Palace with a visit, where he] performed the suburban sacrifice at the alter to the Supreme [One]; supernatural lights descended and rested upon the Purple Hall. A general amnesty [was granted] to the empire and there were granted: to the officials and common people of Yün-yang, noble ranks; to the women of a hundred households, an ox and wine; and to widowers, widows, orphans, childless, and aged, silk. In the third month, [the Emperor] traveled and favored Ho-tung [Commandery with a visit, where he] sacrificed to Sovereign Earth. Grants were made to the officials and common people [of this place] just as at Yün-yang; the places through which he had passed were not to pay the land-tax on cultivated fields.
In the summer, the fourth month, on [the day] kuei-wei, there were visitations [of fire] in both the Hall of Approach to Flowers in Ch'ang-lo [Palace] and in the Eastern Majors' Gate in Wei-yang Palace, and in the sixth month, on [the day] chia-wu, there was a visitation [of fire] to [the Eastern] Portal of the Funerary Park at the Pa Tomb. 109 [The concubines of Emperor Hsüan] at the Tu Tomb who had not served the Emperor were sent away and returned to their homes, 110 and an imperial edict said, "Recently there was an earthquake and in the imperial capital, visitations of fire have several times descended, so that We are greatly dismayed. Let the high officials do their utmost to make clear the parallels [to these visitations, in order to show where lies] the blame for them. We will Ourself look over [their replies]."
It also said, "The Sage-kings made clear the rites and regulations in order [to display] the ranks of the honorable and lowly; they made distinctions among carriages and clothes in order to render illustrious those who possessed virtue. Although a person had the wealth [to own splendid carriages and clothes], if yet he did not have the honorable [rank necessary for displaying them], he was not permitted to overstep the regulations [for his rank]. Hence the common people were excited to good conduct, moral principles were exalted, and profit was deprecated.
"[But] just now the custom of the age is to be
extravagant and overstep [the proper bounds]
without limit, without being contented or satisfied. The ministers, full
marquises, [Our] personal attendants, and the courtiers near [Our Person should
be] models for the four quarters [of the empire, but
We] have not yet heard of any who cultivate their
personalities in obedience to the rules of proper conduct or who join in mind
[with Us] in being solicitous for the state. Some, moreover, are extravagant
and prodigal, [loving] repose and pleasure, taking care to enlarge their
dwellings and residences, building gardens and ponds, maintaining an excessive
number of male and female slaves, carrying on their shoulders and wearing [on
their bodies] flowered silks and gauzes, setting up bells and drums, procuring
female musicians, chariots and trappings, and performing marriages and burials
that overpass the regulations. The [lower] officials and common people emulate
and imitate them, so that [such extravagance] has gradually become customary.
Under [these circumstances], is it not difficult to expect the people to be
economical and self-restrained, families to be self-sufficient, and [every]
person to be contented? Does not the Book of Odes
In the autumn, the seventh month, on [the day] hsin-wei, the last day of the month, there was an eclipse of the sun.
In [the period] Yüan-yen, the first year, in the spring, the first month, on [the day] chi-hai, the first day of the month, there was an eclipse of the sun.
In the third month, [the Emperor] traveled and favored Yung [with a visit, where he] sacrificed at the altars to the Five [Lords on High].
In the summer, the fourth month, on [the first day], ting-yu, when there were no clouds, there was a sound of thunder and light shone out on all sides, descending to the earth. At dusk it stopped. 113 An amnesty [was granted] to the empire. In the autumn, the seventh month, a comet appeared in [the constellation] Tung-ching. 114 The imperial edict said, "Recently there have been eclipses and falling stars, reproaches appearing in heaven. Great prodigies have been repeated, [but] those who are in [official] positions have been silent; rarely have there been loyal utterances. Now a comet has appeared in [the constellation] Tung-ching. We are greatly dismayed. Let the ministers, grandees, erudits, and grandee-consultants each do their best in pondering and thinking upon the meaning of these grievous vicissitudes, and parallel them clearly from the Classics [in explanation], not keeping silent about anything. Let them and the inner commanderies and kingdoms each recommend one sincere and upright person who is able to speak frankly and admonish unflinchingly, and let the twenty-two commanderies at the northern border each recommend one person who is brave and fierce and knows the methods of warfare."
[The Emperor] enfeoffed [Hsiao] Hsi(3), a descendant of the Chancellor of State, Hsiao [Ho], as Marquis of Tsan. 115
In the winter, the twelfth month, on [the day] hsin-hai, the Commander-in-chief and General-in-chief, Wang Shang(1b), died.
In this year, the Brilliant Companion née Chao killed an Imperial Son in the Harem. 116
In the second year, in the spring, the first month, [the Emperor] traveled and favored Kan-ch'üan [Palace with a visit, where he] made the suburban sacrifice at the alter to the Supreme [One]. In the third month, he traveled and favored Ho-tung [Commandery with a visit, where he] sacrificed to Sovereign Earth.
In the summer, the fourth month, he set up [Liu] Shou(3a), 117 the son of King Hsiao of Kuang-ling, [Liu Pa], as King [of Kuang-ling].
In the winter, [the Emperor] traveled and favored Ch'ang-yang Palace [with a visit], and, accompanied by guests who were northwestern barbarians (Hu), he [held] a great hunting contest. 118 He spent the night at Pei-yang Palace and made grants to his accompanying officials.
In the third year, in the spring, the first month, on [the day] ping-yin, Mt. Min in Shu Commandery collapsed, blocking the [Min] River to the third day, so that the water of the [Min] River was exhausted. 119
In the second month, [the Emperor] enfeoffed the Palace Attendant and Commandant of the Palace Guard, Shun-Yü Chang, as Marquis of Ting-ling.
In the third month, [the Emperor] traveled and favored Yung [with a visit, where he] sacrificed at the altars to the Five [Lords on High].
In the fourth year, in the spring, the first month, [the Emperor] traveled and favored Kan-ch'üan [Palace with a visit, where he performed] the suburban sacrifice at the altar to the Supreme [One].
In the second month, the office of the Colonel Director of the Retainers was abolished.
In the third month, [the Emperor] traveled and favored Ho-tung [Commandery with a visit, where he] sacrificed to Sovereign Earth. Sweet dew descended in the imperial capital, and [the Emperor] granted oxen and wine to the common people of Ch'ang-an. 120
In [the period] Sui-ho, the first year, in the spring, the first month, a general amnesty [was granted] to the empire. In the second month, on [the day] kuei-ch'ou, an imperial edict said, "We have succeeded to the vast estate of the Eminent Founder, [Emperor Kao], and have upheld the [imperial] ancestral temples to the twenty-fifth year. [But Our] virtue has been unable to give tranquility to or administer [properly the region] within the [empire's] boundaries. Many are the people who [cherish] resentment. [We] have not received the blessing of Heaven, [for] down to the present [We] have not yet had an heir to succeed [Us], and the empire has no one to whom its hearts can attach themselves. When [We] look over the warnings [in the history] of the distant past and of recent events, the beginnings of calamities and disorders have all come from this [lack of an appointed heir].
"The King of Ting-t'ao, [Liu] Hsin(5), has [acted] toward Us as a son. He is affectionate, benevolent, filial, and obedient, so that he may therefore follow [Us] in the succession [decreed by] Heaven, and continue the [imperial] sacrifices. Let [Liu] Hsin(5) be made the Imperial Heir-apparent. Let the Grandee-remonstrant Feng Ts'an, who is the maternal uncle of the King of Chung-shan, [Liu Hsing], be enfeoffed as Marquis of Yi-hsiang, 121 and let the kingdom of Chung-shan be increased by thirty thousand households, in order to console [Liu Hsing's] feelings, [since he is not made Heir-apparent]. Let there be granted: to the vassal kings and full marquises, gold; to those in the empire who will be the successors to their fathers, a noble rank; to the Thrice Venerable, the Filially Pious, the Fraternally Respectful, and the [Diligent] Cultivators of the Fields, silk, to each proportionately."
It also said, "Verily, [We] have heard that the [true] kings necessarily preserved the descendants of the two [preceding] kingly [dynasties], in order that they might thereby connect themselves with the Three Beginnings. 122 Anciently, T'ang the Victorious received [Heaven's] mandate and [his dynasty, the Yin,] is grouped among the Three Dynasties, yet his sacrifices have been neglected and cut off. When [We] sought for his descendants, none was more upright than K'ung Chi. Let [K'ung] Chi be enfeoffed as the Marquis Continuing and Honoring the Yin [Dynasty]." In the third month, his noble rank was advanced to be that of Duke. Together with the Marquis who Succeeds to the Greatness of the Chou [Dynasty, Chi Tang], they were both made Dukes, each with a territory of a hundred li [square].
[The Emperor] traveled and favored Yung [with a visit, where he] sacrificed at the altars to the Five [Lords on High].
In the summer, the fourth month, the Commander-in-chief and General 123 of Agile Cavalry, [Wang] Ken, was made [merely] Commander-in-chief, and his General's office was abolished. [The title of] the Grandee Secretary was made that of the Grand Minister of Works, and [its incumbent, Ho Wu,] was enfeoffed as a full marquis. 124 The salaries of the Commander-in-chief and the Grand Minister of Works were increased to be like that of the Lieutenant Chancellor. 125
In the autumn, the eighth month, on [the day] keng-hsü, the King of Chung-shan, [Liu] Hsing, died.
In the winter, the eleventh month, [the Emperor] set up [Liu] Ching(3b), a grandson of King Hsiao of Ch'u, [Liu Ao], as King of Ting-t'ao. 126
The Marquis of Ting-ling, Shun-Yü Chang, [who had committed] treason and inhuman conduct, was sent to prison and died, and the Commandant of Justice, K'ung Kuang, was sent with credentials to grant poison to the honored lady née Hsü. She drank the poison and died. 127
In the twelfth month, the Inspectors of Regional Divisions were abolished and there were established instead Provincial Shepherds with the rank of two thousand piculs.
In the second year, in the spring, the first month, [the Emperor] traveled and favored Kan-ch'üan [Palace with a visit, where he performed] the suburban sacrifice at the altar to the Supreme [One].
In the second month, on [the day] jen-tzu, the Lieutenant Chancellor, Chai Fang-chin, died.
In the third month, [the Emperor] traveled and favored Ho-tung [Commandery with a visit, where he] sacrificed to Sovereign Earth. On [the day] ping-hsü, the Emperor died in Wei-yang Palace. The Empress Dowager [née Wang] issued an imperial edict that the high officials should reestablish the [places] for the suburban sacrifices to the south and north of Ch'ang-an. In the fourth month, on [the day] yi-mao, 128 [the Emperor] was buried in the Yen Tomb.
In eulogy we say: Your servant [Pan Piao's] paternal aunt was given a place in the [imperial] harem and became a Favorite Beauty; 129 her father, [Pan K'uang], his sons and her brothers waited [upon the Emperor] in his private apartments, and frequently said to your servant, "Emperor Ch'eng was good at cultivating his deportment and appearance. `When he mounted his chariot, he stood upright, he did not look around, he did not speak hastily, he did not point with his hands.' 130 When he attended court, he was profound and silent, dignified and grave like a god, so that it might be [truly] said, Majestic is the bearing of the Son of Heaven. 131 He read widely on [both] ancient and present [matters], and received frank discourses indulgently." His ministers were worthy of their positions, and their memorials and discussions are worthy of being transmitted [to posterity].
He happened upon an age which inherited a peaceful condition, when the superior and his inferiors were in concord. Yet he gave himself up to wine and women. The Chao clan caused disorder within [the palace] and his maternal relatives made themselves masters in the court. In saying this, I cannot but feel oppressed. From [the period] Chien-shih onwards, 132 the Wang clan first grasped the power of the state. [Emperors] Ai and P'ing had [only] short lives, and [Wang] Mang thereupon usurped the throne. In fact his [usurpation of the imperial power, thereby enabling him to grant] severity or favor, came about [very] gradually. 133
1. For these places, cf. Glossary sub Heir-apparent's Palace.
2. Hsün Yüeh (148-209), in his Han-chi 24: 1a, repeats the statement in HS 98: 3a that Emperor Hsüan himself gave to the future Emperor Ch'eng the name Ao and his tzu 字 was T'ai-sun, so that this passage was early interpreted as recording the Emperor's `style'. But Chou Shou-ch'ang (1814-1884) points out that T'ai-sun 太孫 is an appellation analogous to Heir-apparent 太子, just as in the time of Emperor Wu the son of Heir-apparent Li was called the Imperial Grandson 皇孫, and his son (the future Emperor Hsüan), was called the Imperial Great-grandson 皇曾孫. This interpretation is confirmed by the statement in 98: 3a, that after Emperor Yüan ascended the throne, he "立太孫為太子, established the Heir-apparent of the Heir-apparent as his Heir-apparent," in which 太孫 seems plainly to be a title (cf. HS 8: 1a and Glossary sub vocibus).
3. Cf. 9: 4a.
4. Ying Shao (ca. 140-206) comments, "The ch'ih-tao is the road on which the Son of Heaven travels, like the present central path." Cf. Glossary sub Imperial pathway.
5. A quotation from Analects XVI, v, where Confucius condemns these enjoyments. Yen Shih-ku (581-645) remarks that in his time the vulgar copies did not have the second 樂, which was excised because people did not understand that this phrase was a quotation. From the comment of Chin Shao (fl. ca. 275), his copy evidently also did not have this character.
6. HS 9: 13a.
7. Han-chi 24:1a reads yi-wei instead of chi-wei, and Ch'ien Ta-chao (1744-1813) hence says that the HS here is mistaken; but Hüang's Concordance des Chronologies néoméniques puts a chi-wei but no yi-wei day in this month, so that the text seems correct. Tzu-chih T'ung-chien (1084) 29: 21b reads chi-wei. The enthronement occurred 27 days after Emperor Yüan's death and 27 days before his burial.
8. Wang Hsien-ch'ien (1842-1918) remarks, "The Wang clan secured its power for the first [time] from this [appointment]."
9. yi-wei is a mistake, for there was no such day in the sixth month. These words seem to be either an erroneous dittography, an interpolation for the preceding chi-wei, or a mistake for yi-ch'ou, which was Aug. 10.
10. The name of this year-period plainly means "to establish a beginning," and is appropriate for the first year-period in a reign.
11. HS 27 A: 15a also lists this fire (with lacunae).
12. HS 27 Cb: 23a adds, "It was bluish white in color, sixty or seventy feet (degrees) long, and more than a foot ° broad." J. Williams, Observations of Comets, lists it as no. 50. Dio Cassius (Hist. Roman., L [Loeb ed., V, 451]) also mentions it; cf. Chambers, Descriptive Astronomy, I, 556, .
13. Han-chi 24: 1b reads "more than ten," instead of "seven."
14. Book of History IV, ix, 2 (Legge, p. 264).
15. A reference to the famous phrase in Analects, IV, xv, 2.
16. HS 27 Ca: 6a says, "In [the period] Chien-shih, the first year, the fourth month, on [the day] hsin-ch'ou [May 13], in the night, to the northwest, there was light as of a fire; on [the day] jen-yin [May 14], at dawn, a great wind arose from the northwest, and the clouds of emanations were red and yellow on [all] four [sides] of the empire for a whole day and night. What came down and lay upon the earth was yellow earthen dust." The portent is blamed on the immediately preceding enfeoffments of imperial relatives. W. Eberhard says it may have been a distant volcanic eruption; it might also have been an unusual dust-storm; cf. his "Beiträge z. Kosmol. Spekulation in d. Han-Zeit." p. 30-31. It was later instanced by Li Hsün, cf. 75: 23a.Wang Hsien-ch'ien suggests that the words jen-yin must have dropped out of the text in ch. 10 after the words for "fourth month."
17. Fu Ch'ien (ca. 125-195) says, "They were the places [for standing] for the ministers and lower [officials] at the court gatherings." Blue flies were symbolic of calumny (Book of Odes, II, vii, v; Legge, p. 394).
18. HS 27 Cb: 16a says, "In the eighth month, on [the day] mou-wu [Sept. 27], at dawn, when the clepsydra had not yet emptied itself by three marks, there were two moons shining together." Wang Hsien-ch'ien says that the words mou-wu have dropped out after the words for "the eighth month", since otherwise the passage would mean that two moons appeared every night. Ying Shao quotes Ching Fang's (i cent. B.C.) Yi-chuan (this passage is not found in the present book by that name, but quoted from that source, in HS 27 Cb: 16b) in explanation, "When a prince is as weak as a woman, so that he is led by the Yin (female [influence]), then two moons appear."
19. For its significance, cf. Introduction to this chapter, pp. 362-365.
20. Wang Hsien-ch'ien remarks that this abolition and that of the other places for sacrifice in the preceding year were all due to the suggestion of K'uang Heng, q. v. in Glossary. These other places for sacrifice were reestablished in 14 B.C. and abolished again in 7 B.C., after Emperor Ch'eng's death; cf. 10: 12a, b, 16a; Introduction, p. 362.
21. The Sung Ch'i ed. said that the Yao text (possibly x cent.) contained a note saying, "Every time the Han [Emperors] went to Yung or sacrificed at Kan-ch'üan [Palace, the people of those places] were put to the trouble of provisioning a thousand chariots and ten thousand horsemen. Now the sacrifices were changed to the places for the suburban sacrifice south and north [of Ch'ang-an], hence the [people] had [not] the trouble of furnishing tents and forced service." (The interpretation of 張 as meaning 帳 is made by Chang Yen [prob. iii cent.] in a note to Pan Ku's " Fu on the Eastern Capital" in the Wen-hsüan [ca. 530]. Wang Hsien-ch'ien says that the 有 in Sung Ch'i's quotation should be 無 and the first 郊 should be 北.)
22. Ying Shao explains, "The place for the suburban sacrifice to Heaven was south of the city of Ch'ang-an and the place for the suburban sacrifice to Earth was north of the city of Ch'ang-an within the borders of Ch'ang-ling [prefecture. These] two prefectures had the care of upholding the suburban sacrifices, hence they were both granted an amnesty at the same time."
23. Meng K'ang (ca. 180-260) comments, "Originally the poll-tax was 120 [cash]. Now it was reduced forty [cash] and became eighty [cash]." But S. Kato comes to a different conclusion. Cf. Glossary sub "poll-tax."
24. HS 27 Ba: 26a says, "In the third month, on [the day] mou-tzu [Apr. 25], the spring in a well within the Northern Palace sprang up considerably, overflowed, and [water] came out, flowing southwards."
25. He had murdered his divorced concubine, who had given information that he had failed to fast and abstain during the period of mourning for Emperor Yüan. Cf. Glossary, sub voce.
26. HS 27 A: 22a says, "In [the period] Chien-shih, the third year, in the summer, there was a flood. In the three capital commanderies, there was a prolonged rain for more than thirty days and in nineteen commanderies and kingdoms there was rain. Streams issued from the valleys of the mountains, killing altogether more than four thousand persons and destroying more than eighty-three thousand government buildings and houses of the common people." This visitation was blamed upon the change in the suburban sacrifices made in the preceding two years. This prolonged rain for more than thirty days is also noted in 27 Ba: 9b.
27. HS 27 Ca: 21a says, "In the third year of [the period] Chien-shih, the seventh month [the text reads the "tenth" month, but the day shows this numeral is an error], on [the day] ting-wei, [Sept. 6], in the imperial capital, [people] terrified each other, saying that a flood was coming. A little girl of Szu-shang on the Wei River, Ch'en Ch'ih-kung, who was in the ninth year of her age, ran, entered the Kuang city-gate, and entered the side gate of the Master of Recipes in Wei-yang Palace. The guards at the gates and doors of the Hall did not see her. She reached the forbidden apartments [in the care of] the Intendant of the [Imperial] Palace Parks, and was then discovered and arrested." This passage explains the event as portending the entrance of the Wang clan into the imperial inheritance through imperial favor shown to female relatives. Wang Feng had advised that the Emperor and his harem should take to boats and the people should take refuge on the city walls. Wang Shang1a opposed this advice and the rumor of a flood proved groundless; cf. 82: 1b.Ying Shao says, "To enter into a palace by fraud without any credentials or registration [at the palace gate] is called lan 闌."He also says, "The Yi-men 掖門are small gates at the side of the main gates." Yen Shih-ku adds, "The yi-men are on the two sides. It means that they are like a man's armpits (yi)."
28. Cf. the Appendix for eclipses. The interpreters of portents made much of this combination of eclipse and earthquake, alleging that it was due to intrigues in the harem. Cf. 27 Cb: 15a, b.
29. The Official ed. (1739) reads 下 instead of the text's 中.
30. The Appendix to the Official ed. says that the Sung Ch'i ed. (xi or xii cent.) omits the words 葢聞, but the other editions have them. The passage that follows is probably a reference to Book of Changes, App. III, ii, 15 (Legge, 383).
31. Yen Shih-ku says, "K'un 昆 [means] a crowd 衆, and k'un-ch'ung 蟲 means the numberless insects 衆蟲. Moreover Hsü Shen [d. 121] in his Shuo-wen [13 B: 1a; A. D. 100] says, `Two ch'ung are 蜫. . . . [This word] is read the same as k'un.' It means that it is a general term for ch'ung. The two ideas are interchanged. Cheng Hsüan [127-200, in a note to Li-ki 12: 3b] considered, however, that k'un-ch'ung means `insects born under the influence of the Yang principle 明蟲', in which he was mistaken. Ch'ung is pronounced 許尾反 [pres. hui]."
32. A quotation from Book of History II, iv, i, 5 (Legge, p. 81), where this statement is put into the mouth of Shun.
33. For 嶲, the Official ed. reads 雋.
34. HS 27 Cb: 25a says, "In Chien-shih IV, i, on kuei-mao [Feb. 29], four meteorites fell in Kao-[ch'eng], and one in Fei-lei."
35. Cf. Glossary, sub Masters of Writing.
36. HS 27 Bb: 13b adds, "In the kingdom of Yen, many died." lly the same as that here.) This portent was interpreted as presaging the dismissal of the Empress nee Hsü.
37. Ying Shao explains, "[Yüan] Feng had been the Prefect of Ch'ang-an and had attained a reputation for able rule, so he was selected and installed as Colonel Director of the Retainers. [Ch'en] Lin had held a long-standing grudge against [Yüan] Feng. When he saw that the latter was to be honored and distinguished, he feared that [the latter] would injure or kill him. After the installation had ended, before [Yüan Feng] had gone out, [Ch'en Lin] sent a man to stab and kill him."
38. Cf. HS 29: 14b.
39. The edict explains the name of this year-period as meaning, "The [Yellow] River is peaceful."
40. HS 27 Cb: 17a, b says, "In Ho-p'ing I, the first month, on [the day] jen-yin [Feb. 22], the first day of the month, when the sun and moon were both in [the constellation] Ying-shih, the sun came up red. In the second month, on [the day] kuei-wei [Apr. 4], the sun was red in the morning and when it went down it was also red. At night the moon was red. On [the day] chia-shen [Apr. 5], the sun came up as red as blood, without any brilliance. When the clepsydra marked four divisions and a half, [the sun] had some light, and lighted up the earth red and yellow. After breakfast, [the sun] recovered [its natural light]. . . . In the third month, on [the day] yi-wei [probably a mistake for chi-wei, May 10], the sun came up yellow with a black emanation as large as a cash right in the center of the sun," [probably a sun-spot].
41. This edict is also quoted in 29: 15a; the added detail there seems to show that the quotation there represents the original, which Pan Ku has condensed and polished for his "Annals."
42. This restoration was at the request of P'ing Tang. The Temple had been abolished in 33 B.C. Cf. 9: 13a.
43. HS 27 A: 13b says, "In Ho-p'ing II, i, at the office for iron in P'ei Commandery, [at present P'ei, northwestern Kiangsu], when iron was being cast, it would not come down. There was a rumbling like the noise of thunder and also like the sound of drums, and the thirteen workmen were frightened and fled. When the sounds stopped, they returned and looked at the earth. The earth had opened up several feet, the furnace had divided into eleven [pieces], and from inside the furnace, the iron had scattered like shooting stars and had all gone up and out [of the furnace. It was] a phenomenon similar to that in Cheng-ho II." HS 27 A: 13a says, "In Cheng-ho II, [91 B.C.], in the spring, when, at the office for iron in Cho Commandery, they were casting iron, the iron melt all flew up and out. In this [case, the element] fire constituted the unhappy vicissitude and caused it to act thus."Professor Thomas T. Read of the Columbia University School of Mines points out that the above phenomena were what we would now call furnace break-outs, and that the description is exceedingly important in the history of iron technology, because such an accident could only happen in a furnace of the cupola type, which has been supposed to be a much later development. Cf. T. T. Read, "The Earliest Industrial Use of Coal," Transactions, Newcomen Soc'y of England, v. 20 (1939-40), pp. 119-133.
44. HS 27 Bb: 16a says, "In Ho-p'ing II, iv [May/June], in the kingdom of Ch'u, it rained hail as large as axe [heads], and flying birds were killed."
45. Su Yü (fl. 1913) points out that, according to HS 18: 19b-20b, these brothers were all enfeoffed on the same day, and suggests that the day should have been mentioned in the text here, "yi-hai," July 20. They were commonly called "The Five Marquises."
46. HS 27 Ca: 10b says, "In Ho-p'ing III, ii, on ping-hsü, in Chien-wei [Commandery], Po-chiang Mountain collapsed and Chüan-chiang Mountain collapsed, both blocking the water of the [Min] River, so that the water of the [Min] River flowed backwards, injuring city-walls and killing thirteen persons. The earthquake shocks continued for twenty-one days, 124 shocks." Except for a statement in the Comment on the Shui-ching (by Li Tao-Yüan, d. 527), 33: 10a, locating this earthquake in Nan-an Prefecture, there seems to be no information about the location of these mountains. Nan-an was located, according to the Yi-t'ung Chih 405: 3a, 20 li northeast of the present Chia-chiang 夾江 Hsien, in the Ch'ing Dynasty's Chia-ting Fu, Szechuan. This potent is grouped in HS ch. 27 with those due to lack of perspicacious thinking.Anciently, what is now called the Min River was considered to be the upper course of the Yangtze (Book of History, III, i, ii, 9 [Legge, 137]; HS 28 Aiii: 71a), hence the text states that the Yangtze River was blocked. In this and other cases, I have used the modern name.
47. Liu Hsiang(4) not only published new editions of the ancient classics (cf. the preface to his edition of Hsün-Tzu, in Hsün-tzu 20: 26a ff; trans. in Dubs, Hsüntze, p. 28 ff), but also, with his son, Liu Hsin(1a), made a catalog of the Palace Private Library, which is to be found in HS ch. 30. Feng Yu-lan says that the "Ancient text" classics and explanations must have entered the imperial private library at this time; Cf. his Chung-kuo Chê-hsüeh Shih, 2nd. ed., II, p. 575f.
48. Cf. HS 94 B: 10a = de Groot, Die Hunnen, p. 249.
49. The sentences following are evidently taken from the edict commissioning the legates; in order to translate them in direct discourse, instead of the indirect form in the Chinese, I have added the words in brackets.
50. Yen Shih-ku says that 財 is the same as 裁 and means "to measure their degree [of need]." Ch'ien Ta-chao corroborates the fact that these two words were anciently interchanged by quoting SC 28: 38, which uses the first word, and then pointing out that where this sentence is quoted in HS 25 A: 19a, the second word is used.
51. This sentence may be translated, "In Ch'ang-ling and Lin-ching [prefectures]," but Lin-ching was, according to the Ta-ch'ing Yi-t'ung Chih, located 2 li west of the present Chen-Yüan, Kansu, near the headwaters of a branch of the Ching River (cf. HS 28 Bi: 21a), so that an avalanche there would seem of little importance.
52. Dr. D. Bodde suggests that this passage is an early reference to coal. Professor Thomas T. Reed of the Columbia University School of Mines adds that this is probably the earliest account of a coal seam on fire.Ying Shao explains this name as follows: "At that time the Yin [principle] was flourishing and the Yang [principle] was weak, hence [the Emperor] changed the year-period and called it Yang-so (the beginning of the Yang), [meaning that] he wished the Yang [principle] to revive and grow." Yen Shih-ku replies, "Ying [Shao's] explanation is mistaken. So [means] beginning. Because the fire [i.e., a Yang manifestation and in Shan-yang Commandery] started among stones, it means that it was `a beginning of the Yang's manifestations.' "
53. Wang Chang had outspokenly criticized Wang Feng, who had him imprisoned; cf. Glossary, sub voce.
54. Book of History I, i, 2 (Legge, p. 17, translates differently). The present text of the Book of History has pien 變 instead of the HS's fan 蕃. Ying Shao explains fan by pien, but Wei Chao says that fan means to 多. Yen Shih-ku notes the difference and says that both are correct. Tuan Yü-ts'ai (1735-1815), in his Ku-wen Shang-shu Hsüan-yi (in the Huang-ch'ing Ching-chieh, 567: 10b, 11a), says that the `modern text' of the Book of History read fan and the `ancient text' pien. Ying Shao followed the `ancient text' to read fan as pien, whereas Wei Chao explained fan as to, so that the interpretation of this sentence by the modern text school did not change the reading.Ying Shao says that the li in li-min 黎民 means 衆. Yen Shih-ku repeats this interpretation in a note to 5: 10b(10).In the Book of History, the sentence here quoted refers to the actions of Yao and comes before the appointment of the Hsi and the Ho, whereas the edict here makes it the consequence the appointment of the Hsi and the Ho.
55. On the "orders for the months or Yüeh-ling" cf. Ku Chieh-kang Han-tai-Hsüeh-shu Shih-lüeh 漢代學術史略, pp. 40, 41. Tung Chung-shu was largely responsible for this cult.
56. The Sung Ch'i ed. notes that the Ancient Text (before vii cent.) did not have the word for "summer."
57. Li Ch'i (fl. ca. 200) says, "[The rank] of eight hundred [piculs] was eliminated and [the former occupants of that rank] were given [the rank of] six hundred [piculs; the rank] of five hundred [piculs] was eliminated and [the former occupants of that rank] were given [the rank of] four hundred [piculs]." Cf. Glossary, sub "Salaries."
58. Wang Hsien-ch'ien suggests that the word 詔 has dropped out at this point. Since the edict is not quoted in full, possibly Pan Ku purposely omitted this word.
59. Hoang lists no chia-shen day in the eighth month. chia-shen may have been a mistake for chia-tzu, which was Oct. 16.
60. Wang Hsien-ch'ien notes that the foregoing statement has nothing to do with the rest of the entries for this month, and says that such a general statement is not paralleled elsewhere. Hence he suggests that it has been displaced from the end of the statement just above, concerning the appointment of Grandee-remonstrants and Erudits. It seems as if something has been omitted at this point.
61. A quotation from Analects II, xi.
62. A quotation from Analects XV, ix.
63. He died some time before May 28th, which was the day when his successor, Wang Yin, was installed; cf. 19 B: 43a. Yen Shih-ku remarks that the annalist upon whom Pan Ku depended for the events of this "Annals" probably did not know in what month Chang Chung died, so noted his death at the end of the chronicle for the year, just as with Wang Chün (10: 12a). Pan Ku did not compile the HS "Tables," which record the dates of official appointments.
64. The text reads "third month," but HS 27 Cb: 25a says, "In Yang-so III, the second month, on [the day] jen-hsü, eight meteorites fell in Po-ma [a prefecture of Tung Commandery]." According to Hoang, there was no jen-hsü day in the third month (which is the reading in the present text of the "Annals"). Hence I have emended "third" to "second" in my translation. Han-chi 25: 9b reads "third month," showing that the "Annals" was already mistaken in the second century. The peculiar style in recording meteorites is copied from the Spring and Autumn. It is also used throughout the catalogue of meteorites in HS 27 Cb: 25a. Cf. Hu Shih, The Development of Logical Method in Ancient China, p. 49.
65. The text reads "commanderies" instead of "prefectures"; Chou Shou-ch'ang remarks that the rebellion was put down within a month, which would have been difficult or impossible if the rebellion had extended to nine commanderies; the names of these commanderies are moreover not given. Hence "commanderies" is a mistake for "prefectures." In 17 B.C., the rebellion of Cheng Kung lasted over a year, although he disturbed only four prefectures (10: 10a,b). Hsün Yüeh seems to have followed a text which read "commanderies" and also to have felt that it was doubtful, for his Han-chi 25: 9b reads, "He overran commanderies and kingdoms." HS 28 Ai: 91a notes an office for iron in Yang-ch'eng of Ying-ch'uan Commandery.
66. -1908), "In my opinion, chün-hsing 軍興 was the name of a Han [dynasty] law. The Chou-li 16: [1a = Biot, I, 357, says], `He equitably distributes [the grain] which has been collected and stored up,' and Cheng Hsüan [127-200] comments, `When the imperial government levies and gathers goods, [this levy] is called hsing. What today is called chün-hsing is the same [as this].' " Hence chün-hsing was a technical term for levying an army and military supplies, and not an error for 軍典, as it is said to be in the Tz'u-t'ung, vol. II, ch. 24, p. 151. This phrase is also found in HS 57 B: 1a; 99 B: 14b; etc. For other examples, cf. Han-lü-k'ao 3: 11a. Cf. also the technical name for the crime connected with this law, in HS 99 C: 15b.
67. Ch'ien Ta-hsin remarks that deaths of Commanders-in-chief are recorded beginning with 117 B.C. (6: 17b), but their surnames are omitted, just as in the case of Lieutenant Chancellors, except in 22 B.C. (10: 7b), 15 B.C. (10: 11b), and 11 B.C. (10: 14a).
68. The "Great Plan" is Bk. iv of Part V in the Book of History; the allusion is to verse 7 (Legge, p. 327), which enumerates the eight concerns of government.
69. Ying Shao glosses, "The work of spring is plowing." This phrase is an allusion to Book of History, I, ii, 4 (Legge, p. 19).
70. Yen Shih-ku explains, "The ch'ien-mo 阡陌 were the roads between the cultivated fields. Those north and south were called ch'ien; those east and west were called mo. They were probably those opened by Shang Yang in the Ch'in period." On these paths, cf. the illuminating remarks by Dr. Duyvendak in his Book of Lord Shang, p. 18, n. 3; p. 45, n. 1 and the notes in HS 24 A: 8b and 28 Bii: 51a.
71. Book of History, IV, vii, i, 9 (Legge, p. 226f).
72. For 朂 (which is in Wang Hsien-ch'ien's text and in the Official ed. , and which is not found in the dictionaries), the Ching-yu ed. (1034) and the Chi-ku Ko ed. (1642) read 勗.
73. HS 27 Bb: 14a says, "In Yang-so IV, the fourth month [May], snow fell, and in [the kingdom of] Yen, birds died."
74. Book of History, V, xxviii, 2 (Legge, p. 617). In the present text of that Book, three characters are different from those in the quotation here. Instead of the HS text's 克, it reads 或; instead of 咎, it reads 俊; and instead of 躬, it reads 服; thus giving an entirely different meaning to the last two clauses. Wen Ying (fl. ca. 196-220) comments, "It says, [putting the words into the mouth of King P'ing of the Chou dynasty], that my Chou dynasty has not been able to secure, as those employed [in charge of] affairs, [officials] who are aged and capable, [thereby] causing the state to be in danger and ruin. The blame lies upon those employed [to be in charge of] affairs." Su Yü (fl. 1913) says that Wen Ying's explanation, "the blame lies upon those employed [to be in charge of] affairs," interprets exactly chüeh-kung 厥躬, which are the last two words of the quotation in the edict, and that if this clause were interpreted to mean "the blame lies upon myself," as Yen Shih-ku (and Legge, loc. cit.) interprets it, 朕 would have to be written instead of chüeh. He also remarks that the HS text is probably from the "modern text" of the Book of History.In spite of the text, the sense would, however, seem to require Yen Shih-ku's interpretation, but of course chüeh does not bear that interpretation. Dr. Duyvendak has called my attention to Karlgren's article on the pronoun chüeh in the Book of History, (Göteborgs Högskolas Årsskrift, 39 : 2, pp. 29-38) in which he argues that, for paleological reasons, chüeh was sometimes confused with nai 乃, both in the sense of "then" and as the second personal pronoun. But even nai would not give a suitable meaning here.
75. Chang Yen (iii cent.) says, "He went out by a rear gate, followed by Gentlemen Attendants at the Gates, together with his private slaves and guests, [in all] ten-odd persons. They were [clothed] in white garments with a girdle and turban, and [rode] one-[horse chariots] or [were all] on horses, going in and out of the markets and wards without again ordering a clearing of the roads. This was like the conduct of an unimportant and humble [person], hence it was called wei-hsing 微行 (traveling [like] an unimportant [person])." Tzu-chih T'ung-chien 31: 2 a,b quotes the above comment in its text and adds that the Emperor went as far as the prefectures neighboring on Ch'ang-an and to Kan-ch'üan, Ch'ang-yang, and Wu-tso Palaces, to see cock-fights and horse-races. It adds that he called himself a member of the household of the Marquis of Fu-p'ing, Chang Fang, whose mother was Emperor Ch'eng's aunt, the Princess of Ching-wu, and who had himself married a younger sister of Emperor Ch'eng's Empress nee Hsü and was in high favor with the Emperor. The above information is taken largely from HS 97 B: 16a and 27 Ba: 11a, b.
76. Yen Shih-ku implies that it was the prefecture of Chen-ting (q.v. in Glossary), but I have preferred to take the larger unit, which included that prefecture.
77. HS 27 Bb: 9a says, "The Erudits performed the rites of the great archery [contest]." Han-chi 25: 11a says, "The Erudits performed the rites for the district drinking of wine." For these rites, cf. Li-chi, ch. XLIII. These three statements all refer to the same rites; the first sentence in Li-chi XLIII (Legge, XXVIII, 446; Couvreur, II, 668) is, "Anciently, when the feudal nobles would practise archery, they always first performed the ceremonies of the banquet. When the ministers, grandees, and gentlemen would practise archery, they always first performed the ceremonies of the district drinking of wine." Cheng Hsüan (127-200), in a comment to the title of Li-chi XLIII, says that this chapter records the rites of (1) the banquet and archery [contest] and (2) the great archery [contest], (which two were probably the same thing, for only one performance is discussed in the chapter).
78. The Sung Ch'i ed. says that the T'ang text (before xi cent.) read 陛 for the chieh 階 of the text; but HS 27 Bb: 9a (which repeats this statement), Han-chi 25: 11b, and Tzu-chih T'ung-chien 31: 3a all read chieh, so that the T'ang text must have been mistaken.
79. HS 27 Bb: 9a specifies them as the yamens of the Grand Master of Ceremonies, the Superintendent of the Imperial House, the Lieutenant Chancellor, the Grandee Secretary, and the Commander-in-chief and General of Chariots and Cavalry.
80. A quotation from Book of History II, i, iii, 9 (Legge, p. 37).
81. Yen Shih-ku says, "Ling 陵 [means] ch'iu 丘-ling (a mound); yi 夷 [means] p'ing 平 (level or calm). It says that it decays 穨替 as a mound gradually becomes level." He also says, "Ling-ch'ih 遲 also means [to decay], as a mound's sinuosities gradually become lower." This statement is repeated in MH III, p. 122, n. 2. But Wang Nien-sun (1744-1832) replies, "[Yen] Shih-ku is mistaken in considering that ling [in ling-yi] means a mound. Ling and yi both [mean] p'ing (level). In a note to Wen-hsüan [9: 9a sub] the "Ch'ang-yang Fu," [Li Shan (649-689) quotes] Hsieh [Han's (fl. ca. 25-60)] Han-shih Chang-chü [as saying], `Ling means to be p'ing in [all] four [directions].' Hence the ling of ch'iu-ling (a tomb-mound) originally took its meaning from ling-yi; ling-yi did not take its meaning from ch'iu-ling. SC 18: [2 (Mh III, 121 f), says], `At first [the Emperor] has never failed to want to strengthen [a noble clan's] trunk and roots, yet its branches and leaves little by little ling-ch'ih shuai-wei 陵遲衰微 (decay and weaken).' The four words ling-ch'ih and shuai-wei are precisely parallel. Ling-yi cannot be interpreted as the yi of a ling any more than shuai-wei can be interpreted as the shuai of a wei."Ling-yi is related to ling-ch'ih as wei 逶-yi is related to wei-ch'ih. Hence Wang Su [159-256], in a comment on the [K'ung-tzu] Chia-Yü [(prob. written by Wang Su), 1: 7a], says, `Ling-ch'ih is like an inclined declivity 陂陀.' Huai-nan-tzu [ii cent. B.C.], " T'ai-ts'u Hsün," [20: 6b, says], `Because the [Yellow] River is tortuous (wei-yi 逶蛇), it is able to extend far; because the mountains decline (ling-ch'ih), they are able to be high.' Wei-yi and ling-ch'ih are parallel expressions; ling-ch'ih cannot be understood as the ch'ih (decline) of a ling (mound), any more than wei-yi can be understood as the wei (tortuousness) of a yi (serpent).' . . . Then it is quite clear that [the ling of ling-yi and ling-ch'ih] is not the ling of ling-ch'iu."
82. HS 27 Cb: 25a says, "In Hung-chia II, v, on [the day] kuei-wei [June 16], three meteorites fell in Tun-yen [in Nan-yang Commandery]."
83. Ch'ien Ta-hsin (1728-1804) points out that the word 弟 (younger brother) has dropped out at this point, and should be read, as in 53: 12b. Cf. Glossary sub Liu Yün-k'o. HS 14: 16b dates his appointment in the eighth month (Sept./Oct.).
84. The first mention of selling noble ranks is in 243 B.C. (Mh II, 103), when one step was sold for a thousand piculs of grain. This enactment may, however, have been merely making uniform a practise dating from the time of Shang Yang (cf. Duyvendak, The Book of Lord Shang, pp. 64f, 236, 253, 304). In 195 B.C., the price of noble ranks was still high, for those Gentlemen who were not awarded a step in noble rank were given ten thousand cash (HS 2: 1b), so that a step was worth more than ten thousand cash. HS 24 A: 14b, 15a says that in the time of Emperor Wen, when grain was lacking for the border military colonies, those who contributed six hundred piculs were given the second noble rank, Superior Accomplished; those who contributed four thousand piculs were given the ninth rank, Fifth Rank Grandee; and those who contributed twelve thousand piculs were given the eighteenth rank, Great Chief of the Multitude. Ch'en Shu-yung (fl. 1887), in his Han-kuan Ta-wen 5: 1a, calculates that at 40 cash per picul of grain (an average price), the second rank was worth twenty-four thousand cash, so that one step was worth more than ten thousand cash. In 123 B.C., Emperor Wu sold a specially created hierarchy of military noble ranks at the rate of 170,000 cash for the first step (with succeeding ranks seemingly at a higher rate, cf. Mh III, 555f; HS 24 B: 8a, b). Evidently with the amelioration of the laws and government policies after the time of Emperor Wu, the exemptions given by noble rank were not needed so much. As a result, noble ranks lost their appeal, so that Emperor Ch'eng finally had to reduce the price drastically.
85. HS 27 A: 18b says, "In the fifth month, on [the day] yi-hai [June 3], in the Southern Mountains of Chi [prefecture] in T'ien-shui [Commandery], a great stone cried out. Its sound was rumbling like thunder, and in a moment it stopped sounding." For the interpretation of this portent (the people are complaining), cf. Eberherd, "Beiträge," p. 19.
86. Wang Nien-sun points out that the word 北 has dropped out at this point. It is found in HS 27 A: 15a and in Han-chi 25: 12b. In similar notations of previous fires at temple portals, in HS 4s, the name of the portal is, as here, sometimes omitted. yet in each case ch. 27 specifies the particular portal affected. Cf. 10: 11a, 13a.The fire and the dismissal of Empress nee Hsü are also coupled in ch. 27.
87. HS 27 A: 18b describes those events slightly differently: "In Kuang-han [Commandery, the convicts] with iron collars plotted [together], attacked the jail, and took by force a prisoner [sentenced for] a capital crime, Cheng Kung, and others. They robbed arms from the arsenal, and pillaged and overran the officials and people. [Cheng Kung] clothed [himself] in embroidered garments and called himself the Lord of the Mountains. His party gradually increased. The next year, however, in the winter, he suffered execution. Those who gave themselves up [numbered] more than three thousand persons." On the significance of this and other rebellions, cf. Introduction to this chapter, pp. 362-363.
88. HS 27 Bb: 17 b says, "In Hung-chia IV, in the autumn, in Hsin-tu(a) [Commandery]. it rained fish that were as long as five inches and less."
89. HS 19 B: 46b records the appointment of Chao Hu as Chief of Palace Police in the Capital under the date 12 B.C., and Chu Yi-hsin (1846-1894) explains the discrepancy by saying that Pan Ku merely notes this event here in order to complete his account of the rebellion.
90. HS 27 A: 15a notes these two fires with the same wording, adding that it was the Southern Portal; cf. n. 10.4. These fires are there likewise coupled with the elevation of Chao Fei-yen.HS 27 Bb: 17b says, "In Yung-shih I, in the spring, in Po-hai [Commandery, the ocean] produced four large fish, sixty feet long [45 ft. Eng. meas.] and ten feet high [(7/12) ft. Eng. meas.]." These fish were probably stranded whales.
91. P. Hoang, Concordance des chronologies néoméniques, contains an unnoticed typographical error in this year. His lunar months, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9 should have been set to correspond with the solar months, 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10 respectively. Otherwise the table for this year seems correct.
92. Ju Shun (fl. dur. 189-265) explains, "Within the Tomb there were Majors' Gates to its Hall, just as [is the case] in the buildings [occupied by the Emperor] during his lifetime." But Fu Tsan (fl. ca. 285) replies, "Within the grave-pit that held the Son of Heaven there were no Majors' Gates to its Hall. This [passage] denotes the Funerary Chamber and Hall above the Tomb, [not in the grave itself], together with their Majors' Gates. At that time they had not all been built." Yen Shih-ku approves Fu Tsan's explanation and adds that the chung-ling 中陵 was the 正寢 (Main Funerary Chamber) of the central Tomb. Cf. Glossary sub Funerary Chamber of Emperor Kao.
93. A saying of Confucius, from Analects XV, xxix.
94. Ch'en Ching-Yün (1670-1747) suggests emending chi 及 to fan 反. Liu Hsiang had admonished the nst the Ch'ang Tomb (cf.HS 36: 19b-24a).HS 10: 12a says that Shun-Yü Chang advised the Emperor that the people should be prevented from moving to Ch'ang(1)-ling and that the Emperor's tomb "should be returned (fan) to its former location," i. e., to the Yen Tomb. A note to Hsi-Han Nien-chi (printed 1221) 26: 16b, by Wang Yi-chih, says that Wang Yi-chih's Hsi-Han Nien-chi K'ao-yi remarks that the then current copies and the Academy ed. (1124) write chi, but that Wang Yen-chang (1079-1154), who collated an edition of the Southern T'ang period (937-975), wrote this phrase with fan instead of chi.
95. Hu San-hsing (1230-1287), in a note to Tzu-chih T'ung-chien 31: 12a, explains, "At the former Tomb they were not to build a town for the Tomb and move officials and common people [there]."
96. The Official ed. reads 勸 for the 動 of the text.
97. HS 19 B: 45b notes this death on the day yi-szu, Feb. 17.
98. HS 27 Cb: 19a says, "In Yung-shih, II, ii, on kuei-wei, after midnight, stars fell like rain, ten or twenty feet (degrees) long. [They appeared] continuously and were extinguished before they reached the earth. At cockcrow they stopped." This meteoric shower was that of the Lyrids, which is now dated on Apr. 20, because of precession.
99. Ju Shun explains, "[The Emperor] granted them noble ranks and exempted them from the land-tax and capitation taxes, considering [the foregoing] as the value [of their charitable contributions]." But Yen Shih-ku replies, "This explanation is mistaken. . . . It means that the offices had [already] granted them the value of their expense. Only at this time did he add noble ranks, together with exemption from capitation taxes."Senior Chieftain of Conscripts was the fourteenth rank; Fifth Rank Grandee was the ninth rank; cf. Glossary sub vocibus.
100. Ho Ch'uo (1661-1722) remarks that this practise was not as bad as that of Emperors An and Huan in the Later Han Dynasty, who sold these official positions and noble ranks for money. Cf. HHS An. 5: 6b; 7: 10b.
101. These altars had been abolished in Jan./Feb. 31 B.C. (Cf. 10: 3a and n. 3.4). Ho Ch'uo says that they were now restored. He is however probably mistaken. HS 25 B: 15b-16a quotes the Empress Dowager's edict (cf. 10: 12b), which shows that these altars were not reestablished as regular places of imperial sacrifice until Nov. 14, 14 B.C. Liu Hsiang(4) had told Emperor Ch'eng that these ancient places were extremely honorable and important; the Emperor was probably experimenting to see whether he wanted to reestablish these altars permanently.
102. Li Tz'u-ming (1829-1894) remarks that the word 長 should be inserted before the 首.
103. According to 19 B: 44a, 45b, he died before Apr. 10, 15 B.C., when Chai Fang-chin became Grandee Secretary.
104. HS 27 Ba: 24b says, "In Yung-shih, III and IV, in the summer, there was a great drought."
105. Some copies of the Official ed. have 忘 instead of 志. The sacrifices in the Southern and Northern Suburbs were reestablished in 7 B.C.; cf. 10: 16a. For these gods, cf. Glossary sub vocibus.
106. This man's name is found in HS 26: 58b. (From Ch'ien Ta-chao.)
107. HS 17: 31b-32b enumerates only four: Li T'an, Cheng Chung, Chung Tsu, and Tzu Shun. Szu-ma Kuang (1019-1086), in his Tzu-chih T'ung-chien K'ao-yi, 1: 15b, accordingly says that the "Annals" is mistaken in saying "five." But as Pan Ku did not compile the "Tables," that reasoning is far from conclusive.
108. HS 26: 58b, in recounting this rebellion, says "By the next year they had passed through more than forty commanderies and kingdoms." HS 27 A: 18b also reads "forty"; Chou Shou-ch'ang, however, remarks that there were only 103 commanderies and kingdoms in the empire, hence "forty" would mean that about half the country was in revolt. Such a great rebellion could not be put down so quickly. Chou Shou-ch'ang suggests that the word "four" is an interpolation in these two passages, and that they should read "more than ten commanderies and kingdoms."
109. HS 27 A: 15b contains the same recording of these three fires, specifying, in the case of the last one, that it was the southern part of the Eastern Portal; cf. n. 10.4. These fires were blamed upon the fact that the control of the government was in the hands of the Wang clan.
110. It was then thirty-five years after the death of Emperor Hsüan; more than a century previously, Emperor Wen had ordered that his inferior concubines were to be sent back home immediately after his death. Cf. 4: 20b.
111. Book of Odes, II, iv, vii, 1 (Legge, p. 309).
112. Yen Shih-ku notes the implication that red, purple, etc. are forbidden to the common people.
113. This event was probably a freak thunderstorm just over the horizon.
114. This was Halley's comet, for which Cowell and Crommelin (Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 68: 669) calculate a perihelion for Oct. 8, 12 B.C. HS 27 Cb: 23a, b, says, "In Yüan-yen, I, vii, on hsin-wei, [Aug. 26], a comet appeared in [the constellation] Tung-ching [μ, ν, γ, ξ, λ, ζ, 36, ε Gem], and marched over the Five Nobles [θ, ι, τ, ν, κ Gem]. It rose north of the [two] Ho-shu [the same as the Nan and Po-ho, ρ, α, β Gem and ε, β, α C Min] and directed itself towards and traversed Hsien-Yüan [35 Lyn; 10 U Ma; 38, α Lyn; 59, ι, ξ Cnc; λ, ε, μ, ζ, γ, η, α, ο, 31 Leo] and T'ai-wei [δ, θ, ι, σ Leo; β, η, γ, δ, ε Vir; α Com]. It daily progressed six degrees [of equatorial longitude] or more. At dawn it rose in the eastern quarter. On the thirteenth day [Sept. 7], at evening, it appeared in the western quarter. It invaded the Second Consort [ζ Scr (cf. SC 27: 14 notes)], the Harem [another name for Wei(3) ( ε, μ, ζ, η, θ, ι, κ, λ, ν Scr) and Chi (γ, δ, ε, η Sgr; cf. HS 26: 8b, 9a)], the Bushel [ζ, τ, σ, φ, λ, μ Sgr], and Saturn. [On Sept. 7, Saturn was in R. A. 283.5°.]"The point of its flame [its tail] penetrated twice through the Tzu-kung [a circle of stars about the north polar regions: 6, λ Dra; Piazzi 10(h) 126, 27 U Ma; Piazzi 7(h) 187, 48 H Cep; 19 H Cam; α, ι, η, ζ, δ, ε Dra; β, γ Cep]. Its great fire [head?] later reached to the Milky Way and swept [away evils] in the Region of the Consorts and Empress [U Mi?], went south, moved on, and invaded Ta-chio [Arcturus], the [two] Shê-t'i [η, τ, ν and ο, π, ζ Boo], and went to the Heavenly Market-place [four stars of the six in Ch'i (cf. HS 26: 7b), i.e., ν, ρ 43, π, ο, ν Sgr], where it stopped for a lunation, traveling slowly. Its flame [tail] entered into the Market-place for ten days and later went west and left. On the fifty-sixth day [Oct. 20], it hid itself together with the Azure Dragon [the same as the Eastern Palace (cf. 26: 7a), one-quarter of the zodiac, including Chio, K'ang, Ti, Fang, Hsin, Wei(3), and Chi (Vir, Lib, Scr, and part of Sgr)]." E. Biot, in Connaissance des temps, 1846, app., pp. 83 f, and J. Williams, Observations of Comets, pp. 9 f, have not translated this difficult passage in full. Cf. also J. H. Hind, in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 10: 58. Wen Shion Tsu, "The Observations of Halley's Comet in Chinese History," Popular Astronomy 42: (1934) 193, has translated part of this passage, but with errors. The recording he takes for the appearance of Halley's comet in 163 B.C., taken from HS 26: 49b, is a blunder; the date there given is Feb. 6, 162 B.C., a year different from that calculated for Halley's comet. The return of 87 B.C. is dated in HS 7: 1b (cf. my note 1.4), which Mr. Wen seems not to have seen.
115. The Sung Ch'i ed. says that the T'ang text (before xi cent.) and the Chiang-nan text (x cent.) write Hsiao Hsi(3)'s personal name as "Chia," which was the name of a man who was a grandson of Hsiao Ho and who was marquis 155-149 B.C. HS 16: 12b dates Hsiao Hsi(3)'s appointment in Yung-shih I, four years before Yüan-shih I, and notes that his son succeeded him in Yung-shih IV, so that the notation of Hsiao Hsi(3)'s appointment here in the "Annals" cannot be correct.
116. For this sensational imperial infanticide, cf. Glossary, sub Chao, Brilliant Companion née, and the Introduction to this chapter, pp. 369-372 ff. HS 27 Cb: 23b, after the account of Halley's comet, says, "In this year, the Brilliant Companion [née] Chao killed the two Imperial Sons and the fifth year afterwards Emperor Ch'eng died"; Pan Ku in his "Annals" may hence be referring to both infanticides. But the dates he gives in ch. 97 show that only one babe was killed in 12 B.C.
117. The Sung Ch'i ed. said that the Ching-tê ed. (1004-5), the Text in the Historiographer's Office (before xi cent.), and the T'ang ed. (before xi cent.) all write 宇 instead of Shou. Han-chi 27: 7a writes Hsien 憲. HS 14: 20b and 63: 17b write Shou; Tzu-chih T'ung-chien 32: 8b follows suit.
118. Ju Shun explains the meaning of the word chiao 校 (translated "contest") by quoting Chou-li 33: 1a (Biot, II, 254) to the effect that the Hsiao- (or Chiao-)jen 人 had charge of the imperial horses. Yen Shih-ku says he is mistaken, and that chiao here means a wooden fence enclosing the animals to be hunted. Liu Pin (1022-1088), however, explains that chiao here has the meaning it has in Analects VIII, v, viz., "contesting," which interpretation is approved by Wang Hsien-ch'ien.For a brilliant description of this hunt, cf. Yang Hsiung's Yü-lieh (or Chiao-lieh) Fu and his Ch'ang-yang Fu; HS 87 A: 23a-33a; 87 B: 1b; Wen-hsüan 8: 20a-33a; trans. in von Zach, Uebersetzungen aus dem Wen Hsüan, pp. 14-16.There has been a misunderstanding concerning the dating of this hunt. HS 87 A: 19b, 23a dates the presentation of Yang Hsiung's Yü-lieh Fu in 11 B.C., while 87 B: 1a dates in the next year the presentation of his Ch'ang-yang Fu (the introduction to which describes the gathering of the animals for the hunt, and their being freed and being chased by the Hu barbarians with their bare hands). Szu-ma Kuang, in his Tzu-chih T'ung-chien K'ao-yi 1: 16a, hence argues that the hunting contest happened in Yüan-yen III, and dates it thus in his Tzu-chih T'ung-chien 32: 11a. But, as Shen Ch'in-han explains in a note to HS 87 B: 1a, Yüan-yen III is merely the date of the Ch'ang-yang Fu's presentation to the Emperor; the Yü-lieh Fu and the Ch'ang-yang Fu both refer to the same event. Hence the dating of this hunt here in 10: 14b must be correct.Wang Hsien-ch'ien thinks that 從 should be read as 縱, interpreting the passage to mean, "He set free [animals and birds for] his Hu guests to hold a great hunting contest," as in HS 87 B: 1b(9).
119. HS 27 Ca: 10b repeats most of this passage, saying that "the water of the River flowed backwards to the third day and then it flowed on." Liu Hsiang4 interpreted this event to mean that it is to be feared the Han dynasty would soon end.
120. HS 27 Cb: 25a says, "In Yüan-yen IV, the third month, two meteorites fell in Tu-kuan [of Shan-yang Commandery]."
121. The Ching-yu ed. and the Official ed. read Yi-hsiang 響, so does 18: 23b and 79: 10a. Wang Hsien-ch'ien reads Yi-ch'ing, with a note that this reading is erroneous. Liu Hsing was the rival candidate for the position of Heir-apparent.
122. Yen Shih-ku explains the "Three Beginnings (san-t'ung 三統)" as "Heaven, Earth, and Man." This phrase also refers to the Three Dynasties: the Hsia, the Yin, and the Chou dynasties. The phrase was used by Tung Chung-shu in his cyclical theory of history to denote these three dynasties with their respective colors, black, white, and red, which three principles he asserted would succeed each other in a ceaseless round. Cf. Fung Yu-lan, A History of Chinese Philosophy, p. 27, n. 1; Chung-kuo Chê-hsüeh Shih, vol. II, ch. II, sect. 11, pp. 532-537.Ch'ien Ta-hsin points out that at this time only the descendants of the Yin and Chou dynasties were enfeoffed, and no search was made for any descendants of the Hsia dynasty, so concludes that the term, "the three dynasties (san-tai 三代)" here, contrary to its meaning elsewhere, refers to the Yin, Chou, and Han dynasties. Emperor Ch'eng is however merely quoting from a memorial of K'uang Heng, presented about 44 B.C. to Emperor Yüan (67: 12b-13a), which begins, "The [true] kings, [referring to the Chou dynasty], `preserved the descendants of the two [preceding] kingly [dynasties,' i.e., the Hsia and Yin dynasties (a quotation from Tung Chung-shu's Ch'un-ch'iu Fan-lu, 7: 4b, "San-tai Kai-chih Chih-wen," in which section this clause appears several times)], in order to honor their own deceased [ancestral] kings and `connect themselves with the Three Beginnings' [another quotation from Tung Chung-shu ibid., 7: 6b]." This memorial went on to recommend enfeoffing a descendant of Confucius in order to carry on the sacrifices to the Yin dynasty. Emperor Yüan had considered that this recommendation was not classical, so had laid the memorial aside. Recently, Mei Fu had memorialised Emperor Ch'eng, making the same recommendation (67: 11a-12b). Because Mei Fu also attacked the Wang clan, his memorial was rejected. Emperor Ch'eng's attention was however drawn to K'uang Heng's memorial, and it was acted upon, in accordance with the principles of "the Tso-chuan, the Ku-liang Commentary, the Geneological Origins (Shih-pen), and the Book of Rites" (67: 13a). A descendant of the Chou dynasty had been enfeoffed by Emperor Wu; Emperor Ch'eng was only interested further in honoring the descendants of the two preceding dynasties, in accordance with Tung Chung-shu's principle, hence he did not feel it encumbent upon him to enfeoff any dedynasty enfeoffed any descendants of the Hsia dynasty. Cf. Po-hu-t'ung, 7: 8a, "San-cheng." Since the Chou Dynasty enfeoffed the descendants of the two preceding dynasties, Confucian authorities held that other dynasties need support only the scions of the two preceding dynasties. It is noteworthy that in so doing, the Ch'in dynasty was neglected---it was treated as a usurping dynasty, not in the true succession.
123. Shen Ch'in-han remarks that the word 大 at this point is an interpolation. It is lacking in HS 19 B: 47b and in Han-chi 27: 8b.
124. Later Grand Ministers of Works, e. g. Chu Po, were not ipso facto ennobled.
125. Ju Shun says, "According to the Code, the salaries of the Lieutenant Chancellor and of the Commander-in-chief and General-in-chief were 60,000 cash per month. The salary of the Grandee Secretary was 40,000 cash per month." Hung Liang-chi (17461809) remarks, "If the salary of the Commander-in-chief was really like that of the Lieutenant Chancellor, why does this [passage] say `increased'? I suspect that since in 67 B.C. Emperor Hsüan established a Commander-in-chief without concurrently making him a general and without a seal, seal-ribbon, or official subordinates, his emolument was probably also reduced; hence this [edict] increased it to be the same grade as that of the Lieutenant Chancellor. [Ju Shun's] comment quotes `the Code', which must be the Code of the time of Emperor Wu." Cf. also 19 A: 4b, 5a.
126. Liu Ch'ing(3b) was to continue the ancestral sacrifices to Liu K'ang, King Kung of Ting-t'ao, since King Kung's son had been made the Imperial Heir-apparent and should therefore maintain the sacrifices to Emperor Ch'eng, and not to his natural father. Cf. Glossary sub Hsiao-Ai, Emperor.
127. The lady née Hsü was the former Empress. Shen Ch'in-han remarks that the first 藥 is an interpolation. I have retained it in the translation. For this incident, cf. Introduction to this chapter, p. 361, and Glossary sub vocibus.
128. The text writes chi-mao, but if there was a ping-hsü day in the third month, as stated above, there could hardly have been a chi-mao day in the fourth month. Hoang gives none. Chi 己 is almost certainly an error for yi 乙, a common copyist's mistake. This mistake must have occurred early, for Fu Tsan (fl. ca. 285), in a note, says that from the death to the burial was to the fifty-fourth day, which is the number of days from a ping-hsü to a chi-mao day, inclusive. Han-chi 27: 11b, 12a, dates the death in the third month on the day ping-wu and the burial in the fourth month on the day chi-mao, and says specifically that the interval was to the thirty-fourth day, which number is obtained by using these cyclical days. But Hoang gives neither a ping-wu day in the third month nor a chi-mao day in the fourth month. Hence the error in the text of the HS must date at least to the second century, when the Han-chi was written, for the Han-chi is plainly correcting the date of the Emperor's death to correspond to the interval of a month. It puts the death on the day of Emperor Ai's accession to the throne, according to Han-chi 28: 1a and HS 11: 2a. HS 97 B: 10b and 81: 17a inform us that K'ung Kuang was made Lieutenant Chancellor and Marquis on the day of Emperor Ch'eng's death, and HS 19 B: 48b and 18: 24a both date those events in the third month on the day ping-hsü, so that Emperor Ch'eng certainly died on that day. The alternative possibility, that the burial occurred in the fifth month on the day chi-mao, is not at all likely, because both the HS and the Han-chi date the burial in the fourth month, while the latter has plainly made a correction to bring the burial into the fourth month.
129. This was the Favorite Beauty nee Pan (cf. Glossary, sub voce) who was the paternal aunt of Pan Piao; hence Pan Piao wrote this part of the eulogy.
130. A quotation from a description of Confucius in Analects X, xvii, here used to praise Emperor Ch'eng.
131. An allusion to Book of Odes, IV, i, ii, vii, 1 (Legge, p. 589) or to Li-chi XV, 23 (Legge, II, 73; Couvreur, II, 12).
132. The beginning of Emperor Ch'eng's reign.
133. T'ai-p'ing Yü-lan (978-983) 89: 7b quotes this sentence with 久 instead of 漸.
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