RECOMMENDATIONS FOR REPAIR AND RESTORATION
The principal goal of this historic structure report is to provide a framework for guiding this and future renewal efforts, so that the integrity of the structure is not compromised and its remaining historic building fabric is preserved intact, while necessary modifications are made to accommodate modern functional requirements, such as bathrooms and kitchens. The effects of recent modifications that have compromised the historic character of the building are to be reversed. Restoration work should be based on sound physical and documentary evidence, so that the work can be carried out in a manner that is historically accurate and not based on romantic notions or suppositions about past conditions.
ROOF The present standing seam sheet metal roof, which was installed less than two years ago, approximates the appearance of the roof installed after the 1886 fire and not Jefferson's original roof. In the next several years, archival research and investigation of the existing roof framing and sheathing, particularly near the eaves, should be undertaken to determine the nature and configuration of the original roofing on Pavilion I. When the present roof is in need of major repairs, it should be removed and a replica of the original installed, following the research and investigative procedures that have been recently employed in the replacement of the roof on Pavilion X. Meanwhile, certain minor repairs are required to ensure that the present roof remains weathertight. These repairs should be carried out as soon as possible and include the following.
1. On the main chimney and the west wing chimney, replace copper cap flashing with terneplate, repoint joint where cap flashing enters chimney, and caulk (sparingly) intersection between cap flashing and masonry. No nails are to be used to secure flashings to masonry.
2. Remove all portland cement mortar from chimneys and repoint joints with lime-rich mortar matching original in color, texture, density, and tooling.
PORTICO AND ENTABLATURE
1. When the existing paint fails, remove heavy build-up of paint using hand scraping methods (large areas) and chemical removers (details) on all exterior woodwork. Repaint using modern oil-base paints that are compatible with historic paint that is to remain.
2. Repair deteriorated wood elements using epoxy consolidants on decayed areas and epoxy fillers where gaps exist.
3. Replace deteriorated and ineffective flashings on the entablature and column capitals with inconspicuous terne coated stainless flashings that end in drip edges.
4. Remove build-up of whitewash on columns, repair columns, and apply new coating of whitewash.
5. Repair deteriorated areas of fan light in pediment with epoxy consolidants and replace missing molding.
1. Adjust iron tension rods to correct "swimming" effect and repair deteriorated adjacent wood with epoxy consolidants.
2. Repair beaded board ceiling, floor-level moldings, and porch deck by filling cracks with epoxy fillers and caulking.
3. Remove transparent plastic barrier.
1. Remove all deteriorated mortar and recently installed portland cement pointing and replace with lime-rich mortar matching original in color, texture, density and tooling. After repointing, settlement cracks should be monitored to determine if movement has been arrested.
2. Remove efflorescence and other staining from brickwork using mild chemical cleaning agents that will not damage the masonry.
3. Replace badly spelled bricks.
4. Correct exterior drainage to help prevent rising damp.
5. Repair roof gutters and leaders to prevent leaks into exterior brickwork.
6. Remove surface mounted telephone cables and electrical conduit from brick walls. Provide underground telephone service.
1. Correct drainage problems and replace deteriorated concrete paving in areaways.
2. Remove debris from areaways and prevent future accumulations.
1. Remove all loose and flaking paint using hand scraping techniques.
2. Repair deteriorated wood using epoxy consolidants and fillers.
3. Replace deteriorated putty and repaint sash.
4. Rehang all sash for proper operation and to reduce excessive air penetration.
INTERIORS The interior spaces, especially those in the original block of the house, should be preserved in their historic forms. Original paint colors and interior finishes should be replicated and wallpaper should be installed where there is evidence of its use initially.
Generally the building should continue to be used as it has been recently, with the more formal entertaining spaces and the kitchen on the first floor, family bedrooms and sitting rooms on the second floor, and informal living spaces and guest bedrooms in the basement.
In Pavilion I, the insertion of bathrooms on the second floor has been a longstanding problem. Originally, the only facility was the small necessary house in the yard The two existing second floor bathrooms occupy virtually all of the original second floor center hallway, thus making use of all three of the original bedrooms for their, original function impossible. Indeed, the issue of how to deal with bathrooms, as well as kitchens, throughout the Academical Village is one that deserves considerable. attention (see
"Guidelines for the Design of Bathrooms and Kitchens"
1. Repair damage to original stairway along east wall.
2. Remove existing heating pipes throughout basement.
3. Remove portland cement mortar from original brick flooring and reset bricks with sand/clay in original pattern.
4. Replace deteriorated and moisture-damaged wall and ceiling plaster.
5. Repair deteriorated window and door trim.
6. Renovate bathroom.
1. Replace deteriorated and moisture damaged plaster.
2. Rake out settlement cracks and replaster.
3. Repair deteriorated woodwork.
4. Replace translucent plastic skylight over rear stairway with glass in a more appropriate design.
5. Remove lowered ceiling in entrance hall (Room 101) and restore original ceiling.
6. Renovate kitchen and pantry.
1. Replace deteriorated and moisture damaged plaster.
2. Rake out settlement cracks and replaster.
3. Repair deteriorated woodwork, including cornices.
4. Remove suspended ceilings in bathrooms and restore original ceilings and moldings. (Investigate relocation of bathrooms and restoration of central hallway.)
5. Chemically remove paint on cornice in master bedroom (Room 208).
6. Renovate or relocate bathrooms.
1. Replace entire electrical distribution system.
2. Remove existing lighting fixtures and install fixtures appropriate to historical quality of building.
1. Remove existing HVAC system, including pipes and radiators.
2. Investigate installation of new forced air HVAC system to provide heating and air conditioning. Mechanical equipment required for the new system should be located in the mechanical areas beneath the student rooms and in the attic of Pavilion I.
3. In order to provide air conditioning, the new HVAC system is to be connected to the university's central chilled water system when it is constructed.
1. Replace entire existing plumbing system as part of the construction work for the new bathrooms and kitchen.
FIRE DETECTION/SUPPRESSION SYSTEMS
1. Install fire detection system throughout the building.
2. Connect fire detection system to university's central reporting facility.
3. Investigate the installation of fire suppression system (sprinklers) in the basement and attic. Because of the damage that would be caused by the installation of a sprinkler system throughout the first and second floors, it is recommended that these floors not be sprinklered.
GUIDELINES FOR THE DESIGN OF BATHROOMS AND KITCHENS Locating and designing contemporary bathrooms and kitchens in these historic buildings pose difficult challenges to both architect and occupant. On one hand, any intrusion on the historic configuration of internal spaces, or any variance from the traditional handling of materials and details, diminishes the architectural integrity of the ensemble. On the other hand, contemporary use demands the introduction of technological amenities unknown in Jefferson's time. The problem requires innovation tempered with respect for historic ambience.
First of all, it should be recognized that these installations are relatively impermanent - lasting barely a generation before technological advances render them obsolete. While their location within a building may be fairly fixed by functional relationships to adjacent rooms and by the installation of plumbing lines within walls and floors, the fitments and finishes are subject to changing notions of style and amenity. By reason of their stylistic incongruity, bathrooms and kitchens disrupt the visual integrity of a historic interior. Therefore, bravura design statements or the use of exotic materials are out of place. The goal should be to produce visual quiet and the least memorable spaces in the building. With this objective in mind, the following guidelines have been developed to assist in the design of bathroom and kitchen installations in Pavilion I.
PLACEMENT AND ORGANIZATION
1. Preserve the historic configuration and dimension of spaces by retaining or retrieving the historic floor plans.
2. Locate facilities within available spaces without manipulating interior partitions to create non-historic spaces.
3. Strive to maintain the simple, rectangular volumes of individual spaces by avoiding complex, contrived arrangements of walls, cabinets, fixtures, and counters.
4. Develop numerous alternative schemes for layout of kitchen and bathrooms to facilitate an indepth assessment of the advantages and disadvantages inherent in each scheme so as to achieve the solution that has the least impact upon historic fabric and ambience of the building.
MATERIALS, FINISHES, DETAILING
1. Restrict range of materials, colors, decorative motifs, etc. -subordinate selection to those found in the building or to those used in the early nineteenth century.
2. Restore floors to heart pine.
3. Design casework in simple anonymous designs such as might have been used in the 1820s (i.e. bead butt and square panel doors) fabricated in heart pine finished natural or in other woods painted (refrain from overly traditional prototypes with decorative moldings as well as from modern minimalist planar compositions).
KITCHEN DESIGN 1. Strive to create the appearance of a room simply furnished for kitchen purposes (and probably informal dining as well) relying on freestanding pieces of furniture, rather than complex arrangements of counters, wall and base cabinets (the latter items evoke the laboratory appearance of modern kitchens with their cluttered counters and cabinets of varying size, shape and arrangement).
2. Discard notions of complex work patterns which wrap and cramp kitchen space with continuous counter surfaces; instead place greater reliance on freestanding work surfaces, such as centrally placed tables (sinks and cooktops can be placed in these tables) which offer much greater convenience and freedom of movement for several persons working in the kitchen at the same time.
3. Spatial contortions of base cabinets, countertops and above counter wall cabinets not only tend towards inefficiency by fragmenting and restricting essential storage capacity but also impair development of designs that are compatible with the historic integrity of the building's interiors. Consolidate storage in cabinets that extend from floor to ceiling in unbroken planes to afford greater storage convenience and visual quiet (refrigerators, freezers and wall ovens can be incorporated in these storage cabinets).
BATHROOM DESIGN 1. Treat plumbing fixtures in a straightforward manner as freestanding elements; avoid building basins into cabinets.
2. Provide storage in antique cupboards, chests, etc., placed as loose furniture, rather than relying on built-in storage units, which tend to both obscure and impinge on the clarity of the original volumes of the Jeffersonian spaces. Where ceilings are low and without cornices, floor-to-ceiling/wall-to-wall cabinets may be utilized to preserve simple, rectangular volumes of historic spaces (as described in kitchen guidelines above).
3. Refrain from use of ceramic tile, vinyls, plastic laminates and marbles; instead use water resistant woods and painted plaster.
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Last Modified: Thursday, 08-Aug-1996 10:15:04 EDT