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王者必即土中者何? 所以均教道，平往來，使[為]善易以聞，為惡易以聞，明當懼慎, 損於善惡。《尚書》曰: " 王來紹上帝，自服於土中。" 聖人承天而制作。《尚書》曰: " 公不敢不敬天之休，來相宅。"
周家始封於何? 后稷封於邰，公劉去邰之邠。《詩》云: " 即有台家室。" 又曰: " 篤公劉，于邠斯觀。" 周家五遷，其意一也。 皆欲成其道也。
京師者、何謂也? 千里之邑號也。 京、大也。 師、眾也。 天子所居，故[以]大眾言之。 明[什倍]諸侯，法日月之徑千里。《春秋傳》曰: "京(曰) [師]、天子之居也。"《王制》曰:" 天子之田方千里。"
或曰。 夏曰夏邑，殷曰 (啇) [商]邑，周曰京師。《尚書》曰:" 率割夏邑"，謂桀也: " 在 (啇) [商] 邑"，謂殷也。
[祿者、錄也]，[上以敬錄接下]，[下以名錄饉以事上]。《王制》曰: " 天子三公之田視公侯，卿視伯，大夫視子男，士視附庸。 上農夫食九人，其次食八人，其次食七人，其次食六人。下農夫食五人。 庶人在官者以是為差也。 諸侯之下士視上農夫，祿足以代其耕也。 中士倍下士，上士倍中士，下大夫倍上士。 卿四大夫祿，君十卿祿。 次國之卿, 三大夫祿，君十卿祿。 小國之卿，倍上大夫祿'君十卿祿。 天子之縣內，有百里之國九，七十里之國二十一，五十里之國六十三，凡九十三國。 名山大澤不以封。 其餘以祿士，以為閒田。"
諸侯入為公卿大夫, 得食兩家菜不? 曰: 有能，然後居其位: 德加於人，然後食其祿，所以尊賢、重有德也。 今以盛德(人) [入] 輔佐，兩食之何? 《王制》曰: " 天子 [之] 縣內諸侯祿也，外諸侯嗣也。"
天子太子食菜者，儲君，嗣主也，當有(上) [土] 以尊之也。 太子食百里，與諸侯封同。 故《禮》曰: " 公士大夫子子也。" 無爵而在大夫上，故 [知] 百里也。
VIII. The Capital
67---The Founding of the Capital (I B. 16b-17a).
Why must the King, for his capital, select [a place in] the centre of the country? 1 It is in order that he may maintain an equipoise of [the effects of his spiritual] teaching, and equalize the distance to and from [the capital]; that he may easily be informed of the good 2 and the evil that is committed. It indicates that he should always be careful and diligent in the observation 3 of [the people's] good and evil [deeds]. The Shang shu says: "May the King come [in the new capital] to continue [the work] of the Lord on High, and undertake himself [the duties of government] in the centre of the land" 4. The Sage makes institutions in continuation of [the work of] Heaven. [Again] the Shang shu says: "Thou [,my Uncle, Duke of Chou,] hast not dared but acknowledge reverently the favour of Heaven, and hast surveyed the locality [to find where our Chou may respond to that favour]" 5.
68---The Transference of the Capital (I B. 17a).
a. Where was the first fief of the House of Chou? Hou-chi was enfeoffed in T'ai, Duke Liu left T'ai and moved to Pin 6. The Shih says: "Thus [Hou-chi] made house and home in T'ai" 7. Again it says: "Stalwart was Duke Liu, he made his lodging in Pin" 8. Though the House of Chou moved [its capital] five times, the [underlying] idea [in each case] was the same; each time [the motive was] the wish to bring its Way to consummation 9.
b. Why [must a Feudal Lord, to move his capital,] first announce [his intention] to the King? A Feudal Lord is not allowed to move [his capital], and only after his request has been approved [by the King] may he carry it out.
69---The Meaning of Ching-shih (I B. 17a).
What does ching-shih 京 師 10 mean? It is the denomination of the city [within the King's domain] of one thousand li [square]. Ching means ta 'great'; shih means chung 'multitudinous' 11. [Ching-shih is the place where] the Son of Heaven has his residence; therefore [it is indicated by] the words great and multitudinous 12, meaning that [the King's territory] is ten times [as large as that of] a Feudal Lord 13. It models itself on the sun and the moon, both having a diameter of one thousand li14. The Ch'un ch'iu chuan says: "The ching-shih is the abode of the Son of Heaven" 15. The Wang chih says: "The territory of the Son of Heaven amounts to one thousand li square" 16.
70---The Different Institutions during the Three Dynasties (I B. 17b).
Another opinion is: [The capital] under the Hsia was called Hsia-i; under the Yin it was called Shang-i, and under the Chou it was called ching-shih. The Shang shu says: "[The King of Hsia] does nothing but exercise oppression in Hsia-i" 17. This was said of Chieh [,the last Sovereign of Hsia. Again it says: King Chou's crimes accumulated] in Shang-i" 18. This was said of [the last Sovereign of] Yin.
71---Revenues (I B. 17b-18a).
Lu 'revenue accruing from a governmental position' means lu 'a registered agreement' 19. [It is that by which] the superior agrees to attach the inferior to him with consideration, and each inferior agrees to serve the superior with diligence 20. The Wang chih says: "The territory [assigned to each of] the three Ducal Ministers of the Son of Heaven is equal to that of a Duke or Marquis; that of the Ministers is equal to that of an Earl; that of the great officers to that of a Viscount or Baron; and that of a common officer to that of a sub-fief. [According to the regulations, the fields of the husbandmen are in portions of a hundred acres. According to the different qualities of those acres,] when they are of the highest quality, a farmer supports nine individuals; where they are of the next, eight; and so on, seven, six, and five. [The pay of] the common people who are employed in government offices is regulated in harmony with these distinctions [among the husbandmen]. The officers of the lowest grade in the Feudal States have a revenue equal to that of the husbandmen whose fields are of the highest quality, equal to what they would make by tilling the fields. Those of the middle grade have double that of the lowest grade, and those of the highest grade double that of the middle. A great officer of the lowest grade has double that of an officer of the highest. A Minister has four times that of a great officer, and the ruler has ten times that of a Minister. In a state of the second class the revenue of a Minister is three times that of a great officer, and that of the ruler ten times that of a Minister. In small states a Minister has twice as much as a great officer, and the ruler ten times as much as a Minister. Within the domain of the Son of Heaven there are nine states of one hundred li [square], twenty-one of seventy li, and sixty-three of fifty li: in all ninety-three states. The famous hills and great swamps are not assigned. The rest [of the land] serves to endow the officers, and to form unoccupied country" 21.
72---The Apanages of Feudal Lords Serving in the King's Domain (I B. 18a).
When a Feudal Lord enters [the service of the Son of Heaven] as a Ducal Minister, a Minister, or a great officer, does he receive the emoluments of an apanage 22 for two generations? It is said that he who has ability will receive a position, and he whose spiritual power affects others will enjoy his emoluments; thus the worthy is honoured and the possessor of spiritual power is esteemed. When [a Feudal Lord] now with his abundant spiritual power enters [the royal service] to assist in the administration he is entitled to enjoy [the emoluments of an apanage] for two [generations]. Therefore the Wang chih says: "Within the domain of the Son of Heaven the Feudal Lords [who serve in the administration] enjoy emoluments [from apanages], outside it they have hereditary [fiefs]" 23.
73---The Apanage of the King's Heir (I B. 18a-b).
The eldest son of the Son of Heaven enjoys the right to an apanage because he is the Heir Apparent and the [future] successor of the Sovereign. He must have land that he may be honoured [for his position]. The Heir has an apanage of one hundred li [square], which is the same as the fief of a Feudal Lord [of the highest rank]. Therefore the Li says: "[Though] a common officer [the Heir is] the son of the Son of Heaven" 24. Though [the Heir has] no rank [his dignity is] above [that of] a great officer; so we know [that his apanage is] one hundred li [square].
74---On the Apanages of the Ducal Ministers, the Ministers, and the Great Officers (I B. 18b).
The Ducal Ministers, the Ministers, and the great officers all take emoluments from apanages, meaning that they should share their people's wealth and poverty.
1. 王 者 京 師 必 擇 土 中 何 , which is Ch'ên's reading (4.19a).
2. 為 should be inserted before 善(Sun I-jang, Tsa i, 10.3a).
3. 省 , which is suggested by Ch'ên for 损(4.19b).
4. Shang shu chu shu, Shao kao, 14.9b; L. 428; K. 21.69-70.
5. Ibid., Lo kao, 14.19a; L. 437. This and the previous quotation refer to the building of the new Chou capital Lo-i 洛 邑 (in Honan province, north-east of the present city of Lo-yang), said to be 'the centre of the land' (cf. also M.H. 1. 70, n. 2, III. 522, n. 1; for the determination of the centre of the earth see the Chou li, B. I. 200-203, and Eberhard-Müller, in Monumenta Serica II. 154). The actual residence of the Chou, however, remained Fêng 豐 and Hao 镐 until 770 B.C. (M.H. I. 243, 318; Legge's transl. of the Book of History, 422, note). Cf. n. 9.
6. Hou-chi was the first ancestor of the Chou, miraculously born. Cf. ch. XXXIII, n. 23. Duke Liu was one of his descendants. T'ai 邰, in present Shansi, so also Pin 邠(cf. M.H. I. 209, n. 2; 213, n. 2).
7. Ode 245: Mao shih chu shu, 24.14b; L. 469; K. 17.71; Wa. 242.
8. Ode 250: ibid., 24.63b; L. 488; K. 17.74; Wa. 246. Kuan 觀 in the text reads 館 in Mao.
9. Duke Liu moved from T'ai to Pin, Duke Tan-fu (King Wên's grand-father) moved from Pin to Ch'i 岐, Chi-li (King W ên's father) moved from Ch'i to Ch'eng 程, King Wên moved from Ch'êng to F êeng, King Wu moved from Fêng to Hao (M.H. I. 213, 214, 221, 241; Ch'êng is not mentioned here).
11. ta 大 , chung 眾.
12. Cf. the Kung yang chuan, Huan 9, 5.7b: "The abode of the Son of Heaven must be indicated by expressions [having the meaning of] multitudinous and great". Cf. also the Tu tuan, quoted in Vol. I, p. 47.
13. The territory of a Feudal Lord of the highest rank was 100 li square.
14. Cf. Vol. I, p. 47. The sun and the moon were supposed to be of the same size, see Forke, World-conception of the Chinese, p. 60.
15. Kung yang chu shu, Huan 9, 5.7b (cf. n. 12).
16. Li chi chu shu, 11.2b; C. I. 264.
17. 夏 邑 . Shang shu chu shu, T'ang shih, 7.2b; L. 175.
18. 商 邑 . Ibid., Chiu kao, 13.24a; L. 408.
19. 錄 者 錄 也 .
20. 上 以 敬 錄 接 下 下 各 以 謹 錄 事 上 (Liu's reading, 73.1b). A similar passage occurs in the Yüan shên ch'i (Yü han, 58.11a).
21. Li chi chu shu, 11.2b ff.; C. I. 264 ff.
22. 菜=采 ts'ai. The apanage, in contradistinction to the fief, did not give the right to possess the land and the people but only to 'gather the revenues' 采 取 租 稅; it is not hereditary, but the son of the holder is usually entitled to continue it (see Ho Hsiu's comm. on the Kung yang chuan, Hsiang 15, 20.6a, and Ting 4, 25.18a).
23. Li chi chu shu, 11.22a-b; C. I. 273.
24. 士 天 天 子 也 (Liu's reading, 73.1b). The quotation cannot be identified. For the King's Heir being a 'common officer', see Vol. I, p. 223, par. 5.
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