|<Previous Section>||<Next Section>|
[禮樂者]， [何謂也]? [禮之為言履也]。[可履踐而行]。[ 樂者、樂也]。 [君子樂得其道]，[小人樂得其欲]。
樂以象天，禮以法地。 人無不含天地之氣，有五常之性者。 故樂所以蕩滌，反其邪惡也。禮所 [以] 防淫佚、節其侈靡也。 故《孝經》曰: " 安上治民，莫善於禮。" " 移風易俗，莫善於樂。" 子曰:" 樂在宗廟之中， 君臣上下同聽之，則莫不和敬。[在] 族長鄉里之中, 長幼同聽之，則莫不和順。 在閨門之內，父子兄弟同聽之，則莫不和親。 故樂者、所以崇和順，比物飾節， 節奏合以成文，所以合和父子君臣，附親萬民也。是先王立樂之意也。 故聽其雅頌之聲，志意得廣焉。 執干戚，習俯仰屈信，容貌得齊焉。 [行] 其 (惙) [綴] 兆，要其節奏，行列得正焉，進退得齊焉。 故樂者、 天地之命，中和之紀，人情之所不能免焉也。 夫樂者、先王之所以飾喜也。 軍族鈇鉞，所以飾怒也。 故先王之喜怒，皆得其齊焉。 喜則天下和之， 怒則暴亂者畏之。 先王之道，禮樂可謂盛矣。"
聞角聲，莫不惻隱而慈者: 聞徵聾，莫不喜養好施者: 聞 (商) [商]聲， 莫不剛斷而立事者; 聞羽聲，莫不深思而遠慮者: 聞宮聲，莫不溫潤而寬和者也。
禮所揖讓何? 所以尊人自損也。[揖讓則] 不爭。《論語》曰:" 揖讓而升，下而飲， 其爭也君子。" 故" 君使臣以禮，臣事君以忠。" " 謙謙君子，利涉大川。" 以貴下賤，大得民也。 屈己敬人，君子之心。 故孔子曰:" 為禮不敬，吾何以觀之哉?" 夫禮者，陰陽之際也，百事之會也， 所以尊天地，儐鬼神，.序上下，正人道也。
樂所以必歌者何? 夫歌者、口言之也。 中心喜樂，口欲歌之，手欲舞之， 足欲蹈之。 故《尚書》曰:" 前歌後舞，假于上下。"
禮貴忠何? 禮者`盛不足'節有餘。使豐年不奢， 凶年不儉，富貧不相懸也。
樂尚雅[何]? 雅者、古正也，所以遠鄭聲也。 孔子曰" 鄭聲淫" 何? 鄭國土地民人，山居谷浴，男女錯雜，為鄭聾以相悅擇，故邪僻，聾皆淫色之聲也。
太平乃制禮作樂何? 夫禮樂、所以防奢淫。 天下人民飢寒，何樂之 (乎) [防]? 功成作樂，治定制禮。
樂言作，禮言制何? 樂者、陽也，(陽) [動] [作] 倡始，故言作[也]: 禮者、陰也，(陰) [繫] 制 (度) 於陽，故言制 [也]。樂象陽，禮法陰也。
王者始起, 何用正民? 以為且用先王之禮樂，天下太平，乃更制作焉。 《書》曰: "肇 (修) [稱] (殷) 殷禮，祀新邑。" 此言太平去殷禮。
《春秋傅》曰:" (昌) [曷] (何) 為不修乎近而修乎遠? 同己也。可因先以太平也。"
必復更制者，示不襲也。 又天下樂之者,樂者、所以象德表功 [而] 殊名 [也]。
《禮記》曰: " 黃帝樂曰 "《咸池》，
合曰《大武》。" 黃帝曰《咸池》者，言大施天下之道而行之，天之所生，地之所載，咸蒙德施也。 顓頂日《六莖》者，言和律曆以調陰陽。 莖者、著萬物也。 帝譽曰《五英》者，言能調和五聲，以養萬物，調其英華也。 堯曰《大章》[者]，大明天地人之道也。 舜曰《簫韶》者，舜能繼堯之遭也。 禹曰《大夏》者，言禹能順二聖之道而行之，故曰《大夏》也。 湯曰《大護》者，言湯承衰，能護民之急也。 周公曰《酌》 (合) 者，言周公輔成王，能斟酌文、武之道而成之也。 武王曰《象》者，象太平而作樂，示已太平也。 合曰《大武》者，天下始樂周之征伐行武，故詩人歌之:" 王赫斯怒，爰整其旅。" 當此之時，天下樂文王之怒以定天下，故樂其武也。 周室中制《象》(湯) 樂何? 殷紂為惡日久，其惡最甚，斮涉（跨）胎，殘賊天下。 武王起兵，前歌 後價，剋殷之後，民人大喜，故中作所以節喜盛。
天子八佾，諸侯四佾，所以別尊卑。 樂者、陽也。 故以陰數，法八風、六律、 四時 也。八風、六律者，天氣也。 助天地成萬物者也。 亦猶樂所以順氣變化，萬民成其性命 也。 故《春秋.公羊傳》曰:" 天子八佾，諸公六佾，諸侯四佾。"《詩》曰: " 大夫士琴瑟御。"
八佾者、何謂也? 佾者、列也。 以八人為行列，八八六十四人也。 諸公六六為行，諸侯四四為行。
王者有六樂者，貴(公)[功]美德也。 所以作供養。[謂]傾先王之樂，明有 法，示亡其本，興己所 (以) 自作樂，明作己也。
(樂) 所以作四夷之樂何? 德廣及之也。《易》曰:" 先王以作樂崇德，殷薦之上帝， 以配祖考。"《詩》云:" 奏鼓簡簡，衍我烈祖。"《樂元語》曰:" 受命而六樂, 樂先王之樂, 明有法也。 (與) [興] 其所自作，明有制。 興四夷之樂，明德廣及之也。 故南夷之樂曰《兜》，西夷之樂曰《禁》， 北夷之樂曰《昧》，
合 (觀) [歡] 之樂價於堂，四夷之樂陳於右，先王所以得之順命重始也。"
[王者之樂有先後者各尚 其德也]。 此言以 (人) [文]得之先以文，謂持羽毛儛也。 以武得之 [先以武]，[謂] 持千戚價也。
《樂元語》曰:" 東夷之樂持矛舞，助時生也。 南夷之樂持羽舞， 助時養也。 西夷之樂持戟舞，助時煞也。 北夷之樂持千舞，助時藏也。"
誰制夷狄之樂? 以為先聖王也? 先王 (惟) [推] 行道德，和調陰陽，覆被夷狄。 故夷狄安樂，來朝中國，於是作樂樂之。
《南》之為言任也，任養萬物。 《味》之為言昧也。 《昧) 者、萬物 (老衰) [衰老]，[取晦昧之義也]。《禁》者、萬物禁藏。《侏離》者、萬物微離地而生。
一說: 東方持矛，南方歌，西方戚，北方擊金。 夷狄質，不如中國 (中國) 文 (章)，但隨物名之耳，故百王不易。
(戚二) [王]者制夷狄樂，不制夷狄禮何? 以為禮者，身當履而行也。 夷狄之人，不能行禮。 樂者、聖人作為以樂之耳。 故有夷狄樂也。
(殊) [誰] 為舞者? 以為使中國 [之]人，何以言之? 夷狄之人禮不備， 恐有過誤。
作之門外者何? 夷在外，故就之也。 夷狄無禮義，故不在內。 《明堂記》曰:" 九夷之國，(在)東門之外。" 所以知不在門內也。《明堂記》曰:" (禹) 納 (蠻夷) [夷蠻] 之樂於太廟。" 言納、明有入也。
曰四夷之樂者，何謂也? 以為四夷外無禮義之國，數夷狄者從東， 故舉本以為之摠名也。言夷狄者，舉終始也。 言蠻、舉遠也。 言貉，舉惡也。 則別 之。 東方為九夷，南方為八蟄, 西方為六戎，北方為五狄。 故《曾子問》曰:" 九夷、 八蠻、六戎、五狄，百姓之難至者也。"
何以知夷在東方? 《禮 · 王制》曰:" 東方曰 夷,被髮文身。" 又曰:" 南方曰蠻，雕題交趾。西方曰戎，被髮衣皮。 北方曰狄, 衣 羽毛, (宂) [穴] 居。"
東所以九何? 蓋來 (者過) [過者] [九]，九之為言 究也。 德偏究,故應德而來亦九也。 非故為之，道自然也。
何以名為夷蠻? 曰: 聖人本 不治外國。 非為制名也，因其國名而言之耳。
一說曰: 名其短而為之制名也。夷者、傅 (狄) [夷]無禮義，東方者、少陽易化，故取名也。 北方太陰，鄙郤，故少 (蠻蟲) 難化。 [蠻者] 、執心違邪。 戎者、強惡也。 狄者、易也，[言]辟易無別也。
歌者在堂上，舞在堂下何? 歌者象德，舞者象[功]，君子上德而下功。《郊特牲》曰:" 歌者在上。" 《論語》曰:" 季氏八佾舞於庭。" 《書》[曰]:" 下管鞀鼓。" "笙鏞以間。"
降神之樂在上何? 為鬼神舉 [也]。故《書》曰:" 戛擊鳴球，搏拊琴瑟以詠， 祖考來格。"
(何) [所] 以用鳴球搏拊者何? 鬼神清虛，貴淨，賤鏗鏘也。 故《尚畫大傳》曰:" 搏拊鼓，(振) [裝]以(秉) [穅]。琴瑟練絲朱絃。" 鳴者、貴玉聲也。
王者食所以有樂何? 樂食天下之太平，富積之饒也。 明天子至尊，非功不食， 非德不飽。 故《傳》曰:" 天子食，時舉樂。"
王者所以日[四]食者何? 明有四方之 物, 食四時之功也。 四方不平，四時不順，有徹樂之法焉。 所以明至尊、著法戒也。
王 [者] 平居中央， 制御四方。 平旦食，少陽之始也。 畫食，太陽之始也。 哺食，少 陰之始也。 暮食，太陰之始也。《論語》曰:" 亞飯千適楚，三飯繚適蔡，四飯缺適 秦。"
諸侯三飯，卿大夫再飯，尊卑之差也。《弟子職》[曰]:" 暮食 (士) (偃) [復] 禮。" 士也。食力無數。
聲[音]者、何謂聲? 聲[者]、鳴也，聞其聲即知其所生: 音者、飲也， 言 其剛柔清濁、和而相飲也。《尚畫》曰:" 予欲聞六律、五聲、八音。"
五聲者，何 謂也? 宮、(商) [商]、角、徵、羽。土謂宮，金謂(商) [商]，木謂角，火謂 徵, 水謂羽。 《月令》曰:" 盛德在木。" "其音角。" 又曰:" 盛德在火。" " 其音 徵。" " 盛德在金。" " 其音 (商) [商]。" " 盛德在水。" " 其音羽。"
所以名之 為 [角者何]? 角者、躍也，陽氣動躍。 徵者、止也，陽氣止。 (商) [商] 者、張也，陰氣開張，陽氣始降也。 羽者、紆也，陰氣在上，陽氣在下。 宮者、容也，含也。含容四時者也。
八音者、何謂也? 《樂記》曰:" 土曰塤，竹曰管，皮曰鼓，匏曰笙，絲日絃， 石曰磬，金曰鐘，木曰柷敔。" 此謂八音也。 法《易》八卦也，萬物之數也。 八音、萬物之聲也。
所以用八音何? 天子承繼萬物，當知其數: 既得其數，當知其聲，即思其形。 如此，蜎飛蠕動無不樂其音者，至德之道也。 天子樂之，故樂用八音。
《樂記》曰:" 壎、《坎》音也，管、《艮》音也，鼓、《震》音也，絃、 《離》音也，鐘、《兌》音也，柷敔、《乾》音也。"
壎在十一月，壎之為言動， [也]。 陽氣於黃泉之下勳蒸而萌。
匏之言施也。在十二月，萬物始施而 (勞) [牙]。
笙者、太簇之氣 [也]，象萬物之生[也]， 故曰笙。 有七正之節焉，有六合之和焉，天下樂之，故謂之笙。
鼓、《震》音，煩氣也。 萬物憤懣震動而 (生) [出]，雷以動之，溫以煖之， 風以散之，雨以濡之。 奮至德之聲，感和平之氣也。 同聲相應，同氣相求，神明報應，天地祐之， 其本乃在萬物之始耶? 故謂 [之] 鼓也。
簫者、中 [呂] 之氣 [也]。 萬物生於無聲，見於無形，(僇) [勠]也， (簫)[肅)也，故謂之簫。 簫者、以祿為本，言承天繼物為民本，人力加，地道化，然後萬物戮也， 故謂之簫也。
瑟者、嗇也，閑也。 所以懲 (忽) [忿] [窒欲、正人之德也]。 [故曰]: [瑟有君父之節]，[臣子法] 宮商角則 (宜)君父有節，臣子有義，然後四時和。 四時和然後萬物生。 故謂之瑟也。
磬者、夷則之氣也，象萬物之(盛) [成]也。 其氣磬。故曰: 磬有貴賤焉，有親踈焉，有長幼焉。 朝廷之禮，貴不讓賤，所以有尊卑也。 鄉黨之禮，長不讓幼，所以明有年也。 宗廟之禮，親不讓踈，所以有親也。 此三者行，然後王道得; 王道得，然後萬物成，天下樂 [之]，[故樂] 用磬也。鐘之為言動也。 陰氣用事，萬物動成。
鎛者、時之氣聲也，節度之所生也。 君臣有節度則萬物昌， 無節度則萬物亡。 亡與昌正相迫，故謂之鎛。 柷敔者，終始之聲，萬物之所生也。 陰陽順而復，故曰柷。 承順天地，序迎萬物，天下樂之，故樂用柷。
一說: 笙、柷、鼓、簫、(瑟) [琴] 塤、鐘、磬也， 如其次。 笙在北方，柷在東北方，鼓在方，[簫在東南方]，琴在南方，塤在西南方，鐘在西方， 磬在 [西] 北方。
聲五、音八何? 聲為本，出於五行; 音而末，象八風。 故《樂記》曰:" 聲成文謂之音，知音而樂之謂之樂" 也。
問曰: 異說並行，則弟子疑焉。 孔子有言:" 吾聞擇其善者而從之。 多見而志之也。 知之次也。" " 文、武之道，未墜於地。" " 天之將喪斯文也。" " 樂亦在其中矣。" 聖人之道，猶有文質，所以據其說、述所聞者，亦各傅其所受而已。
VI. Rites and Music
42---General Remarks (I B. 1a-2b).
a. What do [the words] li and yüeh mean? Li 'rites' means li 'to tread' 1; to go [the way] which may be trodden. Yüeh 'music' means lo 'joy' 2; "the Noble Man rejoices when he has attained the [right] Way, the small man rejoices when he has reached what he desired" 3.
b. Why does the King perfect his rites and music? To manifest his joy and anger in a regulated and cultivated way 4.
c. Music takes its image from Heaven, rites model themselves on Earth 5. All men contain in themselves the essence of Heaven and Earth, and harbour the instinct for the Five Constant [Virtues] 6. Therefore music is that wherewith to incite 7 [man] to turn back from evil, rites are that wherewith to curb licentiousness and check prodigality. Therefore the Hsiao ching says: "For securing the repose of superiors and the good order of the people there is nothing better than rites; for changing their manners and altering their customs there is nothing better than music" 8. The Master said 9: "When in the ancestral temple the ruler and his Ministers, the high and the lowly, listen together to the music, there is none who is not in harmony and reverence; when at the [gathering of the] heads of the kindred, and at the district- and village [-meetings], old and young listen together to it, there is none who is not in harmony and obedient accord; when within the gate of the family fathers and sons, elder brothers and younger brothers, listen together to it, there is none who is not in harmony and affection. Therefore in music emphasis is laid upon harmony and obedient accord 10. The [eight musical] instruments should be attuned to each other to embellish the divisions [of the melody] 11, while their rhythms 12 are harmonized to complete the elegance. So fathers and sons, rulers and Ministers, are united in harmony, and the people of the myriad states are associated in love. Such was the purpose 13 of the Ancient Kings when they framed their music. In listening to the melodies of the ya and the sung the aims and thoughts receive an expansion. When, holding the shield and war-axe, one practises the looking-up and the looking-down, the bending and the stretching [of the body] 14, one's carriage receives composure 15. When, in going to the places indicated at the pantomime 16, one follows the rhythm [of the music] 17 the rows and arrays are formed correctly, and the advancing and retreating get their proper order. So music is [the lesson] ordered by Heaven and Earth, the director of harmony, and that which the nature of man cannot dispense with. And thus music was that wherewith the Ancient Kings adorned their joy, [just as] the army's host and the battle-axes were the things wherewith [the Ancient Kings] 18 adorned their anger. Therefore the joy and the anger of the Ancient Kings had both their accompaniments 19. When they were joyful, all under Heaven were joyful with them; when they were angry, the oppressive and disorderly feared them. In the ways of the Ancient Kings rites and music may be said to have attained perfection indeed".
d. There is none who, hearing the note chüeh, does not feel compassion and act accordingly; there is none who, hearing the note chih, does not rejoice in nourishing [the needy], and does not love bestowing [goodness]; there is none who, hearing the note shang, does not become strong and decided, and embark on enterprises; there is none who, hearing the note yü, does not deeply reflect and take precautionary measures against far-off [eventualities]; there is none who, hearing the note kung, does not become mild and liberal, and act beneficently and harmoniously 20.
e. Why do humbling oneself and yielding precedence to others belong to the rites? 21 To honour others and to efface oneself. Humbling oneself and yielding precedence to others prevent strife. The Lun yü says: "[A Noble Man] bows and gives precedence to the others when he ascends and when he descends [the hall at the archery-competition] to join the drinking-bout. In his contest he is still a Noble Man" 22. Thus "the Lord employs his subjects according to the [rules of] rites, and the subjects serve their Lord with faithfulness" 23. "The Noble Man who adds humility to humility may with profit cross the great stream" 24. "While noble, he humbles himself to the mean, and grandly gains the people" 25. Humbling himself and honouring others are the nature of the Noble Man. Therefore Confucius says: "Rites performed without reverence, how should I regard such a thing?" 26 Rites are the meeting-corner of the yin and the yang, [the link] connecting all the affairs [of men], that wherewith Heaven and Earth are revered, the spirits are treated, the order among the high and the lowly is maintained, and the Way of man is kept straight.
f. Why must music [always be accompanied by] singing? Singing expresses through the mouth [the sentiments of man]. When he is gay in his heart he feels impelled to express it through his mouth by singing, through his hands by waving, through his feet by dancing. Therefore the Shang shu says: "In the front they sing, in the rear they dance; [the sound] reaches [Heaven] above and [Earth] below" 27.
g. Why is it that in rites value is given to equilibrium 28? [The practise of] rites is to fill out where there is an insufficiency, and to moderate where there is a surplus, so that in rich years there may be no extravagance, in bad years no stint, and wealth and poverty should not provide a contrast.
h. Why is it that in music the ya[-melody] is highly esteemed? Ya anciently meant chêng 'correct' 29. [The ya-melody] therefore differs widely from the music of Chêng 30. Confucius says: "Why is the music of Chêng licentious? In the state of Chêng the peasants live in the mountains, and when they draw water in the valleys men and women mix freely and perform the music of Chêng to amuse one another. Therefore the music of the depraved and mean is always music of licentiousness and lust" 31.
43---The Institution of Rites and Music After the Restoration of Peace. (I B. 2b).
a. Why is it that only when general peace [has been restored after the establishment of a new Dynasty new] rites may be fashioned and [new] music be created? Rites and music are to curb prodigality and licentiousness. When the people in all under Heaven are [still] suffering from hunger and cold, how could there be [occasion for] enjoyment? "[But] when the efforts [of the new Dynasty] have attained a successful end [new] music is created, and when its government has been established [new] rites are fashioned" 32.
b. Why is it that music is said to be created, and rites are said to be fashioned? 33 Music belongs to the yang; in it the movements begin [from non-movement], and the singing starts [from silence]. Therefore it is said to be created. Rites belong to the yin, which is subordinately fashioned by the yang, therefore they are said to be fashioned. Music takes its image from the yang, rites model themselves on the yin 34.
44---The Rites and Music of the Emperors and Kings. (J B. 3a-4a).
a. When a King has just assumed his Kingship what does he apply to keep the people straight? He temporarily uses the rites and music of the former Dynasty. When in all under Heaven general peace [has been restored] he fashions [the rites] and creates [music] anew. The Shu says: "[Let the King] at first employ the rites [of the Kings] of Yin, and sacrifice in the new city" 35. This means that only after general peace [had been fully restored] the rites of Yin were abolished.
b. The Ch'un ch'iu chuan says: "Why is it [that sometimes the rites and music do] not conform to [those of] the nearest [previous Dynasty] but to [those of] the distant [Dynasty]? Because [the distant Dynasty was an adherent of] the same [Principle of Form or Substance] as one's own, [and its rites and music] can be followed as a precedent [in confirming] the general peace [in all under Heaven]" 36.
c. It is necessary [for a new Dynasty] to fashion [and create] anew [the rites and music of its predecessor], in order to indicate that it has not inherited [from it]. Besides, [the newly created music expresses] what all under Heaven rejoice in 37; the music [expressing what they rejoice in], being that by which form is given to the spiritual power [of a new Dynasty] and its achievement is manifested, differs [each time] by its name [from the music of previous Dynasties]. The Li chi says: "The music of Huang-ti was called Hsien-shih, that of Chuan-hsü Liu-hêng, that of Ti-k'u Wu-ying, that of Yao Ta-chang, that of Shun Hsiao-shao, that of Yü Ta-hsia, that of T'ang Ta-hu, that of King Wu of the Chou Hsiang38, that of the Duke of Chou Cho, when united together the music of Chou was called Ta-wu" 39.
d. The music of Huang-ti was called Hsien-shih40, meaning that [during his reign] the Way was greatly 'applied' shih41 to all under Heaven, and put into practise. 'Everything' hsien42 that was created by Heaven and was borne by Earth received the beneficent application of spiritual power.
e. The music of Chuan-hsü was called Liu-hêng43, meaning that in it the [six musical pitch-pipes] lü44 were in consonant use with the [other six pitch-pipes] lü45, [thus] harmonizing the yin and the yang. Hêng 'stem' is that by which the ten thousand things are made visible.
f. The music of Ti-k'u was called Wu-ying46, meaning that he was able to bring the Five Notes 47 into harmony in order to nourish the ten thousand things, and harmonize their blossoming 48.
g. The music of Yao was called Ta-chang49, meaning that he had greatly made illustrious the Way of Heaven, Earth, and Man.
h. The music of Shun was called Hsiao-shao50, meaning that he was able to continue 51 the Way of Yao.
i. The music of Yü was called Ta-hsia52, meaning that Yü was able to follow and put into practise the Way of the two Sages [Yao and Shun]. Therefore it was called Ta-hsia.
j. The music of T'ang was called Ta-hu53, meaning that when he received [the continuation of] the decaying [Empire] he was able to meet 54 the people's needs.
k. The music of the Duke of Chou was called Cho55, meaning that when the Duke of Chou assisted King Ch'êng he was able to deliberate 56 upon the Ways of [King] Wên and [King] Wu, and bring them to completion.
l. The music of King Wu was called Hsiang57, meaning that it was made 'to represent' hsiang58 [the achievement of] general peace. It was an expression of [the fact that] general peace was already [prevailing again].
m. When united together [the music of Chou was] called Ta-wu59, meaning that all under Heaven at last rejoiced when [the House of Chou] took up arms 60 for the expedition [against the House of Yin]. Therefore the poets celebrated it in the song: "King [Wên] rose majestic in his wrath, and marshalled his troops" 61. At this time all under Heaven rejoiced at the anger of King Wên [, who was going] to pacify all under Heaven. Therefore they put his military [prowess] into music. Why is it that the House of Chou composed the Hsiang music of all musics? [King] Chou of the Yin had already long been indulging in his evil [deeds]; his wickedness was extreme, he cut off [the feet of] persons walking [in the snow in the morning], he ripped open the wombs [of pregnant women] 62, he acted as a brigand through all under Heaven. King Wu took up arms [against him, and the soldiers were so rejoiced that they were] singing in the front and dancing in the rear [of his army] 63. After the Yin [Dynasty] had been overcome the people greatly rejoiced. For that very reason [the Hsiang music was] composed to regulate their over-abundance of joy.
45---The Number of Dancers of the Son of Heaven and of the Feudal Lords. (I B. 4a-b).
a. The Son of Heaven has eight rows of dancers, the Feudal Lords have four, so as to distinguish between the high and the lowly. Music belongs to the yang, therefore it uses the [even] yin-number, and models itself on the Eight Winds 64, the Six Musical Pitchpipes 65, or the Four Seasons. The Eight Winds and the Six Pitch-pipes [represent] the breath of Heaven, they assist Heaven and Earth in bringing the ten thousand things to maturing. Likewise music is that by which, in conformity with Heaven's breath, the myriads of people are transformed and their lives perfected. Therefore the Ch'un ch'iu kung yang chuan says: "The Son of Heaven has eight rows of dancers, the Dukes [and Ducal Ministers] have six, the Feudal Lords four" 66. The Shih chuan says: "A great officer and a common officer have the ch'in and the sê [lutes] to play upon" 67.
b. What is meant by pa-i68 'eight rows of dancers'? I means lieh69 'row'. Eight men form a row. Eight [rows of] eight [dancers] make sixty-four men. The Dukes have six rows of six, the Feudal Lords have four rows of four 70. By the Dukes are meant the Three Ducal Ministers and the descendants of the two Kings [of the previous two Dynasties].
c. Great officers and common officers are subjects who face north, they have no right to employ people of their own accord; therefore they have only [the right to use] the ch'in and the sê [lutes].
46---The Six Musics of the King. (I B. 4b).
The King performs the Six Musics [of the previous Dynasties] to honour their achievements 71 and to extol their spiritual power. To continue the performance of the music of the former Kings at his sacrifices means that there is a model, and that the origins should not be forgotten; the performance of the music which he has himself created is to show his own accomplishment 72.
47---The Music of the Four Barbarian Tribes. (I B. 4b-7a).
a. Why [does the King] perform the music of the Four Barbarian Tribes? That his spiritual power may be extended to them 73. The I says: "The Ancient Kings [,in imitation of the thunder issuing from the earth as this is depicted in the Yü hexagram,] composed their music and did honour to its spiritual power, presenting it most grandly to the Lord on High, when they associated with Him [at the service] their first ancestor [Hou-chi] and their father [King Wên]" 74. The Shih says: "The drums resound harmonious and loud, to delight our meritorious ancestor [T'ang]" 75. The Yüeh yüan yü76 says: "When [the King has] received the mandate [of Heaven he performs] the six musical dances; the performance of the music of the Ancient Kings indicates that there is a model [to follow]; the performance of that which he has himself created indicates that he has his [own] fashion; the performance of the music of the Four Barbarian Tribes means that his spiritual power has been extended to them".
b. Thus the music of the eastern barbarians is called chao-li, that of the southern barbarians is called nan, that of the western barbarians is called wei, and that of the northern barbarians is called chin77.
c. When enjoying 78 together music and dancing in the hall [of the ancestral temple] the musicians of the Four Barbarian Tribes are seated at the right [outside the gate] 79.
d. That wherewith the King has acquired [his kingship is, in the performance of his music,] put first in order to conform with the mandate [he holds], and to emphasize the beginning [of his rise]. That the King's music has a first and a later [part] is because in either [part] its [characteristic] spiritual power is brought forward. This means that if [a King] has attained [his kingship] by civil [means] the civil [part of the performance] is executed first, that is a dance with feathers and plumes held [in the hands]; if he has attained [his kingship] by military prowess the martial [part of the performance] is executed first, that is a dance with shields and lances held [in the hands] 80.
e. The Yüeh yüan yü says: "With the music of the eastern barbarians there is a dance with spears held [in the hands] to aid the seasonal growth. With the music of the southern barbarians there is a dance with feathers held [in the hands] to aid the seasonal nurture. With the music of the western barbarians there is a dance with halberds held [in the hands] to aid the seasonal decay. With the music of the northern barbarians there is a dance with shields held [in the hands] to aid the seasonal rest" 81.
f. Who instituted the music of the barbarians? The Ancient Sage-kings. When the Ancient Kings had promoted and exercised the spiritual power [proceeding from their possession] of the Way, when they had harmonized the yin and the yang, and overwhelmed the barbarians [with their beneficence], these barbarians peacefully and joyfully paid their court-visits to the Middle State, and on this [occasion] the music was made to amuse them.
g. Nan [,the music of the southern barbarians,] means jên 'to be in charge of' 82; to be in charge of nourishing the ten thousand things. Wei [,the music of the western barbarians,] means mei 'obscure'; mei expresses the decaying and the ageing of the ten thousand things; it takes its meaning from [the idea of] 'obscurity' hui-mei 晦 昧 83. Chin [,the music of the northern barbarians,] means that the ten thousand things have 'retired and hidden themselves' chin-ts'ang84. Chao-li [,the music of the eastern barbarians,] means that the ten thousand things, [though still] tiny, 'leave' li 離 85 the [covering] earth to begin to grow.
h. Another opinion is: For the eastern region [there is a dance with] spears held [in the hands], for the southern region a song is sung, for the western region [there is a dance with] lances held [in the hands], for the northern region a gong is beaten. The barbarians were primitive and did not attain the [height of] culture of the Middle State. They only called [their music] after the names of the instruments, therefore [these names were] not changed throughout the Dynasties.
i. Why is it that the King fashions music for the barbarians, but does not fashion their rites? Because rites are performed with [the accompaniment of certain] movements of the body, which the barbarians will not be able to execute, [whereas] their music has been created by the Sages for the sole purpose of amusing them. Therefore there is the music of the barbarians.
j. Who are to execute the dances? Men of the Middle State are employed [for it]. Why is it said so? It is feared that the barbarians, being ignorant in [the matter of] rites, will commit mistakes [in the performance].
k. Why [is the music of the barbarians] performed outside the gate [of the ancestral temple]? The barbarians are seated outside [the temple], therefore [their music is] brought near to them. The barbarians have no [knowledge of] ritual behaviour, and are not permitted within. The Ming t'ang chi says: "The [chiefs of the] states of the Nine Barbarian Tribes are outside the eastern gate" 86. Thus we know that they are not inside the gate. [Again] the Ming t'ang chi says: "They introduce the music of the eastern and southern barbarians into the ancestral temple" 87. The use of the word 'introduce' 88 indicates that there are [special cases when the barbarians are allowed] inside.
l. It is asked: What does [the expression] 'Music of the Four Barbarian Tribes' 89 mean? [The reply is:] the Four Barbarian tribes comprise those outside regions which are without know- ledge of ritual rules. The enumeration of these barbarian tribes begins with the east, therefore the beginning is taken as their generic name. When the expression i-ti is used, the beginning and the end [of the enumeration] are emphasized 90. The expression man is used to emphasize their 'distancy' yüan91; the expression mo is used to emphasize their 'cruelty' o92. When they have to be distinguished [the barbarians of] the eastern region are called the Nine i, [those of] the southern region are called the Eight man, [those of] the western region are called the Six jung93, [those of] the northern region are called the Five ti. Therefore the Tsêng tzŭ wên says: "The Nine i, the Eight man, the Six jung, and the Five ti are the greatest sore to the Hundred Clans [of the Middle State]" 94.
m. How do we know that the i[-barbarians] lived in the east? The Wang chih says: "The [barbarians of the] eastern region are called i, they wear their hair loose, and tattoo their bodies" 95. It further says: "The [barbarians of the] southern region are called man, they tattoo their foreheads, and sleep with crossed legs 96. [Those of] the western region are called jung, they wear their hair loose, and are clad in skins. [Those of] the northern region are called ti, they are clad in feathers and fur, and dwell in caves" 97.
n. Why has the east nine [barbarian tribes]? Because [the number of] those who have come and crossed [the frontiers] amounts to nine. Chiu 'nine' means chiu 'profound' 98; the [King's] spiritual power is ubiquitous and profound; therefore, responding to this power, [the eastern barbarians] also come in [the profound number of] nine. It is not a course of affairs brought about on purpose, but it has naturally [so developed that nine tribes have come].
o. Why [are the barbarians] named i, man [,and so on]? Since the Sage-kings in principle do not regulate the outer regions they do not devise names for them. When they speak of them they only follow the [existing] names of their countries.
p. Another opinion is: They devise a name for them according to what [each of the barbarian tribes] falls short of. [So] i means tsun-i99 'to squat'; [squatting indicates] a lack of propriety. [Or,] the east is the region where the yang is tender, so that it is 'easy' i100 to reform; the name [of i] 101 is therefore taken [from it]. Man means 'to be bent on wickedness and evil'. Jung means 'to be oppressive and cruel'. Ti means 'easy-going'; [the ti-barbarians are] depraved, easy-going, and promiscuous; in the north the elder yin [causes] meanness and frugality 102; therefore [the opportunities are] few and [the region is] difficult to reform 103.
48---The Different Places for Singers and Dancers. (I B. 7a-b).
Why are the singers seated on the platform in the hall while the dancing [takes place] below it? The song gives form to the spiritual power [of the King], the dance gives form to his prowess. A Noble Man puts his spiritual power first and his prowess afterwards. The Chiao t'e shêng says: "The singers are above [on the platform]" 104. The Lun yü says: "The Chi family had eight rows of dancers dancing in the space below the raised platform in the hall" 105. The Shu says: "Below there are the flutes, hand-drums. drums, calabash organs, and bells, all filling up the intervals" 106.
49---The Music for Inviting Down the Spirits. (I B. 7b).
a. Why is the music for inviting down the spirits [of the deceased forefathers] placed upon [the platform]? To elevate it on behalf of the spirits. Therefore the Shu says: "When [the chu was] struck to start [the orchestra] or [the yü] to stop it, when the jade chiming-stone [was sounded], and the pu-fu 搏 拊 and the ch'in and sê琴 瑟 [lutes were played to] accompany the singing, [the spirits of] the first ancestor and the father arrived" 107.
b. Why are the chiming-stone, the pu-fu [,and the lutes] used? The spirits, being pure and invisible, like calm and dislike twanging. Therefore the Shang shu ta chuan says: "The pu-fu is a drum filled with bran, the ch'in and sê [lutes have] purely boiled red silk strings, the chiming [-stone is used] out of esteem for the sound of the jade [-stone]" 108.
50---The Music Played at the Meals of the Son of Heaven. (I B. 7b-8a).
a. Why is it that when the King takes his meals music is played? He is pleased [at being able] to enjoy general peace in all under Heaven and at the abundance of accumulated wealth 109. It means that the Son of Heaven, being most exalted, does not take food when he has not accomplished [his task], neither does he eat to repletion when his spiritual power has not [manifested itself to the full]. Therefore the Chuan says: "The Son of Heaven has music performed at the times of his meals" 110.
b. Why does the King take four [complete] meals daily? It indicates that he has [at his disposal] the produce of the four quarters and the yields of the four seasons. If the four quarters are not in peace, and the four seasons are out of order, then he applies the rule of 'clearing away the aliments' 111, by which is meant that the Most Exalted has proclaimed the prescribed fast.
c. Quietly the King sits in the centre and manages the four quarters. At dawn he takes his meal: it is the inception of the younger yang. At noon he takes his meal: it is the inception of the elder yang. In the afternoon he takes his meal: it is the inception of the younger yin. In the evening he takes his meal: it is the inception of the elder yin. The Lun yü says: "Kan, [the band-master] at the second meal, went to Ch'u; Liao, [the band-master] at the third meal, went to Ts'ai; Chüeh, [the band-master] at the fourth meal, went to Ch'in" 112.
d. The Feudal Lords take three [complete] meals [a day], the Ministers and great officers two, so as to distinguish between the high and the lowly. The Ti tzŭ chih says: "It is the common officer, who again applies the rites [observed at the morning-meal] to the evening-meal" 113.
e. "[The common man] who earns his living by his labour is not limited in the number [of his meals]" 114. The task of the common man is to plough or to gather mulberry-leaves, exhausting his strength and exerting himself laboriously. When he is hungry he eats, when he has had enough he works again; therefore there is no limit to the number [of his meals].
51---The Five Notes and the Eight Kinds of Instrumental Music. (I B. 8a-10b).
a. What do shêng and yin mean? Shêng 'note' means ming 'to sound' 115; hearing the note we know what has produced it. Yin means yin 'to swallow' 116; it means that the hard and the soft, the sharps and the flats are harmonized and have swallowed each other. The Shang-shu says: "I wish to hear the Six Pitch-pipes 六 律, the Five Notes, and the Eight Kinds of Instrumental Music" 117.
b. What are the Five Notes? [They are:] kung, shang, chüeh, chih, and yü118. Earth may be said [to correspond to the note] kung, metal to shang, wood to chüeh, fire to chih, water to yü. The Yüeh ling says: "Its perfect spiritual power is in wood, its note is chüeh". It further says: "Its perfect spiritual power is in fire, its note is chih; its perfect spiritual power is in metal, its note is shang; its perfect spiritual power is in water, its note is yü" 119.
c. Why [is the note] called chüeh? Chüeh means yüeh 'to leap'; the yang-fluid stirs and leaps. Chih means chih 'to stop'; the yang-fluid has stopped. Shang means chang 'to expand'; the yin-fluid begins to expand [while] the yang-fluid begins to contract. Yü means yü 'to twist'; the yin-fluid is above, the yang-fluid is below. Kung means jung 'to contain'; han 'to hold'; it contains and holds the four seasons 120.
d. What are the Eight Kinds of Instrumental Music 121? The Yüeh chi says: "[The music produced by the instrument made of] clay is called hsün 'occarina', [that produced by the instrument made of] bamboo is called kuan 'flute', [that produced by the instrument made of] hide is called ku 'drum', [that produced by the instrument made of] the gourd is called shêng 'pan-pipes', [that produced by the instrument made of] silk is called hsien 'harp', [that produced by the instrument made of] stone is called ch'ing 'chiming-stone', [that produced by the instrument made of] metal is called chung 'bell', [that produced by the instrument made of] wood is called chu and yü" 122. They are called the Eight Kinds of Instrumental Music [because] they model themselves on the Eight Trigrams of the I, and [follow] the number of the ten thousand things 123; the Eight Kinds of Instrumental Music [represent] the sounds of the ten thousand things.
e. Why [does the Son of Heaven] use the Eight Kinds of Instrumental Music? The Son of Heaven, in aiding the ten thousand things to multiply, ought to know their number, and knowing their number ought to know their sounds; after which he reflects on their shapes. When, in this way, [even to] the flying of the insects and the wriggling of the worms there is no sound which he does not enjoy, his spiritual power has reached its perfection. The Son of Heaven finds his joy 124 in them, therefore in his music 125 he uses the Eight Kinds of Instrumental Music.
f. The Yüeh chi says: "The occarina [produces] music [which corresponds with the trigram] k'an; the flute music [corresponding with the trigram] kên; the drum music [corresponding with the trigram] chên; the harp music [corresponding with the trigram] li; the bell music [corresponding with the trigram] tui; the chu and the yü music [corresponding with the trigram] ch'ien" 126.
g. The hsün 'occarina' [is an instrument which it is proper to use] in the eleventh month. Hsün means hsün127 'to rise as steam'; the yang-fluid under the yellow sources rises as steam to germinate.
h. P'ao 'gourd' means shih128 'to extend', ya129 'to sprout out'; in the twelfth month the ten thousand things begin to extend and sprout out.
i. The shêng 'pan-pipes' produces air of the [pitch-pipe] t'ai-ts'ou130, it represents the 'growing' shêng131 of the ten thousand things, and is therefore called shêng. It has [seven] regulating [pipes corresponding with] the Seven Regulating Celestial Bodies 132, and [six] harmonizing [pipes corresponding with] the Six Points of the Compass 133; all under Heaven rejoice in it, therefore it is called shêng.
j. The ku 'drum' [produces] a rolling sound of thunder [following upon] an atmosphere of distress. When the ten thousand things are in dire plight they are shaken into motion, the thunder moves them, the heat gives them warmth, the wind disperses them, and the rain moistens them. [The drum] rouses [a sound announcing] the greatest bliss, it moves to an air of harmony and tranquillity. The same sounds reverberate upon each other, the same airs solicit each other. Spirits and enlightened beings respond to them, Heaven and Earth come to aid them, does not then their origin lie at the inception of the ten thousand things? Therefore [the drum is] called ku134 'stimulator'.
k. The t'ao 'handdrum' [also belongs to] the sphere of [the trigram] chên. Above it corresponds with the 'Pleiades' mao-hsing, so as to be in communication with the 'Kingly Way' wang-tao; therefore it is called t'ao135.
l. The hsiao 'bamboo-flute' [produces] the air of the [pitch-pipe] chung-lü136. The ten thousand things originate from the soundless, and become visible out of the formless. [Hsiao means] liu 'to unite', su 'reverential'; therefore [the bamboo-flute is] called hsiao137. The hsiao has its base in [the idea of] 'prosperity' lu138, meaning that it aids Heaven in the multiplication of things, [thus] providing the people with a base. When human power is added to the natural processes of the Earth, there is a transformation, after which the ten thousand things unite [all their strength]. Therefore [the bamboo-flute is] called hsiao.
m. Sê 'multi-stringed lute' means sê 'to moderate', hsien 'to bar out' 139. With it anger is restrained, passions are curbed, man's spiritual power is kept straight. Therefore there is the saying: "The sê [lute secures] the moderation of the Lord and father, and the rules for the subject and son". If Lord and father observe moderation, and subject and son know their duties, the four seasons will be in harmony; if the four seasons are in harmony the ten thousand things will have their growth [unimpeded]. Therefore [the multi-stringed lute is] called sê.
n. Ch'in琴 'five-stringed lute' means chin 禁 'to stop' 140. With it depravity and licentiousness are stopped and man's heart is kept straight.
o. The ch'ing 'chiming-stone' [produces] the air of the [pitch-pipe] i-ts ê141; it represents the maturing of the ten thousand things. This air is 'distinct' ch'ing142, therefore it is called ch'ing. There are the high and the lowly, the nearly related and the distantly related, the old and the young; [according to] the rites at the court-audience the high do not give precedence to the lowly, so as to distinguish between the honourable and the humble; [according to] the rites in the village society the old do not give precedence to the young, so as to make clear that there is [distinction in] years; [according to] the rites in the ancestral temple the nearly related do not give precedence to the distantly related, so as to make clear that there is [distinction in] affinity. If these three [principles] are observed the Kingly Way will be achieved. If the Kingly Way is achieved the ten thousand things will attain their maturity. All under Heaven rejoice in it, therefore in music the 'distinct chiming-stone' ch'ing is used.
p. Chung 'bell' means tung143 'to move'. When the yin-fluid holds sway the ten thousand things are moved to maturing. The bell uses for its air the sound of metal.
q. The po144 'large bell' [produces] a sound [which represents] the air of the seasons, by which rules and patterns come into being. If [in the relation] between Lord and subject there are rules the ten thousand things will bloom, if there are no rules the ten thousand things will decay. Bloom and decay are 'close upon one another's heels' po145, therefore [the large bell is] called po.
r. The chu and the yü [produce the] sounds [which represent] the end and the beginning, that by which the ten thousand things come into being. The yin and the yang succeed and follow upon each other. Therefore there is the saying: "The chu assists and conforms to Heaven and Earth that the ten thousand things may be welcomed in orderly [succession]". All under Heaven rejoice in it, therefore in [the King's] music the chu is used. The chu [marks] the beginning [of the orchestra], the yü the end.
s. Another opinion says: [With respect to the order of the regional correspondences of] the shêng, the chu, the ku, the hsiao, the ch'in, the hsün, the chung, and the ch'ing the shêng corresponds with the north, the chu with the north-east, the ku with the east, the hsiao with the south-east, the ch'in with the south, the hsün with the south-west, the chung with the west, the ch'ing with the north-west.
t. Why is it that there are five notes, but eight kinds of instrumental music? The 'notes' shêng form the basis and originate from the Five Elements. The [eight kinds of] 'instrumental music' yin form the end and represent the Eight Winds. So the Yüeh chi says: "When notes are combined so as to form a harmonious whole [we have] what is called instrumental music" 146. [Thus] we know that when we rejoice in [executing together these eight kinds of] instrumental music [we have] what is called 'music'.
52---Differences in Opinions (I B. 10b-11a) 147.
It is asked: When different opinions are indiscriminately put into practise may not pupils be thereby brought into confusion? Confucius had a saying: "I have heard that to pick out what is good and follow it, to see much and take due note of it, is the lower [of the two kinds of] knowledge" 148. "The Way of [the Kings] Wên and Wu has never yet utterly fallen to the ground" 149. "If Heaven had really intended that such culture as this should disappear [a latter day mortal would never have been able to link himself to it as I have done]" 150. "Without looking for it I find happiness to boot" 151. The Way of the Sage is to use refinement and simplicity with which to give significance to his words. Transmitting what one has heard [of the Sage's words] one should also, for each case, only hand down what one has received.
1. 禮, 履 , Cf. Chi i of the Li chi (chu shu, 48.5b; C. II. 302).
2. Both written 樂, ancient pron. respectively *nglŏk/ngåk and *glåk/lâk acc. to Karlgren (Gr. Ser. no. 1125a), or nåk and nlåk acc. to K. Wulff (Musik und Freude im chinesischen, 36-37).
3. Cf. Li chi chu shu, Yüeh chi, 38.13a; C. II. 78.
4. 以 節 文 喜 怒 (Ch'ên, 3.8a); cf. also Chêng Hsüan's comm. on the Yüeh chi (Li chi chu shu, 39.24b).
5. Cf. the Yüeh chi (o.c., 37.17a): "Music is created from Heaven, rites are fashioned by Earth", and Chêng Hsüan's comm. on it: "It means that they model themselves on Heaven and Earth". Further ibid. (o.c., 37.20b; C. II. 64): "The Sages created music to respond to Heaven, and fashioned rites to consort with Earth".
6. 五 常 wu-ch'ang, see ch. XXX Instinct and Emotion, par. 196d.
7. 蕩 滌 t'ang-ti, usually meaning 'to remove', is here taken in the meaning of ti-t'ang, which occurs in ch. Chiao t'ê shêng of the Li chi (chu shu, 26.24a), and explained by Chêng Hsüan as yao-tung 搖 動'to move', 'to incite'.
8. Hsiao ching chu shu, Kuang yao tao, 6.5a; L. 481.
9. The long quotation introduced by these words is from the Yüeh chi (o.c. 39.23a-24b). Couvreur (II. 108 ff.) and Legge (II. 127 ff.) differ widely in their translations. I have followed Chêng Hsüan's comm. and K'ung Ying-ta's sub-comm.
10. 所 以 崇 和 順 . The Li chi text has 審 一 以 定 和, i.e., acc. to K'ung Ying-ta's paraphrase: "In the creation of music the human voice is examined to establish its harmony with the instruments".
11. 比 物 [以] 飾 節 . For the translation I followed K'ung's paraphrase.
12. 節 奏 chieh-tsou, i.e. 'restrained and loosened', 'slow and fast', 'stop and start'.
13. 意 i. The Li chi reads 方fang 'method'.
14. 屈 信 ch'ü-shên, written 詘 伸 in the Li chi.
15. 齊 chi'i. The Li chi reads chuang 莊'gravity'.
16. 行 其 綴 兆. I have followed Chêng Hsüan's explanation: 舞 者 進 退 所 至 也 "the places whence the dancers go forward and whither they retreat".
17. 要 其 節 奏. 要 yao is explained by Chêng Hsüan as 會hui, i.e. 'to meet'; in our context 'to adapt to', 'to follow'.
18. 'The Ancient Kings' occurs in the Li chi.
19. I have taken the Li chi's reading ch'ai 儕(the Po hu t'ung text has 齊).
20. About the same statement is to be found in Ho Hsiu's comm. on the Kung yang chuan, Yin 5, where it is introduced by the words: "When the notes are correct the conduct becomes correct [also]", see Kung yang chu shu, 3.6a.
21. 所 so is probably an error for 有yu (Lu).
22. Ch. III. 7 (Lun yü chu shu, 3.5a; L. 157).
23. Ch. III. 19 (ibid., 3.14a; L. 161).
24. Chou i chu shu, Ch'ien kua, 4.3a; L. 89. The Chou i text has 用 yung inst. of 利li; li, however, occurs in the same sentence in another place (o.c. 7. 18a; L. 149). To cross the great stream here means to pass through the difficulties of life.
25. Ibid., Chun kua, Hsiang, 2.11b; L. 270.
26. Ch. III. 26 (Lun yü chu shu, 3.19a; L. 164).
27. 前 歌 後 舞 假 于 上 下 . Not in the present Book of History, but cf. p. 298 of Legge's translation. See also Shang shu ta chuan, 2.2a, and Sun Hsing-yen's Shang shu chin ku wên chu shu, 10.105, where the second part of the sentence reads: 格 于 上 天 下 地 .
28. 中 chung, which is Lu's reading for 忠chung (cf. his Pu i, 2b).
29. 雅 者 古 正 也 . The Fêng su t'ung also says: "Ya means Ch êng" (6.7b.). Cf. further Waley, The Analects, p. 126, n. 4.
30. 鄭 .
31. Acc. to Liu Pao-nan this is a quotation from the Lu version of the Analects (Lun yü Chêng i, 18.12).
32. See Li chi chu shu, Yüeh chi, 37.18a; C. II. 62.
33. 'to create' 作 tso, 'to fashion' 制chih.
34. K'ung Ying-ta says that "[new] rites represent the change of the [material] form, [new] music represents the change of the [immaterial] airs" (Li chi chu shu, 37.19a).
35. Shang shu chu shu, Lo kao, 14.20a; L. 438. The words were spoken by the Duke of Chou, who had been acting as Regent for King Ch'êng for six years, and was now going to turn the government over to him. He wanted the King, however, to wait until the next year for the 'fashioning' of his own rites (see Shang shu chin ku wên chu shu, 19.79).
36. Not to be found in any of the three Commentaries. Cf., however, Ho Hsiu's comm. in Kung yang chu shu, Chao 25, 24.9a, and ibid., Yin 5, 3.6b (with the sub-comm. l.c. 7b). The meaning is, e.g., that the Chou need not restrict itself to the provisional use of the rites and music of the Yin, but could also apply those of the Hsia Dynasty, the Chou and the Hsia both being adherents of the Principle of Form.
37. 也 should be added after 者(Liu, 72.4b).
38. The text has ta-wu hsiang. Ch'ên (3.12b) drops ta-wu.
39. A quotation from one of the Apocryphal Books of Rites. Cf. Vol. I, p. 20.
40. 咸 池 . Cf. Vol. I, p. 21, n. 102, 103.
41. 施 .
42. 咸 .
43. 六 莖 .
44. 律 .
45. 呂 inst. of 歷(Ch'ên, 3.13a).
46. 五 英 .
47. 五 聲 . wu-sh êng.
48. 英 華 . ying-hua.
49. 大 章 .
50. 簫 韶 .
51. 繼 chi, which, acc. to the Li chi (chu shu, 38.2b; C. II. 68), is the meaning of shao.
52. 大 夏 .
53. 大 護 .
54. 護 hu.
55. 酌 .
56. 斟 酌ch ên-cho.
57. 象 .
58. 象 .
59. 大 武 .
60. 行 武 hsing-wu.
61. Ode 241: Mao shih chu shu, 23.74b; L. 453; K. 17.69.
62. See Book of History, L. 285 and 295.
63. See n. 27.
64. See ch. XXIV.
65. These six lü 律 form the yang part of the 12-toned scale, of which the six lü 呂form the yin part. Cf. M.H. III. 302; Levis, Foundations of Chinese Musical Art, p. 65; van Aalst, Chinese Music, p. 8. Cf. n. 117.
66. Kung yang chu shu, Yin 5, 3.4b, which further says that the eight rows correspond with the Eight Winds, the six rows with the six lü , and the four rows with the Four Seasons. See further n. 70.
67. Ho Hsiu gives an almost similar quotation from the Lu shih chuan 魯 詩 傳(his comm. on Yin 5, in Kung yang chu shu, 3.6b).
68. 八 佾 .
69. 列 .
70. This is in agreement with the Kung yang chuan (l.c.). The Tso chuan (Yin 5) gives eight rows for the Son of Heaven, six for the Feudal Lords, four for the great officers, two for the common officers. Each row consists of eight men, acc. to Fu Ch'ien (Hung Liang-chi, Ch'un ch'iu tso chuan ku, 5.94).
71. 功 inst. of 公 (Sun I-jang, o.c. 10.2b).
72. The very corrupt passage is corrected by Liu (72.4b) as follows: 所 以 作 供 養 順 先 王 之 樂 明 有 法 不 忘 其 本 興 己 所 自 作 樂 明 己 作 也. . Cf. also Ho Hsiu's comm. on Chao 25 (Kung yang chu shu, 24.9a). The names of the Six Musics are given in the Chou li (chu shu, 22.8a ff.; B. II. 30-32).
73. Question and reply occur, in one affirmative sentence and almost in the same form, in Ho Hsiu's comm. on Chao 25 (l.c.).
74. Chou i chu shu, Yü kua, Hsiang, 4.6b; L. 287.
75. Ode 301: Mao shih chu shu, 30.2b; L. 631; K. 17.97.
76. 樂 元 語 . The Ch'ien han shu (24B. 23b) mentions a Yüeh yü, which acc. to T êng Chan (3d. cent. A.D.) is the Yüeh yüan yü, a work transmitted by King Hsien of Ho-chien (died 130 B.C.).
77. 朝 離 chao-li , nan 南, wei 味, chin 禁. The Kung yang chu shu, Chao 25, 24.9a gives: chu-li 株 丨, jên 任, chin, mei 昧; the Chou li chu shu, ch. 鞮 鞻, 24.10a-b: mei韎, jên, chu-li, chin; the Li chi chu shu, Ming t'ang wei, 31.6b only gives two names: mei (east), j ên (south).
78. 歡 huan inst. of觀 kuan (Ch'ên', 3.17b; Lu's Pu i, 3a).
79. 'Outside the gate' is suggested by Lu. In his Pu i he suggests reading hu 'door' instead of yu右 'right'.
80. The Kung yang chu shu, Hsüan 8, 15.23b mentions a shield-dance called wan 萬 and a flute-dance called yo 籥. Ho Hsiu thinks wan is the military, yo the civil dance. The Tso chuan (chu shu, 22.8a) takes wan to be the general name for dance.
81. The same passage occurs as a quotation from the (Apocryphal Book of the Hsiao ching) Kou ming chüeh in the sub-comm. of the Chou li (chu shu, 24.10b).
82. 南 nan and jên are phonetically related (Gr. Ser. nos. 667f and 649a).
83. 味 wei , mei 昧, hui-mei .
84. 禁 藏 .
85. ; wei 微'tiny' is synonymous with chao 'early' and chu (in chu-li, see n. 77) 'dwarfish'.
86. Li chi chu shu, Ming t'ang wei, 31.1b; C. I. 726.
87. Ibid., 31.6b; C. I. 732.
88. 納 na.
89. 四 夷 之 樂 ssŭ-i-chih-yüeh. The Shih chi writes 四 方ssŭ-fang instead of ssŭ-i (M.H. V. 321, n. 2).
90. I.e., of the enumeration i, man, jung, ti (east, south, west, north) the first and the last are taken:夷 狄 i-ti.
91. 蠻, 遠 , (cf. Gr. Ser. nos. 178p and 256f).
92. 貉, 惡 , (Gr. Ser. nos. 766h and 805h).
93. 戎 .
94. Not in the present ch. Tsêng tzŭ wên of the Li chi. The same enumeration with the same numbers is, however, given in ch. Ming t'ang wei (Li chi chu shu, 31.1b; C. I. 726-727). The Erh ya (chu shu, 6.11b) lists: Nine i, Eight ti, Seven jung, Six man. The Chou li (chu shu, 33.10b; B. II. 264): Four i, Eight man, Seven min閩 , Nine mo, Five jung, Six ti.
95. Li chi chu shu, 12.30a; C. I. 295. In the expression 被 髮 p'i-fa Ch'ên (3.20b) explains p'i as 髲 or 鬄 or 剃 or 薙'to cut short', thus 'to wear the hair cut short'. He also refers to Shih chi, 31.1b and 43.24a, where the same description, applied to the southern barbarians, occurs with tuan 斷 and chien 翦 inst. of p'i. However, p'i-fa in Lun yü, XIV. 18 is explained by Huang K'an as 'hair not fastened in a knot' (Lun yü Chêng i, 17.123). Cf. further Kao Yu's explanation of p'i as chien in the Huai nan tzü, 1.11a, and Liu Wên-tien's objections (following Wang Yin-chih) to it.
96. 交 趾 chiao-chih. K'ung Ying-ta (o.c. 12. 31a) explains: "when they sleep [they lie in a circle with] their heads turned outwards and their feet turned inwards crossing each other".
97. Li chi chu shu, l.c.
98. 九, 究 .
99. 僔 夷 . In ch. XIV. 46 of the Lun yü (chu shu, 14.22a; L. 292) the word i also occurs in the meaning of 'to squat'.
100. 易 .
101. I.e. 夷.
102. The text has 郄hsi, which, acc. to Lu, is a misprint for 吝(= 悋 or 恡) lin.
103. For another fanciful explanation of these names see Li chi chu shu, 12.31a-b, the sub-comm. quoting the Fêng su t'ung.
104. Li chi chu shu, 25.11a; C. I. 577, which continues: "The organ-and flute-players are below it, the honour [thus] being given to the human voice".
105. Ch. III. 1 (Lun yü chu shu, 3.1a; L. 154). The definition of 庭 t'ing as 'the space below the raised platform in the hall ( 堂 t'ang)' is taken from the Lun yü Chêng i, 3.53. The Chi's were only great officers of Lu, and their use of eight rows of dancers was a usurpation.
106. Shang shu chu shu, I chi, 4.16b; L. 87. The quotation is to prove that the dancing, accompanied by these instruments, took place below the platform in the hall.
107. Ibid. All these instruments, producing a 'softer' sound, accompanied the singing on the platform. See Orientalia Neerlandica, p. 462.
108. pu-fu ; ch'in-sê .
109. The Chou li (chu shu, 4.3b; B. I. 72) says that the King is stimulated to eating by the music.
110. 天 子 食 时 舉 樂 . The quotation is probably from the Lu shih chuan as it is quoted as such, with 日 inst. of 时, by Ho Hsiu in his comm. in Kung yang chu shu, Yin 5, 3.6b. The same statement (as Ho Hsiu's quotation and with 以 before 樂) occurs in ch. Wang chih of the Li chi (chu shu, 12.9b; C. I. 286).
111. 徹 膳 ch'ê-shan. The Son of Heaven did not take a complete meal in the case of a great mourning, a great famine, a great epidemic, a great celestial or terrestrial calamity, a great political catastrophe (Chou li chu shu, 4.4b; B. I. 73).
112. Ch. XVIII. 9 (Lun yü chu shu, 18.8b; L. 337). Besides these three there were five other musicians who left. The event is supposed to have taken place either under Duke Ai of Lu (494-468 B.C., o.c. 18.9a) or under King Chou of the Yin Dynasty (Liu Pao-nan in Lun yü Chêng i, 21.89-90).
113. The Ti tzŭ chih is now incorporated in the present Kuan tzŭ, see Vol. I, p. 69, n. 241. The quotation is to prove that common officers (and Ministers and great officers) only took two complete meals.
114. 食 力 無 數 . The statement occurs in ch. Li ch'i of the Li chi (chu shu, 23.11b; C. I. 545). The words 庶 人'common man', supplied by Lu, are superfluous, as they are implied in 食 力(Ch'ên, 3.24b).
115. 聲 shêng (Gr. Ser. 822), ming 鳴(Gr. Ser. 827).
116. 音 (Gr. Ser. 653), 飲(Gr. Ser. 654).
117. Shang shu chu shu, I chi, 4.5b; L. 81. The Six Pitch-pipes are the yang part of the series of twelve, consisting of the 1st, 3d, 5th, 7th, 9th, and 11th pitch-pipes (van Aalst, l.c.).
118. 宮, 商, 角, 徵, 羽 , corresponding with the notes C, D, E, G, A, and produced by the 1st, 3d, 5th, 2d, and 4th pitch-pipes (van Aalst, o.c. 14-15).
119. Li chi chu shu, 14. passim; C. I. 330 ff.
120. yüeh 躍, chih 止, chang 張, yü 紆(Lu in his Pu i 紓= 舒), jung 容, han 含. The Han shu gives a different explanation, see Vol. I, p. 35.
121. 八 音 pa-yin.
122. hsün 埙 or 壎, kuan 管, ku 鼓, sh êng 笙, hsien 弦, ch'ing 磬, chung 鍾, chu-yü 枳 敔. The quotation is not to be found in the present Yüeh chi. The chu is a square, varnished box of wood with a pestle inside, which, when moved, beats against the sides. The yü is in the shape of a sitting tiger with notches on its back, which, when swept, give a sound. They are used to start and to stop the music.
123. Acc. to the Ta tai li chi (13.4a; Wilhelm, 245) "Eight is that which holds together (kang剛 =綱), by which Heaven and Earth express themselves; it is therefore the number by which the Sage connects the yin and the yang".
124. joy lo, music yüeh, both written 樂, see n. 2, supra.
125. joy lo, music yüeh, both written , see n. 2, supra.
126. The quotation is not to be found in the present Yüeh chi. K'an 坎, kên艮 , chên 震, li 離, tui 兌, ch'ien乾. Acc. to Ch'ên Li (3.26a) the music of the pan-pipes corresponds with the trigram sun 巽, and that of the chiming-stone with the trigram k'un 坤(n given in the text), while the occarina should correspond with kên and the flute with k'an.
127. 熏 .
128. 施 .
129. 牙 (= 芽acc. to Liu, 72.5a).
130. 太 蔟 .
131. 生 .
132. 七 政 ch'i-Chêng: sun, moon, and the five planets.
133. 六 合 liu-ho: east, south, west, north, zenith, nadir. The shêng has thirteen pipes.
134. 鼓 .
135. t'ao 鞀, mao-hsing 昴 星, wang-tao 王 道 . The meaning of this paragraph is not clear.
136. 中 呂 .
137. 勠, 肅, 簫 (Gr. Ser. nos. 1069j, 1028a, 1028h).
138. 錄 .
139. 瑟, 嗇 , hsien 閑 .
140. ch'in , chin .
141. 矣 則 .
142. 磬 . Cf. Li chi chu shu, 39.6a; C. II. 93.
143. 動 .
144. 鏄 .
145. 迫 .
146. Li chi chu shu, 37.4a; C. II. 48.
147. This rather irrelevant paragraph probably does not belong to the chapter on Rites and Music.
148. Lun yü, VII. 27 (Waley, p. 129).
149. Ibid. XIX. 22 (ib. 228).
150. Ibid. IX. 5 (ib. 139).
151. Ibid. VII. 15 (ib. 126).
|<Previous Section>||<Next Section>|
|Published by The Institute for Advanced Technology in the Humanities, © Copyright 2003 by Anne Kinney and the University of Virginia|