Doves in a Hawk's Nest: Viet Nam and the American Peace Movement, 1965-75: Footnotes
Charles Howlett, West Islip, NY
3 Thomas Powers, Vietnam: The War at Home (Boston: G.K. Hall) 1984, presents an insightful overview of the domestic turmoil and strife. The introduction and Chapter 1 are most helpful. Other works to consult are: Mitchel K. Hall, Because of Their Faith: CAL-CAV and Religious Opposition to the Vietnam War (New York: Columbia University Press) 1990; Mel Small, Johnson, Nixon, and the Doves (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press) 1988; and Mel Small and William D. Hoover, eds., Give Peace a Chance: Essays from the Charles DeBenedetti Memorial Conference on the Vietnam Antiwar Movement (Syracuse: Syracuse University Press) 1992.One of the most ambitious and challenging programs to date was The Center for the Study of the Vietnam Generation. It was a network of scholars, writers, journalists, historians, sociologists, political scientists, religious clergy and others interested in studying how the events of the 1960s and early 1970s--among them the Viet Nam war, war protest, civil rights movement, women's movement, and Watergate--affect the actions and attitudes of the 60 million men and women who came of age during that time. [Editor's note: The Center for the Study of the Vietnam Generation was discontinued in 1988, when its founder, John Wheeler, decided to halt its work. The files of the Center were handed over to the Indochina Institute at George Mason University, and the organization ceased to exist. Viet Nam Generation, though it has no connection to the Center, was founded to continue a tradition of inquiry into the Viet Nam war era.]
4 There are a number of useful historical works and anthologies covering the peace movement and the Viet Nam war: Charles DeBenedetti, The Peace Reform in America (Bloomington, IN: Indiana Univ. Press) 1980; Charles DeBenedetti, An American Ordeal: The Antiwar Movement of the Vietnam Era (Syracuse, NY: Syracuse Univ. Press) 1990; Charles Chatfield, ed., Peace Movements in America (NY: Schocken Books) 1973; Thomas Powers, Vietnam: The War at Home; Nancy Zaroulis and Gerald Sullivan, Who Spoke Up? American Protest Against the War in Vietnam, 1963-1974 (NY: Holt, Reinhardt, Winston) 1984; Joseph R. Conlin, ed., American Anti-War Movements (Beverly Hills, CA: Glencoe Press) 1970; Staughton Lynd, ed., Non-Violence in America: A Documentary History (NY: Grove Press) 1985; Robert D. Schulzinger, ed., "The War in Vietnam and Its Legacy," special edition, Peace and Change IX (Summer 1983); John M. Carroll, "The Agony of Vietnam," in William W. MacDonald, et al., eds, Conflict and Change: America 1939 to Present (River City, CA: River City Publications) 1983; my AHA Pamphlet, co-author Glen Zeitzer, The American Peace Movement: History and Historiography (Washington, DC: American Historical Association) 1985, and, Charles Chatfield, The American Peace Movement: Ideals and Activism (New York: Twayne Publishers), 1992. De Benedetti's An American Ordeal was completed by historian Charles Chatfield upon the author's untimely death. It represents the most comprehensive history of the Viet Nam antiwar movement.
6 Traditional Cold War peace organizations like SAND and CNVA are ably discussed in the following works: Robert A. Divine,Blowing on the Wind: The Nuclear Test Ban Debate, 1954-1960 (NY: WW Norton) 1978; Milton Katz, "Peace, Politics & Protest: SANE and the American Peace Movement, 1957-1972 (unpublished Ph.D. thesis, St. Louis University) 1973; and Neil Katz, "Radical Pacifism and the Contemporary American Peace Movement: The Committee for Nonviolent Action, 1957-1967" (unpublished Ph.D. thesis, Univ. of Maryland) 1974.
7 Rising as a constellation of dissident intellectuals, disaffected students, and the culturally alienated, the New Left came upon the scene in 1962 in rebellion against corporate bureaucratic structures in government and education in favor of more direct and personal decision-making forms that it idealized in the phrase "participatory democracy" and that it tried to live in organizations like Students for a Democratic Society and the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee. It also felt a compelling need to reorder U.S. priorities so as to re-emphasize domestic problems and "force a cessation of the arms race." Consult "America and the New Era," June 1963, manifesto issued by Students for a Democratic Society, Box 29a, Social Protest Project, Bancroft Library, UC Berkeley; "Port Huron Statement" (1962) and Tom Hayden, "Student Social Action: From Liberation to Community" (March 1962), Box 57, New Left Collection, Hoover Institution on War, Revolution and Peace, Stanford University. Helpful studies include Edward J. Bacciocco, Jr., The New Left in America: Reform to Revolution, 1950 to 1970 (Stanford, CA: Hoover Institution Press) 1974; Irwin Unger, The Movement: A History of the American New Left, 1959-1972 (NY: Dodd, Mead) 1974; and James Weinstein, Ambiguous Legacy: The Left in American Politics (NY: New Viewpoints) 1975.
8 Sidney Lens, Unrepentant Radical (Boston: Beacon Press) 1980: 318. See also Lens, "Why the Committees of Correspondence?" nd, Personal Box, Sidney Lens Papers, Division of Archives and Manuscripts, Chicago Historical Society.
11 See the following representative works: Clayborne Carson, In Struggle: SNCC and the Black Awakening of the 1960s (Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press) 1981; David J. Garrow, The FBI and Martin Luther King, Jr.: From "Solo" to Memphis (NY: WW Norton) 1981; John Ricks, "'De Lawd' Descends and is Crucified: Martin Luther King in Albany, Georgia," Journal of Southwest Georgia History (Fall 1984); Martin L. King, Jr., Stride Toward Freedom (NY: Mentor) 1958; Harvard Sitkoff, The Struggle for Black Equality, 1954-1980 (NY: Holmes and Meier) 1981; August Meier and Elliott Rudwick, CORE: A Study in the Civil Rights Movement, 1942-1968 (Urbana, IL: Univ. of IL Press) 1975; Howard Zinn, SNCC: The New Abolitionists (Boston: Beacon Press) 1964.
12 Jerry Rubin, et al., "October 15, 16--Days of International Protest," Vietnam Day Committee News 1:2 (Jul-Aug 1965): 1. The link between peace and social justice represented an outgrowth of the "modern" American peace movement that appeared during the First World War. Liberal pacifists, like Muste, argued that there could be no peace without justice at home. On this score see Charles Chatfield, For Peace and Justice: Pacifism in America, 1914-1941 (Knoxville, TN: University of Tennessee Press) 1971.
13 Milton S. Katz, "Peace Liberals and Vietnam: SANE and the Politics of 'Responsible' Protest," Peace and Change IX, no. 2/3 (Summer 1983): 21-4; Kirkpatrick Sale, SDS (NY: Random House) 1974: 242-243.
15 Patti McGill Peterson, "Student Organizations and the Anti-War Movement in America," in Chatfield, ed., Peace Movements in America: 116-132; Howlett and Zeitzer, The American Peace Movement: 37-38.
19 Martin Luther King, Jr., "Declaration of Independence from the War in Vietnam," in Lillian Schlissel, ed., Conscience in America: A Documentary History of Conscientious Objection in America, 1757-1967 (NY: E.P. Dutton) 1968: 426-433.
21 Fort Hood Three, pamphlet, July 1966, Muste Papers, Box 43; New York Post 10 Oct 1966. Also consult, William King, editor, A White Man's War: Race Issues and Vietnam 1:2, special issue of Vietnam Generation (1989).
22 A.J. Muste, "Last Words," Liberation (Sep-Oct 1967): 52-7; Philip S. Foner, American Labor and the Indochina War: Growth of Union Opposition (NY: International Publishers) 1971: 48-59; John Kenneth Galbraith, How to Get Out of Vietnam (NY: New American Library) 1967: 22.
23 Quoted in Don Lawson, Ten Fighters for Peace (NY: Lothrop, Lee and Shepard) 1971: 74, 87; see also Michael Useem, Conscription, Protest and Social Conflict: The Life and Death of a Draft Resistance Movement (NY: John Wiley) 1973); David M. Mantell, True Americanism: Green Berets and War Resisters (NY: Teachers College Press) 1974; Ferber and Lynd, eds., The Resistance, passim.
27 "April 15 Demonstrations of Spring Mobilization Committee," 12 Feb 1967, SANE Mss, SCPC; Washington Post, 7 Apr 1967: 1; New York Times, 13 Apr 1967: 3; Zaroulis and Sullivan, Who Spoke Up?: 110; Norman Cousins, "Public Opinion and Vietnam," Saturday Review, 29 Apr 1967: 4.
29 "A Call to Resist," New Republic (7 Oct 1967); New York Times, 20 Oct 1967: 1; "Confront the Warmakers--October 21 & 22," New Left Notes (18 Sep 1967): 2. For a useful list of the major antiwar demonstrations of this period consult Irving Horowitz, The Struggle is the Message: The Organization and Ideology of the Anti-War Movement (Berkeley, CA: The Glendessary Press) 1970: 148-67; Jerome H. Skolnick, The Politics of Protest (NY: Ballantine Books) 1969: 25-78.
38 Ken Hurwitz, Marching Nowhere (NY: WW Norton) 1971 and Sam Brown, "The Politics of Peace,' The Washington Monthly II, no. 6 (Aug 1970): 24-46; Lens, Unrepentant Radical: 356; New York Times, 20 Oct, 18 and 30 Nov 1969.
39 For a scholarly analysis of the dilemma of peace coalitions see Chatfield's introduction to his edited work, Peace Movements in America: xxvi-xxviii. Also consult Brabford Lyttle, The Chicago Anti-Vietnam War Movement (Chicago: Midwest Pacifist Center) 1988.
41 Denisoff, ed., Songs of Protest, War and Peace: 6; Zaroulis and Sullivan, Who Spoke Up?: 319-23; I.F. Stone, The Killings at Kent Sate (NY: Vintage) 1971; New York Times, 5 May 1970. See also Susie Erenrich, editor, Kent and Jackson State: 1970-1990 2:2, special issue of Vietnam Generation (1990).
42 VVAW History, Box 6, The State Historical Society of Wisconsin; David Cortright,Soldiers in Revolt: The American Military Today (Garden City, NY: Doubleday) 1975, chapter 1; Edward M. Opton, Jr. and Robert Duckless, "Mental Gymnastics on Mylai," The New Republic 162, no. 8 (21 Feb 1970): 14-16; Vietnam Veterans Against the War, The Winter Soldier Investigations (Boston: Beacon Press) 1972; John Kerry, "Vietnam Veterans Against the War," in David Thorne and George Butler, eds., The New Soldier (NY: Macmillan) 1971.
48 Unfortunately, the military-oriented assumptions of the Cold War that led us into Viet Nam remain. Although the peace movement contributed to discrediting and eventually ending U.S. involvement in Viet Nam, despite their efforts they seem to have had little impact on the nature either of U.S. society or its approach to world affairs. For a retrospective analysis on the impact of the antiwar movement see, Michael Walzer, "The Peace Movement: What Was Won by Protest?" New Republic (10 Feb 1973): 25; James O'Brien, "The Anti-War Movement and the War," Radical America VIII (May-Jun 1974): 53-86; and Katz, "Peace Liberals and Vietnam": 21-39.