A Decade of Activism: The 1960s in America
Professor: Eric Roberts
Date: Spring Quarter 1988
Listing: Stanford Workshops on Political and Social Issues 166
SWOPSI 166 meets every Tuesday and Thursday afternoon from 4:15 to 5:30 in the Toyon Hall Lounge. In addition, there will be a film session each week, plus several other events which will be announced in a weekly calendar handout.
In the class schedules below, all required readings are found in the course reader, which is available at the Stanford Bookstore. Recommended readings are indicated using author-year reference numbers. The full citations are included in the bibliography later in this handout.
The first session of class will be devoted to a brief overview of the course and a discussion of the reasons people have for participating. What is attractive about that period? What aspects are most interesting? How are our images of the 1960s formed?
Berkeley in the Sixties -- Images of a Decade
As the recent media focus on the events of twenty years ago make clear, the 1960s were a multi-media event. To provide some visual impressions, this class consists of special presentation of parts of the film Berkeley in the Sixties, a work-in-progress by Mark Kitchell.
The 1960s -- Overview of a Decade
In this class, we will review the events and movements that shaped the decade of the 1960s. The purpose of this discussion is to build a framework for understanding the history of the decade as a whole and to emphasize the interrelationships between the events of the period and the political movements of the time.
- "Chronology" from The Sixties (Gerald Howard), pages 2-5.
- Introduction from The Sixties Papers (Judith Clavir Albert and Stewart Albert), pages 6-36.
- [Zinn 1984], pages 146-203.
Growing Up Absurd -- America in the 1950s
Political activism in the early 1960s was shaped by the society from which the participants emerged, and it is important to derive some image of the pre-existing culture. Topics covered include: McCarthyism, the suburban mystique, and the forces encouraging conformity (it is interesting to draw some comparisons here between the media image of the "yuppie" and the 1950s image of success). In addition, this discussion will include certain events and movements from the 1950s which were harbingers of the movements to come, including the emergence of the "beat" generation and the early civil rights movement years. A short paper (1-2 pages) on your impressions of the 1960s is due today.
- from Soon to be a Major Motion Picture (Abbie Hoffman), pages 38-54.
- "The 50's Sound" (Kristin Lems), page 55.
- "America" (Allen Ginsberg), pages 56-57.
- from Dreams Die Hard (David Harris), page 58.
- [Gitlin 1987], pages 11-77.
- [Friedan 1963, Goodman 1962, Harrington 1962, Mills 1956]
We Shall Overcome -- The Early Civil Rights Movement
This session continues the discussion of the previous class and traces the history of the civil rights movement through the early 1960s. The discussion includes coverage of the Freedom Rides, King's 1963 March on Washington, the evolution of SNCC, and Freedom Summer. Beyond this description of movement events, we will also focus on the climate of repression and the incidents of police brutality arrayed against that movement throughout the South.
- "Pilgrimage to Nonviolence" (Martin Luther King, Jr.), pages 60-62.
- "The Borning Struggle" (Bernice Reagon, John Lewis, and Jean Smith), pages 63-82.
- "Back of the Bus" (Anonymous), page 83.
- "Letter from Birmingham Jail" (Martin Luther King, Jr.), pages 84-93.
- "Here's to the State of Mississippi" (Phil Ochs), page 94.
- "I Have a Dream" (Martin Luther King, Jr.), pages 95-96.
- from Meridian (Alice Walker), page 97.
- SNCC Founding Statement, page 98.
- [Hoffman 1980], pages 34-68.
- [Baldwin 1963, Bond 1972, King 1964, Raines 1977]
- Eyes on the Prize: America's Civil Rights Years (excerpts). This six-part series originally broadcast on PBS looks back at the struggle for freedom in the South from 1954-1965.
Black Power, Black Pride -- 1965-1970
After the failure of moderate tactics at the 1964 Democratic Convention, the struggle for civil rights changed its direction in the mid-1960s. Separatism emerged as a potent force, and "Black Power" became the watchword of the day. In this class, we will trace the evolution of the Black Power movement through the remainder of the decade and discuss the tactical debate over non-violence and participation by whites.
Between this class and the one on Tuesday, April 19, we will hold a special "Sixties Scavenger Hunt." Although there will be a few artifacts thrown in for good measure, to a large extent this will be an exercise in creative research, in which each of you will have to figure answers to questions that will require digging through old magazines, albums, government documents, and so forth.
- "What We Want" (Stokely Carmichael), pages 99-103.
- "The Ballot or the Bullet" (Malcolm X), pages 104-107.
- Black Panther Party -- Platform and Program (Bobby Seale), pages 108-109.
- Summary of the Kerner Commission Report, March 1968, page 110.
- [Cluster 1979], pages 41-70.
- [Breitman 1967, Carmichael 1967, Cleaver 1968, Malcolm X 1965]
The Civil Rights Years -- Personal Recollections
Professor Clay Carson, director of the Martin Luther King Papers Project and author of In Struggle: SNCC and the Black Awakening of the 1960s, will talk about his own involvement with the civil rights movement and the impact of that movement today.
- [Carson 1981], pages 1-228.
Hearts and Minds -- Images of the War in Vietnam
This class consists of an outline history of U.S. involvement in Vietnam, starting with the U.S. assumption of responsibility from the French in 1954 and carrying on through the fall/liberation of Saigon in 1975. After surveying the history, the class will be in a better position to view the situation in Vietnam and try to gain a sense of what it was like to be there, both for the Vietnamese and the U.S. soldier.
- Chronology (from the New York Times), page 112.
- Ramparts special report: Southeast Asia, pages 113-144.
- "Why We Fight in Viet-Nam" (U.S. Department of State), pages 147-154.
- Vietnam '68 Chronology (from The Christian Science Monitor), page 155.
- The Michigan Winter Soldier Investigation, pages 162- 175.
- [Caputo 1977, Halberstam 1973, Karnow 1983, Kolko 1985,
- Dellinger 1985]
- Hearts and Minds (Monday, April 18). This film takes a hard-hitting critical look at U.S. participation in the War in Vietnam, exploring not only the events of the war itself, but also the attitudes that led us there and kept us in the longest and most controversial war in American history. Winner of the Academy Award for Best Documentary of 1974.
And it's one, two, three, what are we fighting for? -- The War at Home
Beginning with this class, the goal is to shift the perspective from Vietnam itself to the United States: What was it like to be here? Ira Sandperl, a local activist who was deeply involved in non-violent resistance against the war, will discuss the early phases of the antiwar movement in the United States. This discussion will concentrate on the evolution of attitudes toward the war in the United States and analyze the reasons for the changes in that perspective toward the end of the decade.
- "Masters of War" (Bob Dylan), pages 145-146.
- Declaration of Independence from the War in Vietnam
- (Martin Luther King, Jr.), pages 156-161.
- "Feel Like I'm Fixing To Die Rag" (Country Joe MacDonald), page 176.
- [Cluster 1979], pages 131-148.
- [Zaroulis 1984]
- Vietnam: The War at Home (Monday, April 25). This film documents domestic opposition to the war which "started in Vietnam and exploded in the streets of America." It concentrates on student opposition, particularly at the University of Wisconsin.
I am just a student, sir -- The Genesis of Student Activism
David Harris, Stanford student body president in 1965 and one of the founders of the Resistance, will talk about the evolution of student activism at Stanford and his own personal odyssey during the decade.
- "The Politics of Responsibility" (C. Wright Mills), pages 178-182.
- The Port Huron Statement (SDS), pages 183-206.
- "An End to History" (Mario Savio), pages 207-209.
- Speech to the April 1965 March on Washington (Paul >Potter), pages 210-213.
- "Bring the War Home" (SDS), pages 214-217.
- "I'm Gonna Say It Now" (Phil Ochs), page 252.
- [Cluster 1979], pages 111-130.
- [Cohen 1967, Marcuse 1964, Oglesby 1969, Sale 1973, Kunen 1970, Miller 1985]
Revolution for the Hell of It -- 1968
The student movement and various allied movements against the war in Vietnam reached the height of their power in 1968. This was a year of extraordinary events: the My Lai massacre in Vietnam, Lyndon Johnson's decision not to seek reelection to the presidency, the assassinations of Martin Luther King Jr. and Robert Kennedy, a major building occupation at Columbia, and the Democratic National Convention that turned Chicago into what seemed like a war zone. This class session will concentrate on the events and images of that year, and include a discussion of related international events.
- "The Battle of the Streets" (Daniel and Gabriel Cohn- Bendit), pages 218-223.
- The Appeal from the Sorbonne, June 13-14, 1968, pages 224-227. "A Program for Liberals" (Carl Oglesby), page 241.
- from The Siege of Chicago (Norman Mailer), pages 242- 251.
- "Behind the Conspiracy Trial" (Paul Glusman), pages 253-259.
- from Hard Times (Norman Mailer), page 260.
- A MAD Look at Protest Movements (Sergio Aragones), pages 272-276.
- [Hoffman 1980], pages 133-209.
- [Hayden 1970, Hoffman 1970, Rubin 1970]
- Conspiracy (Monday, May 2). In documenting the trial of the Chicago 8, Conspiracy combines a dramatization of the courtroom testimony with footage from Vietnam and Chicago as well as with modern interviews of the defendants.
On Strike! Shut it Down! -- The Campus Revolt
In the next two years, the campus-based radicalism responsible for the 1968 occupation at Columbia spread rapidly to other campuses. In 1969, the media spotlight was on Harvard and the occupation (later, the bust) at University Hall. In 1970, the revelation of the bombing of Cambodia led to widespread demonstrations in colleges throughout the United States. This expression of student anger grew all the more determined after the killings of students at Kent and Jackson State.
For part of this class, Ed Kirshner, an amateur photographer from San Francisco, will present an eye-opening slide show from the Berkeley People's Park demonstrations of 1969 and the repression that followed.
- "Columbia: Notes on the Spring Rebellion" (Mark Rudd),
- "Two, Three, Many Columbias" (Tom Hayden), page 240.
- from the Kent State issue of Life, pages 261-267.
- "It Could Have Been Me" (Holly Near), pages 268-270.
- "I Wasn't Surprised" (Kristin Lems), page 271.
- [Eichel 1970, Kelman 1970, Michener 1971]
Turn on, Tune in, Drop out -- The Psychedelic Revolution
One of the most controversial aspects of the 1960s culture (and one which has been extremely important in molding the popular image of the period) is the freewheeling attitude toward the use of drugs within the youth culture. In this class, we will examine the evolution of the psychedelic culture and assess its historical impact. Vic Lovell, who was an associate of the Perry Lane commune at that time, will provide first-hand recollections.
- "The Summer of Love" from Uncovering the Sixties (Abe Peck), pages 281-287.
- "Slouching Toward Bethlehem" (Joan Didion), pages 288- 307.
- "LSD/Journals of an Artist's Trip" (Harriette Frances), pages 308-309.
- The Fabulous Furry Freak Brothers (Gilbert Shelton), page 310.
- "Mr. Tambourine Man" (Bob Dylan), pages 311-313.
- "A Social History of the Hippies" (Warren Hinckle), pages 314-325.
- "Hippie -- The Magazine that Turns You On" (from MAD Magazine), pages 326-332.
- [Leary 1983, Wolfe 1969, Lee 1985].
- Further -- an independent documentary about Ken Kesey and the Merry Pranksters which documents the beginnings of the psychedelic movement in and around San Francisco.
By the time we got to Woodstock -- Culture and Music
The image of the 1960s is characterized as much by the culture of the time as by its political movements. In this class, we will try to identify some of the forces that shaped the development of that culture, concentrating to some extent on music and its role in the events of the decade. This will also be "Sixties Dress-Up Day" in class.
- "The Times They Are A-Changin'" (Bob Dylan), pages 278- 280.
- "We Can Be Together" (Paul Kantner), page 333.
- "The Crash of the Jefferson Airplane" (Ed Leimbacher), pages 334-336.
- "Woodstock" (Joni Mitchell), page 337.
- "American Cinema of the Sixties" (Al Auster and Leonard Quart), pages 338-346.
- [Gitlin 1987], pages 195-221.
- [Hoffman 1980], pages 69-133.
- [Sayres 1984], pages 59-69.
- [Perry 1984, Ragni 1969, Roszak 1969]
Goodbye to All That -- The Rebirth of Feminism
At this point in the course, I intend to move away from the events of the 1960s themselves and concentrate on the movements that grew out of that period, particularly those that have remained viable over the intervening years. The most dramatic movement to gain in strength as the 1970s began was almost certainly the "second wave" of feminism. Patricia Polhemus, who was active in both the antiwar and early feminist movements at Stanford, will discuss that transition.
- from The Feminine Mystique (Betty Friedan), pages 348- 355.
- "Goodbye to all That" (Robin Morgan), pages 356-360.
- "Consciousness-Raising: A Radical Weapon" (Kathie Sarachild), pages 361-367.
- "Still Ain't Satisfied" (Bonnie Lockhart), page 368.
- "Transcendental Etude" (Adrienne Rich), pages 373-375.
- from "Three Conversations" (Adrienne Rich), pages 376- 380.
- [Adams 1971, Firestone 1970, Koedt 1973, Redstockings 1975]
- Stronger Than Before and The Times of Harvey Milk. The former is a documentary of the Seneca Women's Peace Encampment actions in 1981-82 and shows the strength of feminist-based activism. The latter provides a vivid illustration of the strength of the gay community in San Francisco from the early political struggles, through the successful defeat of the Briggs initiative, and on through the tragedy of the assassination. The Times of Harvey Milk won the 1984 Academy Award for Best Documentary.
Out of the Closets and into the Streets -- Gay Activism
Another important movement to be given strength from the activism of the 1960s was the struggle for gay rights, which dates much of its modern history from the Stonewall riots in 1969. This is of particular relevance in the Bay Area which has been a major focus of the movement.
- "The Woman Identified Woman" (Radicalesbians), pages 370-372.
- "Gay and Proud" (Debbie Lempke), page 369.
- [Adair 1978, Katz 1976, Shilts 1982]
Looking Backward -- Images and Reality
In this class, we will look backward and consider how our historical understanding of the 1960s is affected by the media and by culturally-imposed assumptions. What factors influence our historical perspective? How can we overcome the biases?
The second short paper describing how your perspective of the 1960s has changed is due today.
- Rolling Stone Interview with Walter Cronkite, pages 382-385.
- "North American Time" (Adrienne Rich), pages 386-387.
- "Marynell" (Kristin Lems), page 388.
- "It Did Make A Difference" (Dick Cluster), pages 389- 397.
- "Young and Alive" (Betsy Rose), pages 398-399.
- [Adair 1978, Katz 1976, Shilts 1982]
- The Secret Government: The Constitution in Crisis. In this PBS essay, Bill Moyers traces the history of covert U.S. operations since World War II and uses that history to show that the Iran-contra scandal is only the latest example of how "clandestine military operations, the subversion of other governments, and dirty tricks have become a permanent feature of national policy, carried out with no accountability to democratic institutions or democratic values."
Looking Forward -- Lessons for Tomorrow
This class will consist of a general discussion of the relevance of the 1960s to modern political movements. What do we gain by looking backward to the activism of that time? What knowledge can we adopt in charting new strategies for change? What problems of the period must we avoid in future periods of activism?
Final papers are due today.
- "The Legacy of the Sixties for the Politics of the Nineties" (Michael Lerner), pages 400-409.
- "Tyranny of Structurelessness" (Joreen), pages 410-417.
- "Consensus" (from Seabrook and American Peace Test Handbooks), pages 418-419.
- "Coalition Politics: Turning the Century" (Bernice Reagon), pages 420-426.
- "The Coming Era of Activism" (Andrew Kimball and others), pages 427-433.
- [Gitlin 1987], pages 420-438.
- [Adair 1978, Katz 1976, Shilts 1982]
This course is offered on a pass/no credit basis only and counts for three units of credit at Stanford. Successful completion of the course requires:
- A respectable attendance at class meetings and special events.
- Two short papers (1-2 pages) that detail the evolution of your own impressions of the 1960s. The first of these is written at the beginning of the term; the second is due at the end of the course and will include a discussion of how your views have changed.
- A final paper (5-10 pages). This may be either a purely historical paper or an analysis of some current social or political movement from the perspective of the activist movements of the 1960s.
- Successful completion of the action project (see below).
3. ACTION PROJECTS
The action projects listed below are to be thought of only as tentative examples. Use your imagination.
- Organize a campus workshop that highlights the historical continuity of some issue of current concern. Ideally, this could include participation by Stanford alumnae/i who were actively involved in this area in previous years and have a personal perspective on how things have (or have not) changed.
- Prepare a pamphlet describing the history of activism on the Stanford campus which would be suitable for distribution during new-student orientation in the fall.
- By writing to former students who were previously involved in political action projects, begin to develop a network of activist alumnae/i who are interested in contributing to current political activities.
- Prepare a radio broadcast for the Stanford station which presents a history of activism in the 1960s through the music of the period.
- Design a game in the "Trivial Pursuit" tradition that concentrates on the not-so-trivial aspects of recent history and specifically on those areas where important ideas and information have been lost from the popular consciousness.
- Organize a public event on the relationship of the 1960s to the Stanford of today. You should include activists from that time or some other well-known participants to ensure a reasonable audience.
4. ADDITIONAL SOURCES
For the book reviews and for your papers, it will be useful to have a larger collection of material on which to draw. As a starting point, the following list consists of references that cover many of the topics in the syllabus. Many of these books are now out of print, but are available in libraries or from my own collection.
- Adair, Nancy and Casey Adair. Word Is Out. New York: Dell Publishing Company, 1978.
- Adams, Elsie and Mary Louise Briscoe. Up Against the Wall, Mother .... Beverly Hills: Glencoe Press, 1971.
- Alinsky, Saul. Rules for Radicals. New York: Vintage Books, 1971.
- Albert, Judith and Stewart Albert. The Sixties Papers. New York: Praeger Special Studies, 1984.
- Baldwin, James. The Fire Next Time. New York: Dial Press, 1963.
- Baez, Joan. And a Voice to Sing With. New York: Summit Books, 1987.
- Bird, Caroline. What Women Want. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1979.
- Blackstock, Nelson. COINTELPRO: The FBI's Secret War on Political Freedom. New York: Vintage Books, 1976.
- Blaustein, Albert P. and Clarence Clyde Ferguson, Jr. Desegregation and the Law. New York: Vintage Books, 1962.
- Blumberg, Rhoda Lois. Civil Rights: The 1960s Freedom Struggle. Boston: Twayne Publishers, 1984.
- Bond, Julian. A Time to Speak, A Time to Act. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1972.
- Breitman, George. The Last Year of Malcolm X: The Evolution of a Revolutionary. New York: Pathfinder Press, 1967.
- Brownmiller, Susan. Against Our Will. New York: Bantam Books, 1975.
- Bunch, Charlotte (editor). Building Feminist Theory. New York: Longman, 1981.
- Bunzel, John H. New Force on the Left. Stanford: Hoover Press, 1983.
- Caputo, Philip. A Rumor of War. New York: Ballantine Books, 1977.
- Carson, Rachel. Silent Spring. Greenwich, CT: Fawcett Crest, 1962.
- Carson, Clay. In Struggle: SNCC and the Black Awakening of the 1960s. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1981.
- Carmichael, Stokely and Charles V. Hamilton. Black Power: The Politics of Liberation in America. New York: Random House, 1967.
- Cleaver, Eldridge. Soul on Ice. San Francisco: Ramparts/McGraw- Hill, 1968.
- Cluster, Dick (editor). They Should Have Served That Cup of Coffee. Boston, MA: South End Press, 1979.
- Cohen, Mitchell and Dennis Hale (editors). The New Student Left. Boston: Beacon Press, 1967.
- Conlin, Joseph R. American Anti-War Movements. Beverly Hills: Glencoe Press, 1968.
- Dahl, Robert A. Who Governs. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1961.
- Dahl, Robert A. After the Revolution? New Haven: Yale University Press, 1970.
- Davis, Angela. Women, Race and Class. New York: Vintage, 1983.
- De Bell, Garrett. The Environmental Handbook. New York: Ballantine Books, 1970.
- Dellinger, David. Vietnam Revisited. Boston: South End Press, 1986.
- Eichel, Lawrence E., Kenneth W. Jost, Robert D. Luskin and Richard M. Neustadt. The Harvard Strike. Boston: Houghton-Mifflin, 1970.
- Firestone, Shulamith. The Dialectic of Sex: The Case for a Feminist Revolution. New York: Bantam Books, 1970.
- Friedan, Betty. The Feminine Mystique. New York: Dell Publishing, 1963.
- Gitlin, Todd. The Sixties: Years of Hope, Days of Rage. New York: Bantam, 1987.
- Goodman, Paul. Growing Up Absurd. New York: Vintage Books, 1962.
- Halberstam, David. The Best and the Brightest. New York: Random House, 1972.
- Harrington, Michael. The Other America. New York: Macmillan, 1962.
- Harrington, Michael. Toward a Democratic Left. Baltimore: A Pelican Book, 1969.
- Harris, David. Dreams Die Hard: Three Men's Journeys Through the Sixties. New York: St. Martin's/Mack, 1982.
- Hayden, Tom. Trial. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1970.
- Hoffman, Abbie. Revolution for the Hell of It. New York: Pocket Books, 1970.
- Hoffman, Abbie. Soon To Be a Major Motion Picture. New York: Berkley Books, 1980.
- Howard, Gerald (editor). The Sixties. New York: Washington Square Press, 1982.
- Huenefeld, John. The Community Activist's Handbook. Boston: Beacon Press, 1970.
- Jacobs, Harold (editor). Weatherman. Ramparts Press, 1970.
- Karnow, Stanley. Vietnam. New York: Viking Press, 1983.
- Katz, Jonathan. Gay American History. New York: Crowell, 1976.
- Kelman, Steven. Push Comes to Shove. Boston: Houghton-Mifflin, 1970.
- Kenniston, Kenneth. The Uncommitted. New York: Delta Books, 1977.
- The Kerner Commission. National Advisory Commission on Civil Disorders: Preliminary Report. Toronto: Bantam Books, 1968.
- Kerr, Clark. The Uses of the University. New York: Harper Torchbooks, 1963.
- King, Martin Luther, Jr. Why We Can't Wait. New York: 1964.
- Koedt, Anne, Ellen Levine and Anita Rapone (editors). Radical Feminism. New York: Quadrangle/New York Times, 1973.
- Kolko, Gabriel. Anatomy of a War. New York: Pantheon Press, 1985.
- Kunen, James Simon. The Strawberry Statement: Notes of a College Revolutionary. New York: Avon Books, 1970.
- Lader, Lawrence. Power on the Left: American Radical Movements Since 1946. New York: W.W. Norton, 1979.
- Leary, Timothy. Flashbacks. Los Angeles: Tarcher, 1983.
- Lee, Martin A. and Bruce Shlain. Acid Dreams: The CIA, LSD and the Sixties Rebellion. New York: Globe Press, 1985.
- Lens, Sidney. Unrepentant Radical: An American Activist's Account of Five Turbulent Decades. Boston: Beacon Press, 1980.
- Lewis, Anthony and The New York Times. Portrait of a Decade. New York: Bantam Books, 1965.
- Malcolm X. Autobiography. New York: Ballantine Books, 1965.
- Marcuse, Herbert. One-Dimensional Man. Boston: Beacon Press, 1964.
- Marcuse, Herbert. An Essay on Liberation. Boston: Beacon Press, 1969.
- Marcuse, Herbert. The Aesthetic Dimension. Boston: Beacon Press, 1978.
- Michener, James A. Kent State. New York: Fawcett Crest, 1971.
- Miller, James. Democracy is in the Streets. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1987.
- Mills, C. Wright. The Power Elite. London: Oxford University Press, 1956.
- Mills, C. Wright. The Sociological Imagination. London: Oxford University Press, 1959.
- Minh, Ho Chi. On Revolution. New York: Signet Books, 1967.
- Morgan, Robin (editor). Sisterhood is Powerful. New York: Vintage Books, 1970.
- Morgan, Robin. Going Too Far. New York: Vintage Books, 1978.
- Morrison, Toni. Song of Solomon. New York: New American Library, 1977.
- Obst, Lynda Rosen (editor). The Sixties. New York: Random House/Roilling Stone Press, 1977.
- Oglesby, Carl (editor). The New Left Reader. New York: Grove Press, 1969.
- Oppenheimer, Martin. The Urban Guerilla. Chicago: Quadrangle Books, 1969.
- Paulus, Trina. Hope for the Flowers. New York: Paulist Press, 1972.
- Peck, Abe. Uncovering the Sixties. New York: Pantheon, 1985.
- Perry, Charles. The Haight-Ashbury. New York: Vintage Books, 1984.
- Piven, Frances Fox and Richard Cloward. The New Class War. New York: Pantheon Books, 1982.
- Ragni, Gerome and James Rado. HAIR: The American Tribal Love-Rock Musical. New York: Pocket Books, 1969.
- Raines, Howell. My Soul is Rested. New York: Penguin Books, 1977.
- Redstockings. Feminist Revolution. New York: Random House, 1975.
- Rips, Geoffrey et. al. UnAmerican Activities: The Campaign Against the Underground Press. San Francisco: City Lights Books, 1981.
- Roszak, Theodore. The Making of a CounterCulture. New York: Anchor, 1969.
- Rubin, Jerry. Do It. New York: Ballantine Books, 1970.
- Rubin, Jerry. We Are Everywhere. New York: Harper/Colophon Books, 1971.
- Sale, Kirkpatrick. SDS. New York: Random House, 1973.
- Sayre, Nora. Sixties Going on Seventies. New York: Curtis Books, 1974.
- Sayres, Sohnya, Anders Stephanson, Stanley Aronowitz and Fredric Jameson (editors). The 60s Without Apology. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1984.
- Schneir, Miriam. Feminism: The Essential Historical Writings. New York: Random House, 1972.
- Senate Select Committee to Study Governmental Operations. Intelligence Activities and the Rights of Americans: Books II and III. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1976.
- Shilts, Randy. The Mayor of Castro Street: The Life and Times of Harvey Milk. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1982.
- Thompson, Toby. The '60s Report. New York: Rawson, Wade, 1979.
- Walker, Alice. Meridian. New York: Washington Square Press, 1976.
- Walker, Daniel et. al. Rights in Conflict: A Report Submitted by Daniel Walker, Director of the Chicago Study Group, to the National Commission on the Causes and Prevention of Violence. New York: The New American Library, 1968.
- Williams, Juan. Eyes on the Prize: America's Civil Rights Years. New York: Viking Press, 1987.
- Wolfe, Tom. The Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test. Toronto: Bantam Books, 1969.
- Zaroulis, Nancy and Gerald Sullivan. Who Spoke Up?. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1984.
- Zinn, Howard. A People's History of the United States. New York: Harper/Colophon Books, 1980.
- Zinn, Howard. The Twentieth Century: A People's History. New York: Harper/Colophon Books, 1984.
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