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PART. III. The Dynasty of Hea.

I. The emperor Yu; dynastic title, Hea-how.

Note. His mother was called Sew-ke. She saw a falling star, which went through the constellation Maou, and in a dream her thoughts were moved till she became pregnant, after which she swallowed a spirits' pearl. Her back opened in due time, and she gave birth to Yu in Shihnew. He had a tiger nose and a large mouth. His ears had three orifices. His head bore the resemblance of the stars Kow and K`een. On his breast seemed a figure in gem of the Great Bear, and in the lines of his feet he seemed to tread on the character 已;—hence he was called Wăn-ming. When he grew up, he had the virtue of a sage, and was 9 cub. 6 in. long. He dreamt that he was bathing in the Ho, and drank up the water. He had also the happy omen of a white fox with 9 tails. In the time of Yaou, Shun brought him forward. As he was looking at the Ho, a tall man, with a white face and fish's body, came out and said, `I am the spirit of the Ho.' He then called Yu, and said, `Wăn-ming shall regulate the waters.' Having so spoken, he gave Yu a chart of the Ho, containing all about the regulating of the waters; and returned into the deep. When Yu had done regulating the waters, Heaven gave him a dark coloured mace, with which to announce his completed work. When the fortunes of Hea were about to rise, all vegetation was luxuriant, green dragons lay in the borders, and the spirit of Chuh-yung descended on mount Ts`ung:—Shun resigned, and Yu ascended the throne. The Lŏ produced the tortoise Book, called `The great Plan.' When the three years of mourning were over, he made his capital in Yang-shing.

In his 1st year, which was jin-tsze (49th of cycle, = B.C. 1,989), when he came to the throne, he dwelt in K`e. He published the seasons of Hea throughout the regions and States. In his 2d year, Kaou-yaou died. In his 5th year, he made a tour of inspection, and assembled the princes at mount T`oo. 1

Note. On his way to the south, when crossing the Këang, in the middle of the stream, two yellow dragons took the boat on their backs. The people were all afraid; but Yu laughed and said, `I received my appointment from Heaven, and labour with all my strength to nourish men. To be born is the course of nature; to die is by Heaven's decree. Why be troubled by the dragons?' On this the dragons went away, dragging their tails.

In his 8th year, he assembled the princes at Hwuy-k`e, 2 when he put the chief of Fang-fung to death. In the summer, in the 6th month, it rained gold in the capital city of Hea. In the autumn, in the 8th month, he died at Hwuy-k`e.

Note. Yu reigned (as associate, or as sovereign) 45 years. He presented Yih to Heaven, and died seven years after. When the three years of mourning were ended, the empire turned to K`e (his son).

II. The emperor K`e.

In his 1st year, which was kwei-hae3 (60th of cycle, = B.C. 1,978), when he came to the throne in the capital city of Hea, 4 he made a great feast to the princes in the tower of Keun, 5 after which they followed him back to the capital in K`e, when he made a second great feast to them in the tower of Seuen. In his 2d year, Pih-yih, the prince of Pe, left the court, and went to his State. The king led his forces to punish the prince of Hoo, when there was a great battle in Kan. 6 In his 6th year, Pih-yih died, and the emperor appointed a sacrifice to him. 7 In his 8th year, he sent Mang T`oo to Pa, to preside over litigations. In his 10th year, he made a tour of inspection, and celebrated a complete service of Shun's music in the wilderness of T`een-muh. In his 11th year, he banished his youngest son, Woo-kwan, beyond the western Ho. In his 15th year, Woo-kwan with the people about the western Ho rebelled. The baron Show of P`ang led a force to punish them, when Woo-kwan returned to his allegiance. In his 14th year, the king died.

III. The emperor T`ae-k`ang.

In his 1st year, which was kwei-wei (20th of cycle, = B.C. 1,957), when he came to the throne, he dwelt at Chin-sin. 8 He went hunting beyond the Loh, when E entered and occupied Chin-sin. 9 In his 4th year, he died.

IV. The emperor Chung-K`ang.

In his 1st year, which was ke-ch`ow (26th of cycle, = B.C. 1,951), when the em- peror came to the throne, he dwelt in Chin-sin. In his 5th year, in the autumn, in the 9th month, on the day kăng-seuh (47th of cycle), which was the first day of the month, there was an eclipse of the sun, when he ordered the prince of Yin to lead the imperial forces to punish He and Ho. 10 In his 6th year, he conferred on the prince of Keun-woo the appointment of leader among the princes. 11 In his 7th year, he died. His son Sëang went away, and dwelt in Shang-k`ew, 12 where he was supported by the prince of P`ei. 13

V. The emperor Seang.

In his 1st year, which was mow-seuh (35th of cycle, = B.C. 1,942), when he came to the throne, he dwelt in Shang; 14 and led a punitive expedition against the hordes of the Hwae. In his 3d year, he proceeded against the hordes of Fung and Hwang.

In his 7th year, the hordes of Yu came to make their submission. In his 8th year, Han-tsuh put E to death, and made his own son Këaou dwell in Ko. 15

In his 9th year, Seang dwelt in Chin-kwan. 16 In his 15th year, Seangt`oo, the prince of Shang, prepared carriages and horses, and removed to Shang- k`ew. In his 20th year, Han-tsuh extinguished the House of Ko. 17 In his 26th year, Han-tsuh made his son Këaou lead an army, and extinguish the House ofChin-kwan. In his 27th year, Këaou attacked Chin-sin. There was a great battle in Wei, when the boat of the prince of Chin-sin was overturned, and he was put to death. 18 In his 28th year, Han-tsuh made his son Këaou murder the emperor. The empress Min fled to Yew-jing; 19 and Pih-mei made his escape, and fled to Kih. 20

Note. The site of Chin-kwan was what was Te-k`ew. The empress Min, who was pregnant made her escape by a hole, and returned to her father, the prince of Jing. Pih-mei fled to the chief of Kih.

The heir of the line of Hea, Shaou-k`ang, was born in the year ping-yin (= B.C. 1,914). He fled from Yew-jing to Yu, 21 in the year yih-yew (= B.C. 1,895). Pih-mei led the forces of Chin-sin and Chin-kwan from Kih to attack Tsuh; and the heir-son Shaou-k`ang sent Joo-e to attack Ko; and put Këaou to death, in the year këă-shin (= B.C. 1,876). His eldest son, Ch`oo, led a force against Ko, and extinguished it. Pih-mei put Han-tsuh to death, and Shaou-k`ang returned from Lun to the capital of Hea, in the year yih-ke (= B.C. 1,875).

Note. In the year after her flight, the empress Min gave birth to Shaou-k`ang, who became, when he was grown up, chief herdsman in Jing, and was on the watch against the evil designs of Keaou. Këaou having sent Tsëaou to look for him, Shaou-k`ang fled, before his arrival, to Yu, where he became chief cook. Sze, the prince of Yu, gave him his two daughters in marriage, and the city of Lun. There his fields were a le square; and his followers amounted to 500. He displayed his virtue, and formed his plans to collect the multitudes of Hea, and raise the hopes of the old officers. An old servant of Hea, called Pih-mei, issuing from Kih, collected all the people that were left of the two Chin, to attack Tsuh. Tsuh trusted in Këaou, and felt quite at ease, giving no thought to his wickedness, and making no preparations. At the same time, Shaou-k`ang sent Joo-e to spy out Keaou's condition. Now Tsuh had married a daughter of Shun-woo, by whom he had a son who died early, leaving a widow called Neu-k`e. Këaou obliged one Yu to go to her house, and pretend that he had something to ask of her. On this Neu-k`e mended his lower clothes, and they passed the night in the same house. Joo-e sent a party, took them by surprise, and cut off the head of Neu-k`e. Keaou, being very strong and swift, made his escape; E then hunted him, and let loose a dog, which seized him, so that he fell, when they cut off his head, with which E returned to Shaou-k`ang. After this the multitudes of Hea put Tsuh to death, and carried Shaou-k`ang back to the capital. As soon as the princes heard of it, they raised him to the throne, to sacrifice to his ancestors along with the sacrifices to Heaven; and thus the old possession was not lost.

VI. The emperor Shaou-k`ang.

In his 1st year, which was ping-woo (43d of cycle, = B.C. 1,874), when he came to the throne, the princes came to court to do homage. He entertained the duke of Yu as his guest. In his 2d year, the hordes of Fang came to make their submission.

In his 3d year, he restored the descendant of prince Tseih, the minister of Agriculture. 22

Note. Puh-f`uh, a descendant of prince Tseih, had lost the office, which was now restored.

In his 11th year, he caused Ming, the prince of Shang, to regulate the Ho. In his 18th year, he removed to Yuen. 23 In his 21st year, he died.

VII. The emperor Ch`oo.

In his 1st year, which was ke-sze (6th of cycle, = B.C. 1,851), when he came to the throne, he dwelt in Yuen. In his 5th year, he removed from Yuen to Laou-k`ew. 24 In his 8th year, he went on a punitive expedition towards the eastern sea, as far as San-show, and got a fox with 9 tails. In his 13th year, Ming, the prince of Shang, died, pursuing his labours on the Ho. In his 17th year, he died.

Note. The name Ch`oo is written with a difft. character (宁). The emperor is also called Pih-ch`oo. There was a younger brother, a worthy descendant of Yu, who was therefore rewarded by the emperor.

VIII. The emperor Fun.

His 1st year was mow-tsze (25th of cycle, = B.C. 1,832), when he came to the throne. In his 2d year, the 9 wild tribes of the east came to perform service. 25

In his 16th year, Yung, the baron of Loh, fought with Fung-e, the baron of Ho. 26

In his 33d year, he appointed the son of the chief of Keun-woo to Soo. 27 In his 36th year, he made a circular enclosure for a prison.28 In his 44th year, he died.

Note. Fun is by some called Fun-fă.

IX. The emperor Mang.

In his 1st year, which was jin-shin (9th of cycle, = B.C. 1,788), when he came to the throne, he went with the dark-coloured mace to receive the baron of Ho. 29 In his 13th year, on a tour of inspection to the east as far as the sea, he got a large fish.

In his 33d year, the prince of Shang removed to Yin. 30 In his 58th year, he died.

Note. Mang is in some editions called the emperor Hwang.

X. The emperor Sëeh.

His 1st year was sin-wei (8th of cycle, = B.C. 1,729), when he came to the throne.

In his 12th year, Tsze-hae, prince of Yin, went as guest to Yew-yih, the chief of which put him to death, and sent away his followers. In his 16th year, Wei, prince of Yin, with the forces of the baron of Ho, attacked Yew-yih, 31 and killed its ruler Mëen-chin.

Note. The prince of of Yin, Tsze-hae, visited Yew-yih, and was guilty of licentious conduct, so that the ruler of Yew-yih, Mëen-chin, slew him, and drove his followers away. In consequence of this, Shang-këă-wei of Yin obtained the services of the army of the baron of Ho, attacked and extinguished the State of Yew-yih, putting Mëen-chin to death. For a time Yin had decayed, but when Shang-këă-wei revived its power, the people avenged the wrong that had been done.

In his 21st year, he conferred regular dignities on the chiefs of the hordes of K`euen, of the white hordes, the dark hordes, the hordes of Fung, the red hordes, and the yellow hordes. In his 25th year, he died.

XI. The emperor Puh-këang.

His 1st year, was ke-hae (36th of cycle, = B.C. 1,701), when he came to the throne. In his 6th year, he attacked the country of Kew-yuen. 32 In his 35th year, Yin made an end of the House of P`e. 33 In his 59th year, he resigned the throne to his younger brother Këung.

XII. The emperor Këung.

His 1st year, was mow-seuh (35th of cycle, = B.C. 1,642), when he came to the throne. In his 10th year, the emperor Puh-këang died.

Note. In the period of the three dynasties there was only one resignation of the throne,—that by Puh-këang. He must have had the virtue of a sage.

In his 18th year, he died.

XIII. The emperor Kin.

Note. Also called Yin-këă.

In his 1st year, which was ke-wei (56th of cycle, = B.C. 1,621), when he came to the throne, he dwelt on the west of the Ho. 34 In his 4th year, he made the music of the West. The chief of Keun-woo removed to Heu. 35

Note. The surname of the founder of Keun-woo was Ke, and his name Tan. He had been invested with Wei, and when Hea was decaying, the chief of the House was Head of the princes, and removed to old Heu.

In his 8th year, there was an inauspicious portent in the sky;—ten suns appeared together. In that year the emperor died.

XIV. The emperor K`ung-kea.

In his 1st year, which was yih-sze (mistake for ke-sze, 6th of cycle, = B.C. 1,611), when he came to the throne, he dwelt on the west of the Ho. He displaced the chief of Ch`e-wei, and appointed Lew-luy to feed the dragons. 36 In his 3d year, the king hunted on mount Foo. 37 In his 5th year, he made the music of the East.

In his 7th year, Lew Luy removed to Loo-yang. 38

Note. The king was superstitious, and acted in a disorderly and licentious way. The princes became like him, and the govt. of Hea began to go to decay. He was hunting on mount Foo of Tung-yang, when in a great wind the sky was all overcast. The emperor lost his way, and went into the family of a peasant, whose wife had just been confined. Some said, `The emperor has come to see you;—it is a good day. This child will have great good fortune.' Some said, `Not so. This child will be unfortunate.'—When K`ung-këă heard this, he said, `Let it be the child of me, the emperor; then who can harm it?' Accordingly he took the child with him; but when it was grown up, it was killed by a hatchet, on which he made the song of `Break the Hatchet;'—what is called `The music of the East.'

A female dragon of those which Lew Luy had the keeping of died, when he privately made pickle of it, and set it before the emperor, who enjoyed it; and ordered Luy to look for the missing dragon. Luy was afraid, and removed to Loo-yang, where his descendants became the Fan family.

In his 9th year, he died. The prince of Yin returned to Shang-k`ew.

XV. The emperor Haou.

Note. Also called Kaou.

His 1st year was hang-shin (17th of cycle, = B.C. 1,600), when he came to the throne. He restored the representative of the House of Ch`e-wei to his State.

Note. In the decay of the Hëa, chiefs of Keun-woo and Ch`e-wei succeeded one another as Head of the princes.

In his 3d year he died.

XVI. The emperor Fah.

Note. Also called the emperor King; and Fă-hwuy.

In his 1st year, which was yih-yew (22d of cycle, = B.C. 1,595), when he came to the throne, various wild tribes came and made their submission at the king's gate. 39 He again repaired the walls. There was a meeting on the upper pool, when the wild people came in, and performed their dances. In his 7th year, he died. Mount T`ae shook.

XVII. The emperor Kwei.

Note. Called also Këĕ.

In his 1st year, which was jin-shin (29th of cycle, = B.C. 1,588), when he came to the throne, he dwelt in Chin-sin. 40 In his 3d year, he built the K`ing palace, and pulled down the Yung tower. 41 The K`euen hordes penetrated as far as K`e, with the standard of revolt. 42 In his 6th year, the hordes of K`e-chung 43 came to make their submission. In his 10th year, the five planets went out of their courses. In the night, stars fell like rain. The earth shook. The E and Loh became dry. In his 11th year, he assembled the princes in Jing, when the chief of Yew-min fled home, on which the emperor extinguished Yew-min. 44 In his 13th year, he removed to the south of the Ho. 45 He made for the first time men-drawn carriages. 46

In his 14th year, Pëen led the imperial forces, and smote Min-san. 47

Note. Some copies read San-min, or hill-people. Kwei ordered Pëen to attack San-min, whose prince presented Këĕ with two ladies, called Yuen and Yen. The emperor loved them, tho' they had no children; and had their names cut on the gems Teaou and Hwa. That on the T`eaou was Yuen; on the Hwa, Yen. He also sent away his first wife Me-he to Lŏ, placing her in the Yaou tower of the K`ing palace.

In his 15th year, Le, prince of Shang, removed to Poh. 48

Note. This was the 1st year of T`ang the Successful.

In his 15th year, Shang made E Yin come to court. In his 20th year, E Yin, returning to Shang, met with Joo Kew and Joo Fang at the north gate. In his 21st year, the forces of Shang went on a punitive expedition against the prince of Lŏ, and subdued him. They then went against King, 49 which made submission. In his 22d year, Le, prince of Shang, came to court, when the emperor ordered him to be imprisoned in the tower of Hea. 50 In his 23d year, he set Le at liberty, when the princes went and offered their submission to Shang. In his 26th year, Shang extinguished Wun. 51 In his 28th year, the chief of Keun-woo attacked Shang. Shang assembled the princes in King-poh 52 and proceeded against Wei, 53 which its forces took. They then proceeded against Koo. The Grand recorder Chung Koo left the court and fled to Shang. In his 29th year, the forces of Shang took Koo. 54 Three suns appeared together. The prince of Pe, Ch`ang, left the court and fled to Shang. In the winter, in the 10th month, they chisselled through mountains, and tunnelled hills, to open a communication with the Ho. 55 In his 30th year, there was a fall of mount K`eu. 56The emperor put to death his great officer Kwan Lung-fung. The forces of Shang marched to punish Keun-woo. In the winter, there was a fire in Ling-suy. 57

In his 31st year, Shang proceeded by way of Urh against the capital of Hea; and overcame Keun-woo. Amid great thunder and rain a battle was fought in Ming-t`eaou, when the army of Hea was defeated. Këeh fled away to San-tsung, 58 against which the army of Shang proceeded. A battle was fought at Ching, 59 and Këeh was taken in Tsëaou-mun. He was then banished away to Nan-ch`aou.

Note. From Yu to Këĕ were 17 reigns. Calculating reigns and interregnums, the dynasty lasted 471 years.


1. Mount T`oo,—see on the `Yih and Tseih', par. 8.

2. The name of Hwuy-k`e remains in the dis. so called, dep. of Shaou-hing, Chĕ-keang. Many wonderful stories are related of the chief of Fang-fung; but all agree that Yu killed him because he came late to the meeting.—Among other notices of Yu, which are not in the Annals, but are elsewhere found, quoted as from them, is this,—that `from Hwang-te to Yu were 30 generations,' or reigns (黃帝至禹為世三十世). If this were ever really in the Annals, much of them must be lost.

3. From 壬子, the 1st year of Yu, to this 癸亥, both inclusive, are twelve years; Yu must have died in 已未, leaving 3 complete years, before K`e's accession. This is the rule in these Annals all through the Hea dyn. The years of mourning are left between the deceased emperor and his successor; but this interregnum varies from 2 to 4 years.

4. This is the city in par. 4 of the last reign. Yu had moved his capital, or made a second one.

5. A dis. of Kwei-tih dep. is still so called. Near or in this was the tower of Keun. 諸侯從 may be construed by itself:—`the princes agreed to follow him;' as if the feast had been a political gathering to secure the throne to K`e.

6. See `The Speech at Kan.'

7. This account does not agree with the account of the death of Yih, which is often attributed to the Annals, and which was no doubt in some of the Bamboo Books; viz. that `Yih was aiming at the throne, and K`e put him to death' (益干啟, 啟殺之).

8. The site of Chin-sin is not well ascertained. The dict. places it in the dis. of Wei (濰縣) dep. of Lae-chow, Shan-tung. Others—more correctly, I think,—refer it to the dis. of Kung, dep. of Ho-nan.

9. See on `The Songs of the Five Sons.'

10. See on the `Punitive Expedition of Yin.'

11. There is repeated mention below of 昆吾氏, and therefore I take the two characters here as in the transl. The country of Keun-woo was the 衛 of subsequent times. 伯 here=霸, chief or leader among the princes. When the five pa are not all referred to the dyn. of Chow, this chief of Keun-woo heads the list.

12. Shang-k`ew is still the name of a dis. in the dep. Kwei-tih.

13. For 依邳候 some copies read 依同姓諸侯斟灌斟尋.

14. I. e. in Shang-k`ew, the chief city of the Shang family, which now begins to come into prominence.

15. This Ko is ref. to the dis. of Yih (夜[注: 应为”手”字旁加“夜”]縣) in Lae-chow. Këaou and a brother are said to have been the sons of Han-tsuh by the wife of E; but they must have been born before E's death. See concluding note in Pt. III. of the Shoo.

16. Chin-kwan is ref.—but not certainly—to the dis. of Show-kwang, dep. Ts`ing-chow, Shan-tung.

17. This Ko lay between the States of Sung and Ch`ing.

18. This Chin-sin would agree with the dis. of Wei. Were there two places of the same name?

19. Yew-jing was in the pres. sub. dep. of Tungp`ing, dep. of T`ae-ngan, Shan-tung.

20. Kih was in the pres. dis. of P`ing-yuen, dep. Tse-nan. Who Mei was is all uncertain. He had been, say many, an adherent of E. This is very unlikely. He appears here a strong partizan of the House of Hea.

21. Yu was in the pres. dis. of Yu-shing, dep. Kwei-tih.

22. The descendant of Tseih here intended, as restored to the ministry of Agriculture, was probably the famous Kung-lew.

23. Yuen is ref. to the pres. dis. of Tse-yuen, dep. Hwaek`ing, Ho-nan.

24. Laou-k`ew is referred to the dis. of Ch`in-lew, dep. of K`ae-fung.

25. 夷 is to be taken here in its proper meaning of `wild tribes of the east.' 御=侍御 , `to wait upon and serve,'—perhaps as warders, guards, &c.

26. Fung-e appears in many writers as a monster or spiritual being. He is evidently in the text merely the chief of the State Ho, or charged with the care of the Ho.

27. Soo was in Tse-yuen, above.

28. All prisons, it is said, in the three dynasties, were circular.

29. I have translated acc. to the view of Hăng Ch`in-fung:—以元珪往聘河伯耳; but perhaps some service to the Ho is meant. The mace is that of Yu the Great.

30. This Yin is ref. to the dis. of Shang-shwny, dep. Ch`in-chow.

31. There is a small dep. in Chih-le, called Yih-chow, which may correspond to the ancient Yew-yih.

32. Kew-yuen=the `nine pasturages,' probably a tract of flat country in the pres. Chih-le.

33. The territory of P`e was in the pres. dis. of Ho-tsin, dep. Keang Chow, Shan-se. It is observed that the extinction of this State was the 1st step of the kind, taken by Shang, to the imperial sway.

34. That is, he lived in Shen-se. `The western Ho' denotes the country west of K`echow.

35. Heu corresponded, probably, to the pres. Heu Chow, Ho-nan.

36. The State of Ch`e-wei is ref. to a place in the dep. of Ta-ming, Chih-le. It is hard to say what is meant by feeding the dragons, though there are many legends about it.

37. It is strange how the title of `king' is here employed for `emperor.'

38. Or `to the south of mount Loo;'—in the pres. dis. of Loo-san, dep. Joo chow, Ho-nan.

39. 王門 should probably be 玉門, `the gate of gems,'—one of the gates of the palace, so called.

40. This, no doubt, was in the dis. of Kung, dep. Ho-nan.

41. For conjectures on the meaning of the names here , see Hăng, in loc.

42. Hăng thinks this par. belongs to the reign of king Muh or king E of Chow.

43. The country of K`e-chung, (岐=跂) or `the people who walked on their toes,' without the heel touching the ground, is placed beyond the Moving sands.

44. See on the time of Shaouk`ang. The Min family occupied the State of Jing.

45. Some city is intended; but commentators are not agreed which.

46. These carriages are said to have been made for Me-he, Këĕ's wife.

47. The comm. identify this Min-san with a Mung-san (蒙山);—perhaps corresp. to Mung-san, dep. Ya-chow, in Szech`uen.

48. This was the `southern Pŏ.'

49. King;—known afterwards as Ts`oo.

50. This was a State prison;—near Chin-sin.

51. The pres. dis. of Wun, dep. Hwae-k`ing.

52. This is said to have been the `northern Pŏ.'

53. Probably=Ch`e-wei.

54. Supposed to have been in pres. dis. of Wun-ching, dep. Ts`aou-chow, Shan-tung.

55. This should not have been done in the winter.

56. K`eu is better known as mount Chin (岑山).

57. See the comment of Sun Cheluh, cited by Hăng. For 聆 some read 耹.

58. San-tsung is ref. to the dis. of Ting-t`aou, dep. Ts`aou-chow.

59. In the sub. dep. of Tung-p`ing, T`ae-ngan.

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