Learn more about the Sixties Project.Recent additions to the Sixties Project site.Visit the Sixties Project Bookstore.Information about the SIXTIES-L discussion list.Information about the Sixties Generations conference.Explore the resources on the Sixties Project site.Reviews of books from and about the Sixties.Add your own story about the Sixties to our archive!Poetry from and about the Sixties.Our archive of primary documents from the Sixties.Special exhibitions on the Sixties Project site.A full map of the Sixties Project Web Site.Search the Sixties Project Site by keyword.

Bibliography of Sources on Minority Veterans

Compiled by Kali Tal (1989)

This text, made available by the Sixties Project, is copyright (c) 1996 by Viet Nam Generation, Inc., or the author, all rights reserved. This text may be used, printed, and archived in accordance with the Fair Use provisions of U.S. Copyright law. This text may not be archived, printed, or redistributed in any form for a fee, without the consent of the copyright holder. This notice must accompany any redistribution of the text. The Sixties Project, sponsored by Viet Nam Generation Inc. and the Institute of Advanced Technology in the Humanities at the University of Virginia at Charlottesville, is a collective of humanities scholars working together on the Internet to use electronic resources to provide routes of collaboration and make available primary and secondary sources for researchers, students, teachers, writers and librarians interested in the 1960s.


General Information

Badillo, Gilbert; Curry, G. David. "Social Incidence of Vietnam Casualties: Social Class or Race?" ARMED FORCES AND SOCIETY; 1976 May; 2(3): 397+.

Baskir, Lawrence M.; Strauss, William, A RECONCILIATION AFTER VIETNAM: A PROGRAM OF RELIEF FOR VIETNAM ERA DRAFT AND MILITARY OFFENDERS (Notre Dame, IN: Center for Civil Rights, University of Notre Dame Press) 1977; ISBN: 0-268-01598-8.

Binkin, Martin; Eitelberg, Mark J. "Women and Minorities in the All-Volunteer Force," in: Bowman, William [and others], editors. ALL-VOLUNTEER FORCE AFTER A DECADE (Washington, DC: Pergamon-Brassey's) 1986.

Boyle, Richard. FLOWER OF THE DRAGON: BREAKDOWN OF THE U.S. ARMY IN VIETNAM (San Francisco: Ramparts Press) 1972; ISBN: 0-878670-020-3; paper, 0-878670-036- X.

Brende, Joel Osler, M.D.; Parson, Erwin Randolph. VIETNAM VETERANS: THE ROAD TO RECOVERY (New York: Signet Books) 1986; ISBN: 0-451-14724-3. Note: Includes a foreword by John Del Vecchio. Analysis of the condition and treatment of Vietnam veterans. Contains chapters on PTSD, race issues, veterans' families, etc.

Crowe, R.R.; Colbach, E.M. "Psychiatric Experience with Project 100,000," MILITARY MEDICINE; 1971 March; 136(3): 271- 273.

Enloe, Cynthia H. ETHNIC SOLDIERS: STATE SECURITY IN DIVIDED SOCIETIES (University of Georgia Press) 1980; ISBN: 0-3203-0507-3.

Green, D.B.; Hinton, B.; Jones, R. "Non-White Vietnam Veteran: Anxieties and Frustrations with Continuing Education," JOURNAL OF NON-WHITE CONCERNS IN PERSONNEL AND GUIDANCE; 1975; 3: 104-112.

"Healing War Wounds," MOTHER JONES; 1983 November.

Johnson, Haynes; Wilson, George C. ARMY IN ANGUISH: THE WASHINGTON POST NATIONAL REPORT (New York: Pocket Books) 1972; ISBN: 671-78199-5-125. This is the result of Haynes' and Wilson's six-month survey of the condition of the US armed forces in Germany during and after the Vietnam War. The book contains interviews and analyses.

Kroll, Jerome. "Racial Patterns of Military Crimes in Vietnam," PSYCHIATRY; 1976 February; 39(1): 51-64.

Little, Roger W., editor, SELECTIVE SERVICE AND THE DRAFT (New York) 1969.

Moskos, Charles C. "American Dilemma in Uniform: Race in the Armed Forces," ANNALS OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY OF POLITICAL AND SOCIAL SCIENCES; 1973; 406: 94-106.

Moskos, Charles C. Jr. "Symposium: Race in the United States Military," ARMED FORCES AND SOCIETY; 1980 Summer; 6: 589.

Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense, Manpower, and Reserve. PROJECT 100,000 (Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office) 1969 December.

Parson, Erwin Randolph, "Ethnicity and Traumatic Stress: Intersecting Point in Psychotherapy," in Figley, Charles R., editor. TRAUMA AND ITS WAKE: STUDY AND TREATMENT OF POST-TRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER, Volume 1. (New York: Brunner/Mazel) 1985. 2 volumes. (Psychosocial Stress Series; v. 4); ISBN: 0-87630-385-8.

Prince, George; Miwa, Colin. "Be Not Proud: Americans in Vietnam," FOUR WINDS; 5.

Reeves, Kate. "Hispanic Utilization of an Ethnic Mental Health Clinic," JOURNAL OF PSYCHOSOCIAL NURSING; 1986 February; 24(2): 23+.

Robinowitz, Ralph; Black, John; Penk, Walter E. "Comparison of Hispanic-American, Black, and White Combat Veterans Seeking Treatment for Substance Abuse (Heroin): A Preliminary Report," 1983 March 18. Prepared under the auspices of the Veterans Administration. This is a preliminary report apparently intended only for in-house viewing. It was prepared under the supervision of Eloy Flores, MSW, Readjustment Counseling Service, Region V.

Smith, Phillip R., "Melting Pot," ARMY INFORMATION DIGEST; 1968 October: 18-21.


Winter, Don. "Upgraded Discharges: Will a Double Standard Apply?" WASHINGTON POST (Washington, DC) 1977 June 14.

Young, Warren L. MINORITIES AND THE MILITARY: A CROSS- NATIONAL STUDY IN WORLD PERSPECTIVE (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press) 1982. (Contributions in Ethnic Studies; v. No. 6); ISBN: 0-313-22900.

Black Soldiers and Veterans

"Abolish the Draft: The Freedom Budget," FREEDOMWAYS; 1966 Fall; 6: 293-295.

Allen, I.M. "Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Among Black Vietnam Veterans," HOSPITAL AND COMMUNITY PSYCHIATRY; 1986; 37: 55-61.

Arlen, MJ., "Air Propaganda," NEW YORKER; 1967 December 16; 43: 100+.

Bevel, Diane Nach, "Journey to North Vietnam," FREEDOMWAYS; 1967 Spring.

Binkin, Martin; Eitelberg, Mark. BLACKS IN THE MILITARY (Washington, DC: Brookings Institute) 1982.

"Black Power in Vietnam," TIME; 1969 September 19; 94: 22+.

"Black Powerlessness," TIME; 1971 November 29.

THE BLACK SCHOLAR, November 1970. Special issue dealing with the black soldier.

"Black Soldiers: Symposium," EBONY; 1968 August; 23: 31- 34.

Booker, S. "How Negro Americans Perform in Vietnam: With Chart," US NEWS AND WORLD REPORT; 1966 August 15; 61: 60-63.

Booker, S. "Negroes in Vietnam: We, Too, Are Americans," EBONY; 1968 August; 21: 89-90+.

Browne, Robert S., "The Freedom Movement and the War in Vietnam," FREEDOMWAYS; 1965 Fall; 5: 467-480.

Browne, Robert S., "Roots of US Intervention in Cambodia;" FREEDOMWAYS; 1970 Second Quarter.

Butler, T. "G-6-PD Deficiency and Malaria in Black Americans in Vietnam," MILITARY MEDICINE; 1973 March; 138(3): 153- 155.

Carmichael, Stokely, STOKELY SPEAKS: BLACK POWER TO PAN-AFRICANISM (New York: Random House) 1971.

Carter, J.H. "Alcoholism in Black Vietnam Veterans: Symptoms of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder," JOURNAL OF THE NATIONAL MEDICAL ASSOCIATION; 1982; 74: 655-660.

Chance, T. Mr. Mountain, "US Navyman Fights His Very Own Special War," EBONY; 1969 January; 24: 58-61.

Cleaver, Eldridge, SOUL ON ICE (New York: McGraw-Hill) 1968.

Daly, James A. A HERO'S WELCOME: CONSCIENCE OF SERGEANT JAMES DALY VERSUS THE UNITED STATES ARMY (New York: Bobbs-Merrill) 1975; ISBN: 0-672-52030- 3. The autobiography of a black conscientious objector and Jehovah's witness who was assigned to the 196th Light Infantry, and was captured in Vietnam. While a POW (1967- 1972) Daley joined the Peace Committee at the Plantation Gardens POW camp in North Vietnam, and chose to speak out against the war. After his release, the Army accused him of aiding the enemy and collaboration, dropping their charges two years later.

Davis, George, COMING HOME (New York: Random House) 1971.


"Democracy in the Foxhole," TIME; 1967 May 26; 89: 89.

Eisendrath, CR, "Black Hessians," NATION; 1968 January 29; 206: 146-148.

Fendrich, James M. "The Returning Black Vietnam-Era Veteran," SOCIAL SERVICE REVIEW; 1972 March; 46(1): 60- 75.

Finn, B.G.; Borus, J.F.; Stanton, M.D. "Black-White and American- Vietnamese Relations Among Soldiers in Vietnam," JOURNAL OF SOCIAL ISSUES; 1975; 31: 39-48.

Flowers, A.R., DE MOJO BLUES (New York: EP Dutton) 1985.

Gill, Gerald. "Black American Soldiers in Vietnam," INDOCHINA ISSUES; 1984 January; 25: 1-8.

Goff, Stanley and Robert Sanders, BROTHERS: BLACK SOLDIERS IN THE NAM (New York: Berkley) 1982.

"Greetings from Victor Charlie: Propaganda Aimed at the Negro Fighting Man," TIME; 1967 January 19; 91: 20-21.


"Integration in Death," CHRISTIAN CENTURY; 1970 January 14; 87.

Jackson, Donald, "Black People and Vietnam," LIBERATOR MAGAZINE; 1965: 9-10.

Jackson, Donald, "Unite or Perish," LIBERATOR MAGAZINE; 1967 February: 16-18.

Jackson, J.E. "Eighteen Months as a Prisoner of the Viet Cong," EBONY; 1968 August; 23: 114-116+.

Jackson, J.E. "Life with Charlie: Case of James N. Rowe," TIME; 1969 January 10; 93: 35-36.

Johnson, Jesse J. ROOTS OF TWO BLACK MARINE SERGEANTS MAJOR (Hampton, VA: Ebony Publishing) 1978. Biographies of Edgar Huff and Gilbert Johnson, two of the first black non- coms in the Marines. Both men served in Vietnam.

Johnson, Thomas, A., "Negro Veteran is Confused and Bitter," NEW YORK TIMES. New York; 1968 July 29.

Johnson, Thomas A., "Negroes in Vietnam Uneasy About US," NEW YORK TIMES. New York; 1968 May 1; Section 1: 1.

Johnson, Thomas A. "Negroes in the Nam," EBONY; 1968 August; 10: 31-40.

Johnson, Thomas A., "The US Negro in Vietnam," NEW YORK TIMES. New York; 1968 April 29; Section 1: 1.

Karlen, Neal, "Black Veterans: New War," NEWSWEEK; 1984 October 15: 53. Review of Wallace Terry's BLOODS.

Kilson, Martin, "Black Student Movement," ENCOUNTER; 1971 September and October. Essay on the pattern of black student radicalism.

King, Martin Luther Jr. "Declaration of Independence from the War in Vietnam," RAMPARTS; 1967 May; 5(11): 32+.

King, Martin Luther, Jr., "Martin Luther King Jr. Explains," NEGRO DIGEST; 1967 June.

King, Martin Luther Jr., "Time to Break the Silence," FREEDOMWAYS; 1967 Spring; 7: 103-117.

"King Talk," NATIONAL REVIEW; 1967 April 18; 19: 395-396.

Kupfer, M., "Negro View: A Special Anguish," NEWSWEEK; 1967 July 10: 34+.

Lantz, R., "Dixie Town Fetes War Hero: Medal of Honor Winner Laurence Joel is Hailed by Winston Salem," EBONY; 1967 June; 22: 27-28.

Lee, Ulysses Grant, THE EMPLOYMENT OF NEGRO TROOPS AFTER WORLD WAR 1 (Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office) 1966.

Lewis, Flora, "The Rumble at Camp Lejeune," ATLANTIC MONTHLY; 1970 January: 35-41.

Liebman, M., "They Also Serve: Interviews with Servicemen," NATIONAL REVIEW; 1967 November 28; 19: 1327-1331.

Lomax, Louis, THAILAND: THE WAR THAT IS, THE WAR THAT WILL BE (New York: Random House) 1967.

Llorens, David, "Why Negroes Re-Enlist," EBONY; 1968 August: 87-92.

"Mac's Other War: Negro Servicemen in Off-Base Housing," TIME; 1967 September 29: 24.

Mallette, Daniel, "Vietnam: Only the Privileged are Exempt," LIBERATOR MAGAZINE; 1966 May: 16-17.

McClean, L.D., "The Black Man and the Draft," EBONY; 1968 August: 61-66.

"The Military Meets the Afro," EBONY; 1970 July; 25.

Morris, Steve, "How Blacks Upset the Marine Corps," EBONY; 1969 December; 21: 86-92.

Mullen, Robert. BLACKS AND VIETNAM (New York: University Press of America) 1981; ISBN: 0-8191-1526-6; paper, 0- 8191-1527-4.

"Negro and Vietnam," NATION; 1967 July 17; 205: 3708.

"Negroes in the Vietnam War," AMERICA; 1967 June 10; 116: 827-828.

Newton, Huey P., TO DIE FOR THE PEOPLE (New York: Vintage) 1972.

NOMMO (Black Students Union Newspaper at UCLA) March 9, 1971. Special issue on the black soldier and the war in Vietnam.

"One War: Negro Disillusionment with Vietnam," NATION; 1968 October 14; 207: 357.

"Paradox of the Black Soldier," EBONY; 1968 August: 142.

Parks, David, GI DIARY (New York: Harper and Row) 1971. Republished by Howard University Press, 1984.

Parks, David, "Vietnam Diary: Excerpts from GI DIARY," LOOK; 1968 March 19; 32: 38-42+.

Parson, Erwin Randolph, "Black Viet Nam Veterans," in: Sonnenberg, S.M. [and others], editors. TRAUMA OF WAR: STRESS AND RECOVERY IN VIETNAM VETERANS (Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press) 1985.

Parson, Erwin Randolph, "The Black Vietnam Veteran: His Representational World in Post-Traumatic Stress Disorders," in: Kelly, William E., editor. POST-TRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER AND THE WAR VETERAN PATIENT (New York: Brunner/Mazel) 1985. (Psychosocial Stress Series; v. 5); ISBN: 0-87630-386-6.

Parson, Erwin Randolph, "Gook-Identification Syndrome and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Black Vietnam Veterans," BLACK PSYCHIATRISTS AMERICAN QUARTERLY; 1984; 13: 14-18.

Parson, Erwin Randolph, "Intercultural Setting: Encountering Black Viet Nam Veterans," in: Sonnenberg, S.M. [and others], editors. TRAUMA OF WAR: STRESS AND RECOVERY IN VIETNAM VETERANS (Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press) 1985.

Patton, Gwendolyn, "Black People and War," LIBERATOR MAGAZINE; 1967 February: 10+.

Pierce, Ponchitta and Peter Bailey, "The Returning Veteran," EBONY; 1968 August: 145-151.

Pink, William T.; Freund, Eugene H.; Stormo, Earl G., "A Resocialization Strategy for Black Vietnam Veterans," JOURNAL OF NEGRO EDUCATION; 1979; 48(1): 500-512.

Purnell, KH, "The Negro in Vietnam," NATION; 1967 July 3; 205: 8-10.

Pryor, Richard, "Uncle Sam Wants You Dead, Nigger," in Krassner, Paul, editor,THE BEST OF THE REALIST (New York) 1985.

"Report from Black America-A NEWSWEEK Poll," NEWSWEEK; 1969 June 30.

SAME MUD, SAME BLOOD [Video]. NBC; McGee, Frank; 1967, December 1. Documentary on black soldiers in Vietnam.

Shockley, DG, "No Bells: Birmingham Alabama," CHRISTIAN CENTURY; 1969 November 26; 86: 1508.

Smith, M., "Waiting Wives," EBONY; 1968 February; 23: 44- 46+.

Smith, Phillip R. Jr., "Negroes Army Heritage," ARMY INFORMATION DIGEST; 1968 July.

Snellings, Roland, "Vietnam: Whitey I Will Not Serve," LIBERATOR MAGAZINE; 1966 March: 8-9.

"Soldier's Rest: Burial of Poindexter Williams in an All-White Cemetery," NEWSWEEK; 1970 September 7; 76: 33-34.

"Soul Alley: Home for Black AWOLs and Deserters," TIME; 1970 December 14: 39-40.

Stern, S. "Vietnam: Three Who Came Home," SATURDAY EVENING POST; 1969 February 8; 242: 22-23+.

Stern, S. "When the Black GI Comes Back from Vietnam," 1968 March 24; Magazine: 26-27+.

Taylor, Clyde, "Black Consciousness and the Vietnam War," BLACK SCHOLAR; 1973; 5(2): 2-8.


"The Terms Defined," EBONY; 1970 August: 35.

Terry, Wallace, editor. BLOODS: ORAL HISTORY OF THE VIETNAM WAR BY BLACK VETERANS (New York: Random House) 1984.

"These Truly Are the Brave," EBONY; 1968 August: 164-177.

"Viet Nam: Every Youth Must Face the Fact of Involvement," EBONY; 1967 August; 22: 23-26.

"Vietnam to Become a Civil Rights Issue," US NEWS AND WORLD REPORT; 1965 July 19: 12.

Wakin, Edward, BLACK FIGHTING MEN IN US HISTORY (New York: Lothrop, Lee & Shepard) 1971.

Watt, Daniel H., "Reverend King and Vietnam," LIBERATOR MAGAZINE; 1967 May: 3.

White, Jack, "The Angry Black Soldiers," THE PROGRESSIVE; 1970 March; 34.

White, Milton, "Malcolm X in the Military," THE BLACK SCHOLAR; 1970 May.

Whitmore, Terry; Weber, Richard, MEMPHIS NAM SWEDEN: AUTOBIOGRAPHY OF A BLACK AMERICAN EXILE (Garden City, NY: Doubleday) 1971. Whitmore, a decorated combat veteran, decided to desert from the Marines in 1967, and was assisted by Japanese antiwar activists. He originally went to the USSR, and then settled in Sweden and became an attorney.

Williams, John A., CAPTAIN BLACKMAN (New York: Doubleday) 1972.

Wilson, CE, "A Negro Looks at the War in Vietnam," LIBERATOR MAGAZINE; 1966 March: 31-32.

Worthy, William, "The American Negro is Dead," ESQUIRE; 1967 November.

Young, W.M. "When the Negroes in Vietnam Come Home: With Excerpts from Interviews," HARPERS; 1967 June; 234: 63- 69.

Young, W.M. Jr. "When the Negroes in Vietnam Come Home," in: Veterans Administration. VETERAN IN CONTEMPORARY SOCIETY (Washington, DC: Veterans Administration) 1972.

Latino Soldiers and Veterans

Becerra, R.M. "The Hispanic Vietnam Veterans: Mental Health Issues and Therapeutic Approaches," in: Becerra, R.M.; Escobar, J.I., editors. MENTAL HEALTH AND HISPANIC AMERICANS (New York: Grune & Stratton) 1982.

Benavidez, Roy P.; Griffin, Oscar, THE THREE WARS OF ROY BENAVIDEZ (New York: Pocket Books) 1988. Memoir by a Special Forces sergeant who won the Congressional Medal of Honor for a combat action in Cambodia in 1968.

Bermudez, R.; Joy, R.J. "Malaria Among Puerto Rican Veterans of the Viet Nam Conflict," BULLETIN OF THE ASSOCIATION OF MEDICINE OF PUERTO RICO; 1967 April; 59(4): 141-147.

Byrne, J.P.; Garcia Pont, P.H.; Rivera, J.V. "Malaria, A New Threat from an Old Foe," ARIZONA MEDICINE; 1971 April; 28(4): 297-300.

Escobar, J.I. "Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder in Hispanic Vietnam Veterans: Clinical Phenomenology and Sociocultural Characteristics," JOURNAL OF NERVOUS AND MENTAL DISORDERS; 1983; 171: 585-596.

Gil, Millie, "VETERANOS EU CRITICAN TRATO DADO A LOS DE AQU," EL REPORTERO. New York; 1987 March 28. Note: In Spanish.

Jaramillo, A. "One Man's Battle: Experiences of A. Jaramillo," TIME; 1969 June 20; 93: 15.

Palmieri, R.G.; Suarez, Y., "Future Outlook of Puerto Rican Vietnam-Era Hospitalized Psychiatric Patients," JOURNAL OF CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY; 1972; 28(3): 394-399.

Pina, G., "Diagnosis and Treatment of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder in Hispanic Viet Nam Veterans," in: Sonnenberg, S.M. [and others], editors. TRAUMA OF WAR: STRESS AND RECOVERY IN VIETNAM VETERANS (Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press) 1985.

Vietnam Veterans Outreach Center (Veterans Administration) PUERTO RICO: DIVERSE VETERAN POPULATION CREATES SPECIAL CHALLENGES FOR VET CENTER COUNSELORS WORKING WITH PUERTO RICANS. Available from: Vietnam Veterans Outreach Center, 166 W. 75th St., New York, NY 10023.

Asian-American Veterans

Brende, Joel Osler & Erwin Randolph Parson, "The Asian Vietnam Veteran," in Brende & Parson, VIETNAM VETERANS: THE ROAD TO RECOVERY (New York: Signet) 1985: 191-198.

Bruso, Dale S., "Wounds of Vietnam Heal Slowly for Asian American Veterans," ASIAN WEEK, 9 De

This site designed by New Word Order.