Giving a Shout for Freedom, Part IV: Notes
Michael B. Friedland, History Department, Boston College
1 Martin Luther King, Jr., Interview in Playboy (January 1965), quoted in A Testament of Hope: The Essential Writings of Martin Luther King, Jr., ed. James Melvin Washington (San Francisco: Harper and Row, 1986): 344-345.
5 Dubbed "Episcocrats," by some critics, the members of this denomination have "received a heavy dose of influences from English character and history" which include "a sense of moderation and rationality, suspicion of fanatics, [and] a love of literate sermons.... Episcopalians take a very English, stiff-upper-lip attitude toward their church; it is the sort of thing one should accept or reject personally, internally, without unduly annoying other people with theological disputations, even in church." Kit and Frederica Konolige, The Power of Their Glory: America's Ruling Class: The Episcopalians (New York: Wyden Books, 1978): 32-33, 37.
8 Captain Paul Moore, Jr., "War Diary, August-October 1942," (written in spring of 1943), p. 8, in Malcolm Boyd Papers, Box 40, Folder 1, Department of Special Collections, Mugar Memorial Library, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts, hereafter cited as MBP.
9 Moore, Take A Bishop Like Me, pp. 6-7; Ross W. Sanderson, The Church Serves the Changing City (New York: Harper and Brothers, 1955): 89-90; Powell Mills Dawley, The Story of the General Theological Seminary (New York: Oxford University Press, 1969): 341.
10 Malcolm Boyd, As I Live and Breathe: Stages of An Autobiography (New York: Random House, 1969), pp. 6-15; see also Malcolm Boyd, Half Laughing, Half Crying (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1986): 25-30.
28 The New York Times, March 26, 1961: 72; "Episcopal Chaplain Resigns Post," The Christian Century 78 (May 17, 1961): 614. Variety took the story somewhat less seriously, headlining the story concerning the former Hollywood producer as "Bishop Biffs Boyd Beatniks; Episcopal Priest Exits Chaplaincy." Variety, April 11, 1961: 11.
33 Merrill Orne Young, "For the Church's Sake," The Christian Century 78 (November 1, 1961): 1300-1301; Charles D. Kean, "Pressures on Episcopalians," The Christian Century 78 (September 20, 1961): 1102-1103.
35 Clipping from Wayne State University Daily Collegian, n.d., Box 9, Folder 6, Ibid.; "To the Greater Glory," The Christian Century 78 (October 4, 1961): 1164; "Sewanee Restaurant Excludes Negroes," The Christian Century 78 (November 8, 1961): 1327.
37 Other clergy taking part in various Freedom Rides that summer included the Reverends William Sloane Coffin, Jr., and Robert McAfee Brown (both Presbyterians); the Reverend Philip Berrigan and a fellow Catholic priest attempted to join the original CORE riders in Jackson, but were ordered to return to their parish by their Josephite superior. William Sloane Coffin, Jr., Once to Every Man: A Memoir (New York: Atheneum, 1978): 151-152; The New York Times, May 25, 1961: 26; The New York Times, May 26, 1961: 1, 20; The New York Times, May 27, 1961: 8; see also William Sloane Coffin, Jr., "Why Yale Chaplain Rode: Christians Can't Be Outside," Life 50 (June 2, 1961): 54-55; Robert McAfee Brown, Creative Dislocation--The Movement of Grace (Nashville: Abingdon Press, 1980): 19-21, 42, 54; The New York Times, April 23, 1961: 31.
41 Boyd and the Reverend Hubert Locke, a religious affairs counselor to the students, joined four students and a professor's wife in a week-long hunger strike to protest the resumption of nuclear tests in the autumn of 1961. Their diet consisted of water, tea, and fruit juices, and the money they saved went to the university's chapter of SANE, the Committee for a Sane Nuclear Policy. This fast, Boyd remembered, aroused more anger and animosity than any other protest in which he had ever taken part. Students ridiculed the fasters, and, in one case, one student went on a fast to protest the fast. Denver Post, October 20, 1961: 1; Coloradan, October 20, 1961: 1; Detroit News, October 20, 1961: 2, all in Box 9, Folder 6, MBP; Boyd, As I Live and Breathe: 183. The Episcopal chaplain also joined other WSU chaplains of all faiths in a "Walk for Reconciliation" through the streets of Detroit to call attention to "the concerns of contemporary human fragmentation," on behalf of "an ecumenical imperative toward human solidarity." Quoted in The Daily Collegian, January 22, 1962: 3-5, in Box 9, Folder 6, MBP.
44 Clayborne Carson, In Struggle: SNCC and the Black Awakening of the 1960s (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1981): 97-98; "The Role of the National Council of Churches in the Mississippi Summer Project," Social Action 31 (November 1964): 10-11; "Churchmen and the Challenge," Commission on Religion and Race Reports 1 (Summer 1965): 12, 14; Stephen Rose, "The Churches and Mississippi," The Christian Century 81 (July 15, 1964): 909-910.
45 "The Role of the National Council," Robert W. Spike, "Mississippi--An Ecumenical Ministry," and Arthur Thomas, "The Meaning of the Summer for the Church," all in Social Action 31 (November 1964): 13, 17-19 22; Arthur Lelyveld, Report of the Committee on Justice and Peace, Yearbook, Central Conference of American Rabbis, Volume 75, ed. Sidney Regner (New York: CCAR, 1966): 65; Paul Good, The Trouble I've Seen (Washington, D.C.: Howard University Press, 1975): 107.
47 The Right Reverend Paul Moore, Jr., "A Long Hot Week": 1, 3, unpublished manuscript, Box 40, Folder 1, MBP; for a detailed description of the Ministers Project, see Lawrence Minear, "Hattiesburg: Toward Reconciliation," The Christian Century 81 (September 9, 1964): 1115-1116.
48 The South was not the only region in need of a ministry of reconciliation, of course. Nineteen sixty-four witnessed the first of the "long, hot summers" in which blacks in the ghettoes of northern and midwestern cities took to the streets to protest police brutality, substandard housing conditions, discriminatory hiring practices, unemployment, and school segregation, demonstrations which usually degenerated into street riots. On his return from Jackson, Mississippi, in August, Moore learned of rioting in Jersey City when his airplane touched down at Newark Airport. He and his wife went to their old parish at Grace Church to lend a hand at relief and mediating efforts. He recalled one memorable night in which one street was deserted except for the police and clergy who waited for the crowds which assembled every evening during the riots; when they arrived, the clergy, joined now by civil rights workers, succeeded in talking them out of committing violence. This was where the clergy must be, Moore wrote, "as at a deathbed, which it nearly was, or at a baptism, which in a sense it also was. The Church does not advocate violence yet the Church has always had chaplains at the front." The Right Reverend Paul Moore, Jr., "A Long Hot Week," [unpublished manuscript]: 2-4, 5-6, Box 40, Folder 1, MBP.
49 James Findlay, "In Keeping With the Prophets: The Mississippi Summer of 1964," The Christian Century 105 (June 8-15, 1988): 574-576; see selected letters in Letters From Mississippi: 152-154; Mary King, Freedom Song (New York: William Morrow and Company, 1987): 390-391; Eric D. Blanchard, "The Delta Ministry," The Christian Century 82 (March 17, 1965): 338.
50 Malcolm Boyd, "The Battle of McComb," The Christian Century 81 (November 11, 1964): 1398, 1400, 1402, 1404; see also Malcolm Boyd, "Mississippi Report 9: Inside a Mississippi Freedom House," Ave Maria 101 (March 13, 1965): 21, 30.
51 Harold K. Schulz, "The Delta Ministry," Social Action 31 (November 1964): 31; "The Delta Ministry," Commission on Religion and Race Reports 1 (Spring 1965): 8; Bruce Hilton, The Delta Ministry (Toronto: The Macmillan Company, 1969): 32-34; "Campaign Opens on Poverty in South," The Christian Century 81 (March 11, 1964): 325-326.
52 Schulz, "Delta Ministry": 31-32; Hilton, The Delta Ministry: 13-16, 44-46; "The Delta Ministry": 8; William J. Jacobs, "Mississippi Report 3: More Notebook On Our Own Congo," Ave Maria 101 (January 30, 1965): 5-6.
55 Wilmina Rowland, "How It Is in Mississippi," The Christian Century 82 (March 17, 1965): 340-342; W.J. Cunningham, Agony at Galloway (Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 1980): 61-67; Hilton, The Delta Ministry: 163-165. "Council Rescinds Restrictions," The Christian Century 82 (March 10, 1965): 293-294; Thomas Cooper, "News of the Christian World," The Christian Century 82 (March 17, 1965): 345.
56 Evaluation Committee Report to the General Board, National Council of Churches of Christ in the United States of America, July 1966, reprinted in Leon Howell, Freedom City (Richmond: John Knox Press, 1969): 124.
57 Quoted in Leon Howell, "The Delta Ministry," Christianity and Crisis 26 (August 8, 1966): 191-192. Such activities also alienated local officials of the NAACP, who in turn were derided as "Uncle Toms" by blacks working with the Delta Ministry; others legitimately questioned why the Delta Ministry had largely ignored the plight of poor whites. Ironically, as increasing numbers of middle-class blacks and whites viewed the Delta Ministry with suspicion, moderates of both races began meeting to discuss the problems it posed to each group, thus opening communications and paving the way for future discourse on broader issues. "Curbing the Delta Ministry," p. 84. One native white minister even praised the NAACP in a speech at a Rotary Club, deriding the Delta Ministry, by comparison, as being "way out." Hilton, The Delta Ministry: 168.
59 Paul Moore to Malcolm Boyd, October 13, 1966, Ibid. By the late 1960s, calls for black control of the organization led to a reorganization of staff positions. Moore resigned as chair of the Delta Ministry in 1968, and by the following year, only five out of thirty staff members were white. Henry J. Pratt, The Liberalization of American Protestantism (Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1972): 177. In 1972, the National Council dissolved all administrative ties to the Delta Ministry, although funds for its use were still channeled through the Protestant interfaith organization. C. Gregg Singer, The Unholy Alliance (New Rochelle, New York: Arlington House, 1975): 294.
61 Paul Moore to Malcolm Boyd, handwritten note, n.d.; Paul Moore to Malcolm Boyd, November 30, 1964; Malcolm Boyd to Paul Moore, December 3, 1964, Ibid. For his part, Boyd was equally pleased to be living near the Moores once again. Since leaving Indianapolis, he wrote, "Paul and Jenny... had remained close friends.... and our relationship was very much a family one. It was possible, then, for one's bishop to be one's friend, and a 'brother in Christ' as well as a 'father in God.'" Boyd, As I Live and Breathe: 225.
67 The New York Times, March 9, 1965: 1; Stephen B. Oates, Let the Trumpet Sound: The Life of Martin Luther King, Jr. (New York: New American Library, 1982): 336-337; Warren Hinckle and David Welsh, "Five Battles of Selma," Ramparts 4 (June 1965): 28, 36; The New York Times, March 11, 1965: 21; G. Merrill Lenox, "News of the Christian World," The Christian Century 82 (April 21, 1965): 506-508; George B. Leonard, "Journey of Conscience: Midnight Plane to Alabama," The Nation 200 (May 10, 1965): 502-504; The New York Times, March 8, 1965: 20; Martin Luther King, Jr., "Behind the Selma March," The Saturday Review 48 (April 3, 1965): 16-17, 57; Andrew Kopkind, "Selma: 'Ain't Gonna Let Nobody Turn Me 'Round,'" The New Republic 152 (March 20, 1965): 7-9; The New York Times, March 9, 1965: 1, 23; Martin Marty and Dean Peerman, "Selma: Sustaining the Momentum," The Christian Century 82 (March 24, 1965): 358-360.
72 Jerry Falwell, "Ministers and Marches," Sermon delivered at Thomas Road Baptist Church, Lynchburg, Virginia, March 21, 1965, reprinted in Perry Deane Young, God's Bullies: Power Politics and Religious Tyranny (New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, 1982): 313. Years later, after Falwell had embarked on his career as the leader of the Moral Majority, a religious group given to political lobbying on behalf of school prayer and the repeal of the controversial Roe v. Wade decision legalizing abortion, this sermon came back to haunt him with a vengeance, and he jokingly told a biographer that he wished he could buy up every copy of the sermon and destroy them. Dinesh D'Souza, Falwell: Before the Millennium: A Critical Biography (Chicago: Regenery Gateway, 1984): 80-83.
74 The New York Times, March 11, 1965: 20. The outpouring of grief and rage over Reeb's murder angered and upset black civil rights workers in Selma, including those in the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee. While saddened by his death, they were quick to point out that the murder of Jimmy Lee Jackson, a black civil rights worker several weeks before had largely gone unnoticed in the regional, to say nothing of the national, press, even though it was his death that was the catalyst for the Selma to Montgomery March. "Now, I'm not saying we shouldn't pay tribute to Rev. Reeb," explained Stokely Carmichael of SNCC. "What I'm saying is that if we're going to pay tribute to one, we should also pay tribute to the other. And I think we have to analyze why [Johnson] sent flowers to Mrs. Reeb, and not to Mrs. Jackson." Quoted in Carson, In Struggle: 161. See also David Riley, "Who Is Jimmie Lee Jackson?" The New Republic 152 (April 3, 1965): 8-9.
76 The New York Times, March 12, 1965: 18; "Moore": 77; U.S., Congress, Senate, "Senator Scott Lauds Role of Episcopal Church in Civil Rights Struggle," 89th Cong., 1st sess., March 25, 1965, Congressional Record 111: 5878; Moore, Take a Bishop Like Me: 8.
79 See Christopher S. Wren, "Turning Point for the Church," Look 29 (May 18, 1965): 32-37; "The Church Militant," Newsweek 75 (March 29, 1965): 75-76, 78; Hinckle and Welsh, "Five Battles": 36-40; Mary McGrory, "So Much Christian Unity in Selma," America 112 (April 3, 1965): 448; Reinhold Niebuhr, "Civil Rights Climax in Alabama," Christianity and Crisis 25 (April 5, 1965): 61.
81 Guenter Lewy, America in Vietnam (New York: Oxford University Press, 1978): 381; George C. Herring, America's Longest War: The United States and Vietnam, 1950-1975 (New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1979),: 147-148, 151; Nancy Zaroulis and Gerald Sullivan, Who Spoke Up? (Garden City: Doubleday and Company, Inc., 1984): 115; The New York Times, October 26, 1965: 4; The New York Times, January 26, 1965: 44; "Battle of Conscience," Newsweek 66 (November 15, 1965): 78; Mitchell K. Hall, Because of Their Faith: CALCAV and Religious Opposition to the Vietnam War (New York: Columbia University Press, 1990): 14, 15-16; Coffin, Once to Every Man: 218-219.
82 The full page advertisement, "A Call to Clergymen-- Viet-Nam: The Clergyman's Dilemma: An Education-Action Mobilization, January 31-February 1, 1967," appeared in The Christian Century 84 (January 4, 1967): 23, and Commonweal 85 (December 16, 1966): back cover, among other places; Coffin, Once to Every Man: 224.
86 Robert McAfee Brown, Arthur Lelyveld, John Sheerin, "Commentary by Religious Leaders on the Erosion of Moral Constraint in Vietnam," in In the Name of America (Annandale, Virginia: The Turnpike Press, 1968): 1-3.
87 Ibid.: 12. Clergy and Laymen Concerned About Vietnam distributed a copy of the four hundred and twenty page tome to every senator in Washington D.C., and by the middle of the year over 30,000 copies of the book had been sold, although there is little evidence to suggest that it succeeded in rousing a population that preferred not know about such things. The New York Times, February 4, 1968: 1; John C. Bennett to Malcolm Boyd, July 16, 1968: 2, Box 17, Folder 1, MBP.
96 Richard Fernandez to Malcolm Boyd, September 14, 1970, Paul Moore to Malcolm Boyd, April 20, 1970, Box 36; Richard Fernandez to Malcolm Boyd, January 6, 1971, Box 37, Folder 1; Malcolm Boyd to Paul Moore, September 6, 1971, Box 35, Folder 3, MBP.