GI Resistance: Soldiers and Veterans Against the Viet Nam War. A Bibliography.
Compiled by Skip Delano (1991)
This text, made available by the Sixties Project, is copyright (c) 1996 by Viet Nam Generation, Inc., or the author, all rights reserved. This text may be used, printed, and archived in accordance with the Fair Use provisions of U.S. Copyright law. This text may not be archived, printed, or redistributed in any form for a fee, without the consent of the copyright holder. This notice must accompany any redistribution of the text. The Sixties Project, sponsored by Viet Nam Generation Inc. and the Institute of Advanced Technology in the Humanities at the University of Virginia at Charlottesville, is a collective of humanities scholars working together on the Internet to use electronic resources to provide routes of collaboration and make available primary and secondary sources for researchers, students, teachers, writers and librarians interested in the 1960s.
This bibliography includes articles from newspapers, magazines, journals and books. Many were published during the Viet Nam war and are sources an historian might consult if he or she were writing about the antiwar movement of the 1960s. If you want to read more on a particular subject, begin your search under the topic heading you think most appropriate. Also skim through other topic headings for works which might related to your subject. Some sources overlap topic headings but are listed here only once. Take a few minutes to skim over the complete list. This bibliography emphasizes materials you will most likely have available at your local library. Almost every library has back issues of the New York Times available on microfilm. You can locate any article in minutes. Therefore, I have included more citations from this source than any other single source. Many of the other newspapers, magazines, and journals should be available on microfilm at most college and university libraries. An often overlooked resource is the Viet Nam veteran himself or herself. There are tens of thousands of Viet Nam and Viet Nam-era veterans who were active and know about the antiwar movement. Any corrections or additions to the bibliography should be sent to Kali Tal.
Of all the soldiers, the most rebellious were black and latino GIs. They were often in the forefront of combat refusals and antiwar protests in Viet Nam, while throughout the Armed Forces they launched protests against racism and national oppression.
Allen, Mark, "The Case of Billy Dean Smith," Black Scholar (Oct 1972): 15-17.
Goff, Stanley and Robert Sanders, Brothers: Black Soldiers in the Nam (Novato, CA: Presidio) 1982.
Graham, Fred P., "Two Marines Test Right of Dissent: Negroes Appeal Sentences for Antiwar Statement," New York Times (7 Mar 69): 11.
Grant, Zalin B., "Whites Against Blacks in Vietnam," New Republic (18 Jan 69): 15-16.
Holles, Everett, "Navy Disciplines Dissident Sailors," New York Times (11 Nov 72): 1.
King, William, ed., A White Man's War: Race Issues and Viet Nam, special issue of Viet Nam Generation 1:2 (Spring 1989).
Nakamura, Norman, "The Nature of GI Racism," in Amy Tachiki et al., eds., Roots: An Asian American Reader (Los Angeles: UCLA, Asian American Studies Center) 1971.
"Negro and White Marines Clash in Hawaii: 16 Hurt," New York Times (12 Aug 69): 23.
Nordheimer, Jon, ">From Dakto to Detroit: Death of a Troubled Hero," New York Times (26 May 71): 1.
Parks, David, GI Diary (NY: Harper & Row) 1968.
Polner, Murray, "18-Minute Verdict: Military Justice and Constitutional Rights," Commonweal (18 Mar 69): 40-43.
"Riot at Long Binh Stockade Attributed to Racial Acts," New York Times (4 Sep 68): 38.
Taylor, Clyde, Vietnam and Black America: An Anthology of Protest and Resistance (Garden City, NY: Anchor) 1973.
Throughout the war there were soldiers in Viet Nam who resisted, but after 1968 GI resistance became more common and took on a mass character. Opposition to the war took many forms--ranging from individual acts of insubordination like smoking dope or desertion to whole units of GIs refusing to fight.
"A New GI: For Pot and Peace," Newsweek (2 Feb 70): 24, 28.
Apple, R.W., Jr., "GI Who Refused to Bear Arms in Vietnam Gets Year," New York Times (12 Jun 66): 1.
Ayres, B. Drummond, Jr., "War Disillusions Many GIs in Vietnam," New York Times (4 Aug 69): 3.
Blumenthal, Ralph, "Military TV Newsman in Saigon Shifted After Remark on Agnew," New York Times (30 Dec 69): 2.
Boyle, Richard, Flower of the Dragon: The Breakdown of the U.S. Army in Vietnam (San Francisco: Ramparts) 1972.
"Carrot and Stick," Newsweek (25 May 70): 45.
Collier, Barnard L., "Profile of 4 Navy Deserters: Men Without Compelling Goals, with Dissatisfaction Focused by War," New York Times (1 Dec 67): 4.
Duncan, Donald, "I Quit," Ramparts 7 (25Jan 69): 41-46.
Duncan, Donald, The New Legions (NY: Random House) 1967.
Gardner, Fred, "War and GI Morale," New York Times (21 Nov 1970): 31.
"GI Dead, 58 Hurt in Stockade Riot," New York Times (30 Aug 68): 6.
"GI Who Deserted from Vietnam Gets 4 Years," New York Times (7 Mar 69): 10.
Gibson, James William, The Perfect War: Technowar in Vietnam (Boston: Atlantic Monthly Press) 1986.
Grant, Zalin, Survivors: American POWs in Vietnam (NY: Norton) 1975.
Jury, Mark, The Vietnam Photo Book (NY: Grossman) 1971.
"Just Downright Refusal," Newsweek (20 Apr 70): 51.
Kamm, Henry, "Army is Checking Antiwar Petition," New York Times (21 Nov 69): 10.
Lang, Daniel, Casualties of War (NY: McGraw-Hill) 1969.
Proffitt, Nicholas C., "Soldiers Who Refuse to Die," Newsweek (25 Oct 71): 67-68.
"Rioters at Marine Brig Set Fire to Cell Block," New York Times (8 Aug 68): 4.
"Second Riot Quelled at Vietnam Brig," New York Times (19 Aug 68): 5.
Smith, George E., POW: Two Years with the Viet Cong (Berkeley: Ramparts) 1971.
"Some GIs in Vietnam Join Protest," New York Times (16 Oct 69): 22.
Sterba, James P., "A War Critic in Vietnam," New York Times (14 Nov 69): 21.
Trumball, Robert, "Japanese Pacifists Report 4 Deserted a U.S. Carrier in War Protest," New York Times (14 Nov 67): 1.
"Two Freed GIs Say U.S. Should Quit Vietnam," New York Times (1 Dec 65): 1.
"U.S. Officer Guilty: Refused Jungle Post," New York Times (26 Jun 65): 1.
What started as individual acts of antiwar resistance in the military grew into a mass movement and spread to ever major U.S. military base in the world. The mass movement was at its peak during 1969 to 1972. The GI movement involved literally tens of thousands of GIs. They created GI organizations such as Baltimore GIs United (Ft. Holabird, MD), GIs United Against the War (Fort Bragg, NC), GI Co-ordinating Committee (Fort Sam Houston, TX), Movement for a Democratic Military (San Diego, CA), GI-Civilian Alliance for Peace (Fort Lewis, WA), American Serviceman's Union (New York), and Unsatisfied Black Soldiers (Mannheim, Germany).
"After the March," New Republic (29 Nov 69): 7-9.
Antiwar advertisement signed by 1,365 active-duty servicemen. New York Times (9 Nov 69): 9.
"Armed Forces: The Peace GIs," Newsweek (21 Apr 69): 36-37
"Army Sentenced to Death," The Movement (Feb-Mar 1970): 4.
Arnold, Martin, "3 Soldiers Hold News Conference to Announce they Won't Go To Vietnam," New York Times (1 Jul 66): 13.
Barnes, Peter, "Hacking It in the Action Army: The Presidio Mutiny," New Republic (5 Jul 69): 21-25.
Barnes, Peter, "Liberty and Justice for Some: The Army and the First Amendment," New Republic (24 May 69): 13-14.
Currey, Cecil B., Self-Destruction: The Disintegration and Decay of the United States Armed Forces During the Vietnam Era (New York: Norton) 1981. Written under the pseudonym "Cincinnatus."
Davis, Dennis, "GI Joe's a Red," Progressive Labor 7:2 (Aug 69): 48-56.
Franklin, Ben A., "War Resistance by GIs is Urged," New York Times (14 Nov 69): 13.
Franklin, Ben A., "GIs Sue Army on Rights," New York Times (2 Apr 69): 1.
Franklin, Ben A., "The Private and the General: War's Foes Petition Poses Challenge," New York Times (12 May 69): 4.
Gardner, Fred, The Unlawful Concert: An Account of the Presidio Mutiny Case (NY: Viking) 1970.
"GI Loses in a Suit to End Vietnam War," New York Times (16 Feb 66): 3.
"GIs Join Group to Protest War," New York Times (29 Dec 68): 7.
Gioglio, Gerald R., Days of Decision: An Oral History of Conscientious Objectors in the Military During the Vietnam War (Trenton, NJ: Broken Rifle Press 1989.
Goodman, Mitchell, The Movement Towards a New America (Philadelphia: Pilgrim Press; and, NY: Knopf) 1970.
Halstead, Fred, GIs Speak Out Against the War: The Case of the Fort Jackson 8 (NY: Pathfinder Press) 1970.
Throughout the war, marijuana usage was high and widespread in Viet Nam. Heroin became widely available after 1968. Opium, amphetamines, barbituates and psychedelic drugs were also available. The use of drugs reflected in part cultural rebelliona mong youth in and out of the military, but it also became a symptom of the all-around demoralization and lack of fighting will of GIs in Viet Nam.
Anderson, Jack, "GI Drug Abuse Hushed Up," Washington Post (4 Aug 70): B7.
Belair, Felix Jr., "House Unit Cites Rise in GI Drug Use," New York Times (25 May 71): 14.
Ingraham, L.H., "The Nam and the World: A Description of Heroin Use by U.S. Army Enlisted Men Serving in Vietnam," Psychiatry 37 (May 74): 114-128.
"Mary Jane in Action," Newsweek (6 Nov 67): 40.
McCoy, Alfred W., The Politics of Heroin in Southeast Asia (NY: Harper Colophon) 1972.
Peterson, Iver, "Deaths from Drug Abuse Rise Among Vietnam GIs," New York Times (21 Oct 70): 3.
Stanton, M. Duncan, "Drug Use in Vietnam: A Survey Among Army Personnel in the Two Northern Corps," Archives of General Psychiatry 26(Mar 72): 279-286.
Sterba, James P., "GIs find Marijuana is Plentiful," New York Times (2 Sep 70): 3.
"U.S. Denies 75%of GIs in Vietnam Use Marijuana," New York Times (28 Dec 67): 10.
Wyant, William K., Jr.., "Addiction in Vietnam: Coming Home with a Habit," Nation (5 Jul 71): 7-10.
Zinberg, Norman E., "GIs and OJs in Vietnam," New York Times Magazine (5 Dec 71) 37.
Most often, GI organization was locally based and centered around the publication of an underground GI antiwar newspaper. There were nearly 300 GI antiwar newspapers published during the Viet Nam war. They had names like Bragg Briefs (Ft. Bragg, NC), Left Face (Ft. McClellan, AL), Fatigue Press (Ft. Hood, TX), FTA (Ft. Knox, KY), Vietnam GI (Chicago), All Ready On The Left (Camp Pendleton, CA), Fed-Up (Ft. Lewis, WA), Semper Fi (Iwakuni, Japan) and The Next Step (Heidelberg, Germany).
"Armed Forces: The Peace GIs," Newsweek (21 Apr 69): 36-37.
Franklin, Ben A., "Antiwar GI Editor Ousted from Army," New York Times (15 Apr 69): 1.
Haines, Harry William, "The GI Underground Press: Two Case Studies of Alternative Military Newspapers," Masters thesis, Univ. of Utah, 1976.
Lewis, Roger, Outlaws of America: The Underground Press and Its Context: Notes on a Cultural Revolution (Baltimore: Penguin) 1972.
Pilati, Joe, "The Underground GI Press: Pens Against the Pentagon," Commonweal (19 Sep 69): 559-561.
Polner, Murray, "The Underground GI Press," Columbia Journalism Review (Fall 70): 54-56.
"Seaman Priest," New Republic (14 Feb 70): 12-13.
Sullivan, Ronald, "Fort Dix Soldiers Publish Newspapers Opposing War," New York Times (6 Apr 69): 3.
Sullivan, Ronald, "Two Antiwar GIs Tried at Fort Dix," New York Times (24 Apr 69): 16.
Ungar, Sanford, J., "Underground Papers Flourish Among GIs," Washington Post (3 Aug 70): 1.
Widmer, Kingsley, "Censorship by Harassment," Nation (30 Mar 70): 366-369.
The archaic and repressive military justice system was used by commanders to silence GIs who spoke out against the Viet Nam war or otherwise challenged military authority. Commanders court-martialed 100,000 GIs annually. Ninety-five percent of court-martialed GIs were convicted. A major focus of the GI movement was the struggle to win constitutional rights inside the military.
"Air Force Captain Loses Court Test," New York Times (19 Dec 67): 10.
"Army Reduces Sentence of Officer in War Protest," New York Times (29 Jan 66): 3.
Averna, Vincent S., Lt.-Com., "Comments: Citizen-Servicemen and their Constitutional Rights," Temple Law Quarterly 43:3 (Spr 70): 213-227.
Bigart, Homer, "Capt. Levy is Given 3 Years in Prison: Ousted from Army," New York Times (4 Jun 67): 1.
Bishop, Joseph W., "The Quality of Military Justice," New York Times Magazine (22 Feb 70): 32.
"Critic of Vietnam Cleared by Army," New York Times (1 Aug 67): 4.
Crowell, Joan, Fort Dix Stockade: Our Prison Camp Next Door (NY: Links Books) 1974.
Davies, Lawrence E., "12 Presidio Protesters Found Guilty of Mutiny," New York Times Magazine (7 Jun 69): 16.
"Dissenting Servicemen and the First Amendment," Georgetown Law Journal 48:3(Sep 69): 485-492.
"GI Asia War Foe, Guilty of Balking," New York Times (14 Nov 67): 4.
Homan, Richard, "Crackdown on GI Dissent," Washington Post (10 Nov 1969): A6.
"Legal Group Will Aid GIs Charged in Vietnam," New York Times (17 Aug 70): 3.
Mataxis, Theodore C., "This Far No Farther: How Army Handles Dissenters in Uniform," Military Review 50:3 (Mar 70): 74-82.
"Military Prisons: About Face," Time (17 May 71): 63-64.
Phelps, Robert H., "Deserter policy Held Too Lenient," New York Times (6 Mar 69): 9.
Polner, Murray, ed., When Can I Come Home? A Debate on Amnesty for Exiles, Antiwar Prisoners and Others (NY: Anchor) 1972.
Rivkin, Robert S., GI Rights and Military Justice: The Draftee's Guide to Military Life and Law (NY: Grove Press) 1970.
Schumach, Murray, "Tear Gas Halts Riot by 100 Prisoners in Ft. Dix Stockade," New York Times (15 Jul 67): 1.
Sherman, Edward F., "Dissenters and Deserters: Antiwar Agitation in the Military," New Republic (6 Jan 68): 23-26.
Sherman, Edward F., "Buttons, Bumper Stickers and the Soldier," New Republic (17 Aug 68): 15-17.
Sherrill, Robert, Military Justice is to Justice as Military Music is to Music (NY: Harper&Row;) 1969.
Sherrill, Robert, "Must the Citizen Give Up His Civil Liberties When He Joins the Army?" New York Times Magazine (18 May 70): 525.
Smith, Robert M., "Army Sets Rules on Troop Dissent," New York Times (12 Sep 69): 1.
"Soldier Receives 2-Year Sentence for Antiwar Acts," New York Times (24 Feb 67): 2.
"Soldiers on the War," New Republic (6 Dec 69): 5.
West, Luther C., They Call It Justice: Command Influence and the Court-Martial System (NY: Viking) 1977.
Wooten, James T., "Dr. Levy Charges Army with Racism in Appeal Against Court Martial," New York Times (20 Apr 69): 32.
Some articles examined the GI antiwar movement with a broader perspective in mind.
Alband, Linda, Steve Rees, and Denni Woodmansee, "The GI Movement Today: The Volunteer Armed Forces and the Movement in the Ranks," Radical America 10:3(May-Jun 76): 26-45.
Ayres, B. Drummond, Jr., "Army is Shaken by Crisis in Morale and Discipline," New York Times (5 Sep 71): 1.
Connally, Orabelle, "Antiwar Work by Discouragement of Warriors: A Critique of Antiwar Tactics Used Among Naval Personnel in the Vietnam War," Journal of Sociology and Social Welfare 4:3-4 (Jan-Mar 77): 626-638.
Cortright, David, Soldiers in Revolt: The American Military Today (Garden City, NY: Anchor) 1975.
"Experiences of Communist Organizing in the Army," Progressive Labor 9:6(Apr-May 75): 47-72.
Franklin, Ben A., "Army is Worried Over Increase in Aggressive Antiwar Militancy by Soldiers," New York Times (6 Apr 69): 2.
Franklin, Ben A., "Army Dissent: It Raises Knotty Problems for the Military," New York Times (20 Apr 69): SE.
"The GI Antiwar Movement: Little Action and Money... and Few GIs," Armed Forces Journal 108 (7 Sep 70): 32+.
Hayes, James Robert, "The Dialectics of Resistance: An Analysis of the GI Movement," Journal of Social Issues 31:4 (1975): 125-139.
Hayes, James Robert, "The War Within a War: Dissent in the Military with an Emphasis on the Vietnam Era," Ph.D. dissertation, Univ. of Connecticut, 1975.
Heinl, Robert D., Jr., "The Collapse of the Armed Forces," Armed Forces Journal 108 (7 Jun 71): 30-38.
Heinl, Robert D., Jr., "Draftees vs. Lifers: Loser is Army Morale," Armed Forces Journal 108 (3 May 71): 19.
Jackson, Nick, "When John Wayne Went Out of Focus: GI Rebellion and Military Disintegration in Vietnam," Revolution 56(Spr 88): 56-80.
Johnson, Haynes and George C. Wilson, "Army in Anguish," Washington Post (12 Sep-20 Sep 71).
Kneeland, Douglas E., "War Stirs More Dissent Among GIs," New York Times (21 Jun 70): 1.
Olson, Howard C., and R. William Rae, "Determination of the Potential for Dissidence in the U.S. Army," 2 volumes (McLean, VA: Research Analysis Corp) 1971: Technical Paper RAC-TP-410.
Radine, Lawrence B., The Taming of the Troops: Social Control in the United States Army (Westport, CT: Greenwood) Contributions in Sociology, Number 22.
Rae, R. William, Stephen B. Forman and Howard G. Olson, "Future Impace of Dissident Elements Within the Army on the Enforcement of Discipline, Law, and Order," (McLean, VA: Research Analysis Corp) 1972; Technical Paper RAC-TP-441.
Rinaldi, Matthew, "The Olive Drab Rebels: Military Organizing During the Vietnam Era," Radical America (May-Jun 74): 17-32.
U.S. House Committee on Internal Security, Investigation of Attempts to Subvert the United States Armed Force, 3 volumes, 92d Congress, 2d session, 1972.
Wiley, Brad and Dick Newlin, "Introducing... The Ultimate Weapon," Leviathan 1:2 (Apr 69): 34-41.
Vietnam veterans were one of the most active groups opposing the war by 1970s. They played a leading role in building the GI antiwar movement inside the Armed Forces. In 1971, 2,000 members of Vietnam Veterans Against the War came to Washington, DC to protest the war and captured the attention of the nation. Vietnam veterans were a prominent part of the antiwar movement during the final stages of the war.
Emerson, Gloria, Winners and Losers: Battles, Retreats, Gains, Losses and Ruins from a Long War (NY: Random House) 1972.
Goldbert, Art, "Vietnam Vets: The Anti-War Army," Ramparts 10 (Jul 71): 10-17.
Haines, Harry, "Disputing the Wreckage: Ideological Struggle at the Vietnam Veterans Memorial," Viet Nam Generation 1:1 (Winter 89): 141-156.
Hamill, John, "Veterans of Vietnam: Back in the World, But No Brass Band," Village Voice (6 May 71): 1.
Kerry, John Forbes, "Where are the Leaders of Our Country?" New Republic (8 May 71): 15-18.
Kerry, John and the Vietnam Veterans Against the War, David Thorne and George Butler, eds., The New Soldier (NY: Collier) 1971.
Morrison, Joan and Robert K. Morrison, From Camelot to Kent State: The Sixties Experience in the Words of Those Who Lived It (NY: Times) 1987).
Ognibene, Peter J., "Rift in the Ranks: Politics and POWs," New Republic (3 Jun 72): 17-19.
"Once More a Time for Protest," Newsweek (3May 71): 24-25.
"Outbursts by Hecklers Silence Senator Fullbright at a Peace Luncheon Here," New York Times (6 Mar 69): 16.
Polner, Murray, No Victory Parades: The Return of the Vietnam Veteran (NY: Holt, Rinehart, Winston) 1971.
"Protests: A Week Against the War," Time (3 May 71): 10-13.
Reisig, Robin, "The Vets and Mayday: A Changing Peace Movement," Village Voice (29 Apr 1971): 9.
Retzer, Joseph David, "War and Political Ideology: The Roots of Radicalism Among Vietnam Veterans," Ph.D. dissertation, Yale University, 1976.
Rosenthal, James, "The Myth of the Lost POWs," New Republic (1 Jul 85): 15-19.
Swain, Daniel M., "Brothers in Arms: The Death of an Antiwar Veteran," in Reese, Williams, ed., Unwinding the Vietnam War: From War to Peace (Seattle: Real Comet Press) 1987: 107-110.
Truscott, Lucien K., IV, "Vietnam Veterans Against the War," Saturday Review of the Arts 55:41 (7 Oct 72): 7.
Vietnam Veterans Against the War, The Winter Soldier Investigation: An Inquiry into American War Crimes (Boston: Beacon Press) 1972.
Wikler, Norma Juliet, "Vietnam and the Veterans Consciousness: Pre-Political Thinking Among American Soldiers," Ph.D. dissertation, UC Berkeley, 1973.
"Wisconsin VGW Ousts Peace Post," New York Times (20 Jun 71): 5.
Many GIs returned from the war to charge the U.S. with genocide. Through their testimony, Vietnam veterans denounced and exposed official U.S. Armed Forces policy which encouraged and condoned war crimes against the people of Indochina.
Citizens Commission of Inquiry, ed., The Dellums Committee Hearings on War Crimes in Vietnam (NY: Vintage) 1972.
Duffett, John, ed., Against the Crime of Silence: Proceedings of the International War Crimes Tribunal (NY: Clarion/Simon & Schuster) 1968.
Flint, Jerry M., "Veterans Assess Atrocity Blame," New York Times (7 Feb 1971): 17.
Jackson, D., "Confessions of the Winter Soldiers," Life 71 (9 Jul 71): 227-27.
Knoll, Erwin, and Judith Nies McFadden, eds., War Crimes and the American Conscience (NY: Holt, Rinehart, Winston) 1970.
Lane, Mark, Conversations with Americans (NY: Simon & Schuster) 1970.
Lelyveld, J., "Story of a Soldier Who Refused to Fire at Song My," New York Times Magazine (14 Dec 69): 32.
Michelson, P., "Bringing the War Home: Veterans Testify Against the Atrocity in Indochina," New Republic (27 Feb 71): 21-25.
Robinson, Douglas, "Ex-Pilot Alleges Civilian Slayings," New York Times (7 Apr 70): 5.
"Veterans Discard Medals in War Protest at Capitol," New York Times (24 Apr 71): 1.
"Veterans Testimony on Vietnam, Need for Investigation," [complete text of Winter Soldier Investigation Testimony], Congressional Record (6 Apr 71): E2825-E2936.
Vietnam Veterans Against the War, The Winter Soldier Investigation: An Inquiry into American War Crimes (Boston: Beacon) 1972. [Abridged testimony]
"War Veterans at Inquiry Feel Atrocities are Result of Policy," New York Times (4 Dec 70): 4.
Columbia University Oral History Collection, NY: 41 veterans interviewed by Clark Smith in early 1970s, transcribed, 3,720 pages.
Fisk University, TN: interviews with many black veterans.
University of California at Santa Cruz, Viet Nam Veterans Peace Archive: over 350 interviews conducted in the late 1980s by researcher Gerald Nicosia, with Vietnam veterans and others involved in the Vietnam veteran movement. Audio cassettes, some transcriptions.
Boxed Periodical Collection (Boxes 81-85), Archives of the Tamiment Library, Elmer Holmes Bobst Library, NYU, 70 Washington Sq South, New York, NY 10012.
Contemporary Issues Collection, University of Nevada Library, Reno, NV 89507.
"GI Antiwar Newspapers," Contemporary Culture Collection, Samuel Paley Library, Temple Unviersity, Philadelphia, PA 19122.
Kent State University Library, Kent, OH 44242.
Labadie Collection, University of Michigan Library, Ann Arbor, MI 48104.
GI Newspapers, Social Action Collection, State Historical Society of Wisconsin, 816 State St., Madison, WI 38706.
Social Protest Project, Bancroft Library, UC Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720.
Special Collections Division, Library of the Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver 8, Canda.