|<Previous Section>||<Next Section>|
五行者、何謂也? 謂金、木、水、火、土也。 言行者、欲言為天行氣之義也。 地之承天，猶妻之事夫，臣之事看也。 謂其位卑，卑者親[視]事。故自(周) [同] 於一行尊於天也。 《尚書》: "一曰水，二曰火，三曰木，四曰金 ，五曰土。"
水位在北方。 北方者陰氣，在黃泉之下，任(飬) [養] 萬物。 水之為言(淮) [准] 也，陰化沾濡任生木，[養物平均有準則也]。
火在南方。 南方者、陽在上，萬物垂枝。 火之為言委隨也，言萬物布施。 火之為言化也，陽氣用事，萬物變化也。 金在西方。 西方者、陰始起，萬物禁止。 金之為言禁也。
土所以不名時[者]，地、土 [之] 別名也。 比於五行最尊，故不自居部職也。《元命包》曰:" 土(之) (為) [無]位而道在，故大 [一] 不預化，人主不任部職。"
五行之性，或上或下何? 火者、陽也。 尊、故上。 水者、陰也。 卑、故下。 (水) [木] 者少陽, 金者少陰，有中和之性，故可曲 (可) 直從革。 土者最大，苞含物將生者出(者), 將歸者[入]，不嫌清濁為萬物。《尚書》曰: " 水日潤下，火曰炎上，木日曲直，金曰從革， 土爰稼穡。"
水昧所以鹹何? 是某性也。 所以北方鹹者，萬物鹹與所以堅之也， 猶五昧得鹹乃堅也。
木昧所以酸者何? 東方、萬物之生也。 酸者以達生也，猶五昧得酸乃達也。
金味所以辛何? 西方煞傷成物，辛、所以煞傷之也。 猶五味得辛乃姿煞也。
土昧所以甘何? 中央者、中和也, 故甘, 猶五昧以甘為主也。 《尚書》曰: " 潤下作鹹，炎上作苦，曲直作酸，從革作辛，稼穡作甘。"
北方其臭朽者何? 北方水，萬物所幽藏也。 又水者受垢濁，故臭腐朽也。
南方者(水) [火]也。 盛陽承 動，故其臭焦。
西方者金也。 萬物成熟始復諾，故其臭腥。 中央、土也。 主養，故 其臭香也。
《月令》曰:" 東方其臭羶，南方其臭焦，中央其臭香，西方其臭腥， 北方 其臭朽。" 所以名之為東方者，動方也。 萬物始動生也。 南方者、任養之方，萬物懷任 也。 西方者、遷方也。萬物遷落也。
少陽見 [於] 寅，寅者、演也。 律中大簇。 律之言率，所以率氣令生也。 [盛於 卯]，卯者、茂也。 律中夾鍾。 衰於辰。 辰[者]、震也。 律中姑洗。 其日甲乙。 [甲] 者、萬物孚甲也。 乙者、物蕃屈有節欲出。 時為春。 春之為言倦，倦、動也。 位 在東方。 其色青,其音角。 角者、氣動耀峰也。 其帝太嗥。[太]嗥者、大起萬物擾 也。 其神勾芒。 [勾芒]者、物之始生，其精青龍，芒之為言萌也。 陰中陽故，太陽 見於巳。 巳者、物必起， 律中伊呂。
壯盛於午。 午、物滿長，律中蕤賓。 衰於未。未、 昧也。 律中林鍾。 其日丙丁。 [丙] 者、其物炳明。 丁者、強也。 時為夏，夏之言, 也。 位在南方。 其色赤， 其音徵。 徵、止也。 陽度極也。 其帝炎帝。 [炎帝]者、太 也,其神祝融。 祝融者、屬續 [也]。 其精為鳥，《離》為鸞故。
少陰見於申。 申 者、身也。 律中夷則。 壯於酉。 酉者、老[也]。 物收斂。 律中南呂。 衰於戍。 戍者 滅也。 律中無射。 無射者、無聲也。 其日庚辛。 庚者、物更也。 辛者、陰始成。 時 秋，秋之為言愁(亡)也。 其位西方。 其色白。 其音(啇)[商]。 (啇) [商]者、 強也。 其帝少皞。少皞者、少斂也。 其神蓐收。 蓐收者、縮也。 其精白虎。 虎之為言 討也故。
太陰見於亥。 亥者、(仰) [侅]也。 律中應鍾。 壯於子。 (於)子者、孳也。 律中黃鍾。 衰於丑。 丑者、紐也。 律中大呂。 其日壬癸。 壬者、陰始任。癸者、揆, 揆度, 可揆度也。 時為冬， 冬之為言終也，其位在北方，其音羽，羽之為言舒。言萬物始孳。 其帝顓頊。 顓頊者、 寒縮也。 其神玄冥。 玄冥者、入冥也。 其精玄武。有起離體泉, 龜蛟珠蛤。
土為中宮。 其日戊己。 戊者、茂也。 己[者]、抑屈起。其音宮。 宮者、中也。 其帝黃帝，其神后土。
《月令》云: 十一月律謂之黃鍾何? [黃]、中和之色。 鍾者、動也。 言陽氣 [潛藏] 動，於黃泉之下動養萬物也。
十二月律(之)謂之大呂何? 大[者]、大也, 呂者、拒也。 言陽氣欲出，陰不許也。 呂之為言拒者，旅抑拒難之也。
正月律謂之太簇何? 太亦，大也, 蔟者、湊也。 言萬物始大，湊地而出也。
二月律謂之夾鐘何? 夾者、孚甲也, 言萬物爭甲，種類分也。
三月謂之姑洗何? 姑者，故也。 洗者鮮也。 言萬物皆去故就其新，莫不鮮明也。
四月謂之仲呂何? 言陽氣 (極將) [將極] [中充大也]，(彼)故復中難之也。
五月謂之蕤賓 [何]? 蕤者、下也,賓者、敬也。 言陽氣上極'陰氣始[起]。 [故] 賓敬之也。
六月謂之林鍾何? 林者、眾也。萬物成(孰) [熟]，[其]種瀕眾多[也]。
七月謂之夷則何? 夷、傷[也], 則、法也，言萬物始傷，被刑法也。
八月謂之南呂何? 南者、任也。 言陽氣尚有任[也], 生薺麥也，故陰拒之也。
九月謂之無射何? 射者、終也。 言萬物隨陽而終也, 當復隨陰 [而] 起。 無有終已[也]。
五行所以更王何? 以其轉相生，故有終始也。 木生火，火生土，土生金，金生水， 水生木。 是以木王，火相，土死，金囚，水休。 王所勝者死。 (內) [囚]、故王者休。
(見) [木] 王火相何以知為臣? 土所以死者，子為父報仇者也。 五行之子慎之物歸母,木王、火相、金成，其火燋金。 金生水，水滅火，報其理。 火生土，土則害水 ，莫能而禦。
五行所以相害者，(大) [天]地之性，眾勝寡，故水勝火也。 精勝堅，故火勝金。 剛勝柔，故金勝木。 專勝散，故木勝土。 實勝虛，故土勝水也。
火陽、君之象也，水陰、臣之義也。 臣所以勝其君何? 此謂無道之君也。 故為眾陰所害，猶紂王也。是使(冰)[水] 得施行，金以蓋之，土以應之，欲溫則溫，欲寒[則寒]， 亦何從得害火乎? 曰: 五行各自有陰陽。 木生火，所以還燒其母何?
曰: 金勝木，火欲為木害金，金者堅強難消，故母以遜體助火燒金， 此自欲成子之羲。 又陽道不相離，故為兩盛，火死，子乃繼之。
土所以王四李何? 木非土不生，火非土不榮，金非土不成，水無土不高， 土扶微助衰,歷成其道，故五行更王，亦須土也。 王四季，居中央，不名時。
五行何以知同時起丑訖義相生? 《傅》曰:" 五行並起赴，各以名別。"
水火獨一種，金木多品何? 以為南北陰陽之極也，得其極，故一也。 東西非其極也，故非一也。
水木可食，金火土不 可食何? 木者陽，陽者施生，故可食。 火者陰在內， 金者陰嗇吝，故不可食。
火水所以 殺人何? 水盛氣也，故入而殺人。 火陰在內，故殺人壯於水也。 金木微氣，故不能自殺 人也。
火不可入其中者，陰在內也。 入則殺人矣。 水土陽在內，故可入其中。 金木微氣 也，精密不可得入也。 水火不可加人功為用，金木加人功何? 火者盛陽，水者盛陰者 也。 氣盛不變,故不可加人功為人用，金木者不能自成，故須人加功以為人用也。
五行 之性: 火熱水寒，有溫水，無寒火何? 明臣可以為君，君不可更為臣。
五行常在，火乍 亡何? 水太陰也，刑者故常在。 金少陰，木少陽，微氣無變，故亦常在。 火太陽精微， 人君之象,象尊常藏，猶天子居九重之內，臣下衛之也。 藏於木者，依於仁也。 木自 (主) [生]金，須人取之乃成，陰卑不能自成也。
木所以浮，金所以沉何? 子生於母 之義。 肝所以沉，肺所以浮何? 有知者尊其母也。 一說[云]:[甲]木畏金，金 (之) [以] [乙] 妻庚，受庚之化，木者法其本，柔可曲，直 [甲]，故浮也。 肝法 其化，直[乙]，故沉。[金畏火]，[以辛妻丙]，[受丙之化]，[金法其本]， [直庚故沈]。 [肺法其化]，[直辛故浮]。 五行皆同義。
天 (子) 所以內明而外昧，人所以外明而內昧何? 明天人欲相嚮而治也。
行有五, 時有四何? 四時為時，五行為節。 故木王即謂之春，金王即謂之秋， 土尊不任職，君不居部，故時有四也。
惡惡止其身。" 何法? 法秋煞不待冬也。
臣(法) [諫] 君，何法? 法金正木也。
親屬臣諫不相去，何法? 法 (水) 木枝葉不相離也。
子養父琺，何法? 法夏養長木, 此火養母也。
不以父命廢主命。 何法? 法金不畏土而畏火。
有分土，無分民，何法? 法四時各有分，而所生者通也。 若言東, 東方、天下皆生也。
父喪子，夫喪妻: 何注? 法一歲物有終始，天氣亦為之變也。
日照晝，月照夜; 人目所不更照，何法? [法] 日亦更用事也。
王者監二王之後, 何法? 法木須金以正。 須水以潤也。
IX. The Five Elements
75---General Remarks (II A. 1a-2a).
a. What is meant by the 'Five Elements' wu-hsing1? Metal, wood, water, fire, and earth. The word hsing is used to bring out the meaning that [in accordance] with Heaven the fluids have been 'put into motion' hsing2. Earth aids Heaven as the wife serves her husband, and the Minister serves his Lord. Their position is lowly, and those who are in a lowly position personally attend to their duties. Therefore they naturally are the same with respect to [their] one motion, [which is] to pay reverence to [what represents] Heaven [to them]. The Shang shu says: "The first [element] is called water, the second fire, the third wood, the fourth metal, the fifth earth" 3.
b. Water has its position in the northern quarter. The north is [the place] where the yin-fluid lies beneath the Yellow Sources, having as its task the nourishment of the ten thousand things. 'Water' shui means chun 'level' 4. It nourishes the things equally, possessing the propensity of always being level.
c. Wood [has its position] in the eastern quarter. The east is [the place] where the yang-fluid begins to move, and the ten thousand things begin their life. 'Wood' mu means cho 'to knock' 5; the yang-fluid moves and jumps, knocking against the earth to break out.
d. Fire [has its position] in the southern quarter. The south is [the place] where the yang is superior, and the ten thousand things hang down their [luxuriant] branches. 'Fire' huo means wei-sui 'to follow as a result' 6; it means that the ten thousand things have fully unfurled themselves 7. Huo also means hua8 'to change'; the yang-fluid holding sway, the ten thousand things transform themselves and change.
e. Metal [has its position] in the western quarter. The west is [the place] where the yin begins to rise, and [the development of] the ten thousand things is called to a stop. 'Metal' chin means chin 'to stop' 9.
f. Earth [has its position] in the centre. The centre is [occupied by] the earth. The earth has as its task to bring forth the ten thousand things. 'Earth' t'u means t'u 'to bring forth' 10.
g. How do we know that the eastern region [represents] growth? The Yüeh chi says: "In spring they grow, in summer they ripen, in autumn they are harvested, in winter they are hoarded" 11.
h. That earth is not [attached to] the name of a season is because it is [only] another name for 'the Earth' ti-t'u12, and [occupies] the highest position in the sequence of the Five Elements; therefore it does not by itself occupy a special department. The Yüanming pao says: "Though earth has no [defined] position its effects are [everywhere] present; therefore [just as] the T'ai-i does not participate in [the process of] transformation [so] the Lord of men is not in charge of a special department" 13.
76---The Nature of the Five Elements (II A. 2a-b).
a. Why is it that [according to] the nature of the Five Elements some [occupy a] high, and others a low [position]? Fire is yang; [it represents the] superior, therefore [it occupies a] high [position]. Water is yin; [it represents the] inferior, therefore [it occupies a] low [position]. Wood is the younger yang; metal is the younger yin, it has the nature of equilibrium and harmony, and can therefore be bent and straightened, it can obey and change. Earth is the greatest, containing the [ten thousand] things, which, growing, leave it, and, returning, enter into it [again]; it neither rejects the pure nor the impure, it is the mother 14 of the ten thousand things. The Shang shu says: "Of water it is said that it soaks and descends, of fire that it blazes and ascends, of wood that it is crooked or straight, of metal that it obeys and changes, while [the nature of] earth is [seen in] seed-sowing and in gathering" 15.
b. Why is it that among the Five Elements two [,wood and fire,] are yang, and three are yin? Earth is the superior [among them], and [being] the superior is associated with Heaven. In metal, wood, water, and fire the yin and the yang range themselves in couples.
77---The Five Tastes, The Five Smells, the Five Quarters (II B.2b-3a).
a. Why is the taste of water salty? This is its nature 16. The northern quarter is the place where the ten thousand things are strong; the salty [taste of water] is to make them strong, as the Five Tastes are made strong by salt 17.
b. Why is the taste of wood sour? The eastern quarter is [the place] where the ten thousand things come to life; the sour [taste of wood] stimulates their life, as the Five Tastes are stimulated by acidity.
c. Why is the taste of fire bitter? The southern quarter supervises the growth and nourishment [of the ten thousand things]; the bitter [taste of fire] makes them grow and gives them nourishment, as the Five Tastes need bitterness to be nourishing.
d. Why is the taste of metal acrid? The western quarter is [the place] where the matured things die and decay; the acrid [taste of metal] makes them die and decay, as the Five Tastes are made insipid by acridity.
e. Why is the taste of earth sweet? The centre is [the place of] equilibrium and harmony; therefore [the taste of earth, being in the centre, is] sweet, as in the Five Tastes sweetness is the most important. The Shang shu says: "That which soaks and descends becomes salt, that which blazes and ascends becomes bitter, that which is crooked and straight becomes sour, that which obeys and changes becomes acrid, and from seed-sowing and gathering comes sweetness" 18.
f. Why is the smell of the northern quarter that of decay? The northern quarter [represents] water, in which the ten thousand things lie concealed. Water, now, receives [all the] dirt and im- purities, therefore its smell is that of rotting decay.
g. The eastern quarter [represents] wood, [it is the place where] the ten thousand things have freshly come out of the earth, therefore its smell is rank.
h. The southern quarter [represents] fire, [it is the place where] the abundant yang assists the movement [of the ten thousand things], therefore its smell is that of burning.
i. The western quarter [represents] metal, [it is the place where] the ten thousand things, having reached their ripeness, begin again to wither 19, therefore its smell is frowsy.
j. The centre [represents] earth, which supervises the nourishment of the ten thousand things, therefore its smell is fragrant. The Yüeh ling says: "The smell of the eastern quarter is rank, of the southern quarter that of burning, of the centre fragrant, of the western quarter frowsy, of the northern quarter that of decay" 20.
k. [The east is] called tung-fang because it is 'the quarter of movement' tung-fang21, where the ten thousand things begin their movement and life. [The south is called] nan-fang because it is the quarter which is 'charged with' jên22 the nourishment [of the ten thousand things]; these [again] contain in themselves their [several] tasks. [The west is called] hsi-fang because it is 'the quarter of displacement' ch'ien-fang23, where the ten thousand things are displaced and dropped. [The north is called] pei-fang because it is 'the quarter for lying low' fu-fang24, where the ten thousand things lie low and hidden.
78---Ascendency and Decline of the Yin and the Yang (II A.3a-4b).
a. The younger yang is visible in [the zodiacal sign] yin; yin means yen 'to extend' 25; its musical pitch-pipe lü is exactly t'ai-ts' ou; lü means shuai 'to conduct' 26; with it the fluid [of the younger yang] is conducted to [its task of] stimulating life. [The younger yang] reaches its ascendency in [the zodiacal sign] mao; mao means mao 'to flourish'; its musical pitch-pipe is exactly chieh-chung27. [The younger yang] declines in [the zodiacal sign] ch'ên; ch'ên means chên 'thunderclap'; its musical pitch-pipe is exactly ku-hsi28. The days [of the younger yang are in the signs] chia or i 29; chia means that the ten thousand things [are about to emerge out of their] 'scales' fu-chia30; i means that the things which have been lying protected and bent, having served their term, wish to come out. The season [of the younger yang] is 'spring' ch'un; ch'un means ch'un, which means tung 'to move' 31. Its position is in the eastern quarter, its colour is green, its musical tone is chüeh; chüeh32 means that the fluid is moving and jumping. Its Emperor is T'ai-hao 33; t'ai-hao means 'general rise'; the ten thousand things are stirring. Its genius is Kou-mang 34; kou-mang means that the things begin their life. Mang means mêng35 'to sprout out'. Its essential spirit is the Green Dragon 36. It is caused by the yang [appearing] in the middle of the yin.
b. The elder yang is visible in [the zodiacal sign] ssŭ; ssŭ means that the [ten thousand] things have ended their [phase of] rising; its musical pitch-pipe is exactly chung-lü37. Its strength is fullest in [the zodiacal sign] wu; wu [means that] the [ten thousand] things are full and mature; its musical pitch-pipe is exactly shêng-p'in38. It declines in [the zodiacal sign] wei;wei means wei 'to taste'; its musical pitch-pipe is exactly lin-chung39. The days [of the elder yang are in the signs] ping or ting;ping means that the things are 'luminous and clear' ping-ming; ting means ch'iang 'strong' 40. The season [of the elder yang] is 'summer' hsia; hsia means ta 'great' 41. Its position is in the southern quarter, its colour is red; its musical tone is chih; chih means 'to stop' 42; the measure of the yang has reached its extremity. Its Emperor is Yen-ti 43; yen-ti means 'elder yang'. Its genius is Chu-jung; chu-jung means chu-hsü44 'to connect and continue'. Its essential spirit is the Vermillion Bird. It is caused by its becoming a lüan [-bird] after leaving [its burning nest] 45.
c. The younger yin is visible in [the zodiacal sign] shên;shên means shên 'body'; its musical pitch-pipe is exactly i-tsê46. It reaches its strength in [the zodiacal sign] yu; yu means lao 'old'; the things are gathered and harvested; its musical pitch-pipe is exactly nan-lü47. It declines in [the zodiacal sign] hsü; hsü means mieh 'to extinguish'; its musical pitch-pipe is exactly wu-i; wu-i means wu-yen 'unscathed' 48. The days [of the younger yin are in the signs] kêng or hsin; kêng means that the things 'change' keng49; hsin means that the yin begins its completion. The season [of the younger yin] is 'autumn' ch'iu; ch'iu means ch'ou 'afflicted by grief' 50. Its position is in the western quarter, its colour is white, its musical tone is shang; shang means ch'iang 'strong' 51. Its Emperor is Shao-hao; shao-hao means shao-lien 'minor harvest' 52. Its genius is Chou-shou; chou-shou means hsü 'to shrink'. Its essential spirit is the White Tiger; 'tiger' hu means 'to catch and chastise' 53.
d. The elder yin is visible in [the zodiacal sign] hai; hai means kai 'kernel'; its musical pitch-pipe is exactly ying-chung54. It reaches its strength in [the zodiacal sign] tzŭ; tzŭ means tzŭ 'to engender' 55; its musical pitch-pipe is exactly huang-chung56. It declines in [the zodiacal sign] ch'ou; ch'ou means niu 'to knot'; its musical pitch-pipe is exactly ta-lü57. The days [of the elder yin are in the signs] jên or kuei; jên means that the yin is employed [by the yang] and 'serves' jên it; kuei means k'uei-tu 'to measure' 58. The season [of the elder yin] is 'winter' tung; tung means chung 'to end' 59. Its position is in the northern quarter, its musical tone is yü; yü means shu 'repose' 60; the ten thousand things begin to produce. Its Emperor is Chuan-hsü 61; chuan-hsü means that the cold is shrinking. Its genius is Hsüan-ning; hsüan-ning means 'great darkness' 62. Its essential spirit is the Black Tortoise, which rises from and quits [its hiding]; its body resembles that of a snake 63.
e. The earth represents the middle palace. Its days are [in the signs] mou or chi; mou means mao 'to flourish'; chi means to rise after having been pressed and bent down 64. Its musical tone is kung; kung means chung 'the middle' 65. Its Emperor is Huang-ti; its genius is Hou-t'u 66.
79---The Twelve Musical Pitch-Pipes (II A.4b-5b).
a. Why is it that in the Yüeh ling the musical pitch-pipe for the eleventh month is called huang-chung? Huang 'yellow' is the colour of equilibrium and harmony; chung means tung 'to move' 67; it means that the yang-fluid moves under the Yellow Sources, and nourishes the ten thousand things 68.
b. Why is the musical pitch-pipe for the twelfth month called ta-lü? Ta means 'great'; lü means chü 'to oppose' 69; it means that the yang-fluid wishes to break out, but is repulsed by the yin. Lü means 'to oppose', that is: the host [of yin-forces] oppose and obstruct [the yang].
c. Why is the musical pitch-pipe for the first month called t'ai-ts'ou? T'ai also means ta 'great'; ts'ou means tsou 'to collect' 70; it means that the ten thousand things have begun greatly to collect [their forces against] the earth to break through.
d. Why is the musical pitch-pipe for the second month called chieh-chung? Chieh means fu-chia71; it means that the ten thousand things [are about to emerge out of their] 'scales' fu-chia, dividing themselves according to their species.
e. Why is [the musical pitch-pipe for] the third month called ku-hsi? Ku means ku 'old'; hsi means hsien 'fresh' 72; it means that the ten thousand things all leave their old [dwelling] and turn to their new [one], none of them failing to wear a fresh appearance.
f. Why is [the musical pitch-pipe for] the fourth month called chung-lu? It means that the yang-fluid is about to reach its extremity, and is in its very fullness and greatness; therefore, taking advantage of this middle [position], it obstructs [the rising yin].
g. Why is [the musical pitch-pipe for] the fifth month called sheng-p'in? Sheng means hsia 'inferior'; p'in means ching 'to respect' 73; it means that the yang-fluid is at its top and extremity while the yin-fluid begins to rise; therefore [the yin] pays [the yang] its respect as a guest.
h. Why is [the musical pitch-pipe for] the sixth month called lin-chung? Lin means chung 'multitude' 74; the ten thousand things have fully developed their ripeness, and their species abound in numbers.
i. Why is [the musical pitch-pipe for] the seventh month called i-tse? I means shang 'to afflict'; tse means fa 'law' 75; it means that the ten thousand things begin to be afflicted and to undergo the law of penalty.
j. Why is [the musical pitch-pipe for] the eighth month called nan-lu? Nan means jen 'to charge' 76; it means that the yang-fluid still has its charge [to fulfil], producing greens and wheat. Therefore the yin opposes it.
k. Why is [the musical pitch-pipe for] the ninth month called wu-i? I means chung 'termination' 77; it means that the ten thousand things, following the yang, have reached their termination, and have to follow the yin in order to rise again; none [of them] has been [completely] exterminated 78.
l. Why is [the musical pitch-pipe for] the tenth month called ying-chung? Ying means ying 'to respond'; chung means tung 'to move' 79; it means that the ten thousand things, responding to the yang, move and lie low.
80---The Meaning of the Alternation of the Five Elements (II A. 5b-7b).
a. Why is it that the Five Elements alternate their 'kingship'? Because they engender each other in succession, so that [each of them has] an end and a beginning. Wood engenders fire, fire engenders earth, earth engenders metal, metal engenders water, water engenders wood. Therefore, when wood is 'king', fire assists, earth is dead, metal is imprisoned, and water takes its rest. That which is conquered by the 'king' is dead, [that which is to conquer the 'king' is] imprisoned, [that which the 'king' is to engender assists], and so it is that the engenderer 80 takes its rest.
b. When wood is 'king', fire assists; how do we know [who is to be its] subject? 81 That earth is dead is because the son [wood engendered by water] revenges his father [water, which has been conquered by earth]. In [the succession of] the Five Elements the son has [feelings of] concern [,which is the principle of] the things returning to their mother. When wood is 'king', fire assists; when metal has accomplished [its conquering capacities], fire smelts it. [But] metal engenders water, which extinguishes fire, and so fulfils its compensating function. Fire engenders earth, which again obstructs water, so that it is rendered helpless.
c. The Five Elements destroying each other is the nature of Heaven and Earth. The mass conquers the stray, so water conquers fire. The fine conquers the solid, so fire conquers metal. The hard conquers the soft, so metal conquers wood. The compact conquers the loose, so wood conquers earth. The full conquers the empty, so earth conquers water.
d. Fire is yang, and represents the Lord. Water is yin, and [represents] the position of the subject. Why does the subject conquer the Lord? This refers to the Lord who does not follow the Way. Therefore he [,being the yang,] is overcome by the host of yin [-forces], as was the case with King Chou [of the Yin Dynasty]. And so it is that if water is in a position to go its [natural] course, it will take metal as its cover, and adapt itself to [the damming by] earth; it is warm when one wishes it to be warm, and cold when one wishes it to be cold. How then could it ever be in a position [really] to destroy fire?
e. It is said that each of the Five Elements by its nature is either the yin or the yang. Since wood engenders fire, why is it that [fire] repays it by consuming its mother? The reply is: metal conquers wood, and fire on behalf of wood wishes to destroy metal; [but] metal is hard and strong, difficult to smelt, therefore [wood,] the mother, sacrificing its own body, comes to the aid of fire to burn metal. This is the meaning of the wish to develop the child [by destroying] itself. Moreover, the way of the yang is not to separate from each other; therefore for the sake of both [wood and fire] fire is made consummate, by the death [of wood, the mother,] the child [,fire,] continues it.
f. Why is it that wood is 'king' for seventy-two days? Earth is 'king' during the four last months of the seasons, each time for eighteen days; together [with each of the other four elements it governs] for ninety days, which make one season. [Each of the four elements together with earth is] 'king' for ninety days.
g. Why is earth 'king' during the four last months [of the seasons]? Wood without earth does not grow, fire without earth does not blaze 82, metal without earth does not take its shape, water without earth 83 does not attain its height. Earth supports the tender and aids the weak, that they may accomplish the passing through their course. Therefore the Five Elements, alternating their 'kingship', are always in need of earth, which is 'king' in the four last months [of the seasons], occupies the centre, but is not named after a season.
h. How do we know that the Five Elements, arising at the same time, engender each other according to their positions 84? The Chuan says: "The Five Elements arise together, but each is distinguished by its name" 85.
i. The yang gives life, the yin kills; why is it that in fire there can be no living being, whereas it is possible in water? Life comes from within, and fire has the yin within, therefore there can be no life [there].
j. Since water and fire [each represent] only one specimen, why is it that metal and wood [comprise] so many specimens? Because the south and the north [corresponding with fire and water] are the extremities of the yang and the yin, and [fire and water] having reached their extremities are single. The east and the west do not represent extremities, therefore [wood and metal corresponding with east and west are] not limited to one [specimen].
k. Why can water and wood be consumed, but not metal, fire, and earth? Wood is yang, which is the dispenser of life; therefore it can be consumed. Fire has the yin within, in metal the yin is scanty [but present], therefore they cannot be consumed.
l. Why do fire and water kill man? Water is fluid at its fullest, therefore if man enters it he is killed; fire has the yin within, therefore it kills man, [in a] more violent [way] than [does] water. Metal and wood, having only a weak fluid, cannot, therefore, kill man of their own [force]. Fire cannot be penetrated into because it has the yin within, which will kill man if he enters [into the fire]. Water and earth have the yang within, therefore it is possible to enter into them. Metal and wood, [though] having a weak fluid, are close and compact, and it is impossible to enter into them.
m. Why is it that water and fire cannot be of use by applying man's skill to them, whereas to metal and wood man's skill can be applied? Fire is the consummation of the yang, water is the consummation of the yin. When the fluid is at its fullest it cannot be changed, therefore it cannot be made to serve the use of man by applying his skill to them. Metal and wood cannot accomplish themselves, therefore they require the application of man's skill to be of use to him.
n. According to the nature of the Five Elements fire is hot and water is cold; why is there hot water but not cold fire? It means that a subject may be a Lord, but a Lord cannot be changed into a subject.
o. The Five Elements having a constant existence, why does fire suddenly disappear? Water is the elder yin; [it represents] punishment, therefore it is constantly existent. Metal is the younger yin, wood the younger yang; their fluid is weak and admit of no change; therefore they are also constantly existent. Fire is the elder yang, infinitesimal and fine, a representation of the Lord of men, representing him as honoured and constantly hidden, as the Son of Heaven abides in the confines of the nine double [walls], guarded by his subjects. [As fire is] concealed in wood, [so the Lord of men] reposes in consideration for others. Wood grows of its own nature, metal requires [the force of] man to be taken out and shaped because the yin, being lowly, cannot of itself take shape.
p. Why is it that wood floats and metal sinks? It expresses the idea of the son being begotten of the mother. Why is it that the liver [corresponding to wood] sinks, and the lungs [corresponding to metal] float? He who knows honours his mother. Another opinion is: The chia [-part of] wood stands in fear of metal; with its i [-part] it is wedded to the kêng [-part of metal], and receives the tranformations by [this] kêng [-part]. Wood follows its original [nature of] being soft and [easy to] bend, it is directly [attached to] its chia [-part], and therefore floats. The liver [, however,] follows [the fact of] its being transformed [by the kêng-part of metal], it is directly [attached to] the i [-part of wood], and therefore sinks. [The kêng-part of] metal stands in fear of fire; with its hsin[-part] it is wedded to the ping [-part of fire], and receives the transformation of [this] ping [-part]. Metal follows its original [nature], it is directly [attached to] its kêng [-part], and therefore sinks. The lungs follow [the fact of] their being transformed [by the ping-part of fire], they are directly [attached to their hsin [-part], and therefore float. [The rest of] all the Five Elements can be likewise explained 86.
81---Man in his Affairs Models Himself on the Five Elements (II A. 7b-9b).
a. Why is it that Heaven 87 is light within and dark without, whereas man is light without and dark within? It means that Heaven and man exercise their influence by their desire to supplement each other.
b. Why are there five elements, whereas there are four seasons? The Four Seasons make up the seasons, the Five Elements make up the joints. So, when wood is 'king' [the corresponding season is] called spring; when metal is 'king' [the corresponding season is] called autumn. Earth, being the most revered, has no [defined] task, as the Lord does not occupy a [defined] department. Therefore the seasons are four.
c. According to what pattern is the child not willing to yield? It patterns itself after the four seasons: fire does not cause earth to flourish, but metal.
d. According to what pattern does the son succeed after the death of his father? He patterns himself after wood, which, terminating [its rule, is succeeded by] fire [taking up] 'kingship'.
e. According to what pattern does the younger brother continue after the death of his elder brother? He patterns himself after summer, which follows upon spring.
f. According to what pattern is [the duty of] treating the capable with goodness extended to the sons and grandsons? It patterns itself after [the fact that] what has come to life in spring acquires its development in summer.
g. According to what pattern is [the principle of] treating the bad with badness limited to the [bad] person himself? It patterns itself after [the fact that] autumn destroys without waiting for the winter.
h. According to what pattern does the Minister assist in the government when the ruler is young? He patterns himself after earth, which exercises authority in the period between the last [month of summer] and the first [month of autumn].
i. According to what pattern does the son revenge [his father]? He patterns himself after earth, which conquers water, and water, which conquers fire.
j. According to what pattern does the son obey his father, the Minister obey his Lord, and the wife obey her husband? They pattern themselves after Earth, which obeys Heaven.
k. According to what pattern does the son not leave his parents? He patterns himself after fire, which does not leave wood.
l. According to what pattern does the daughter leave her parents? She patterns herself after water, which streams away from metal.
m. According to what pattern does a man meet in person the woman whom he takes in marriage? He patterns himself after [the fact that] when the sun sets the yang descends upon the yin.
n. According to what pattern does the Lord yield to his Minister? He patterns himself after the [moon-] month, which after thirty days is given a name [according to] its merits.
o. According to what pattern are the good ascribed to the Lord and the faults to oneself? They pattern themselves after [the fact that, while] the yin and the yang together kill 88 and together beget, it is the yang which has the name of giving life, and it is the yin which has the name of killing.
p. According to what pattern does the Minister ascribe his merits to his Lord? He patterns himself after [the fact that all] light is to be ascribed to the sun.
q. According to what pattern does the Minister admonish his Lord? He patterns himself after metal, which straightens wood.
r. According to what pattern does the son admonish his father? He patterns himself after fire, which makes wood pliable and straight.
s. According to what pattern does the Minister leave his Lord when his admonitions have not been listened to? He patterns himself after water, which, [though] soaking and descending, penetrates upwards.
t. According to what pattern does the Noble Man withdraw from his son but approach his grandson? He patterns himself after wood, which withdraws from fire but approaches earth.
u. According to what pattern do relatives who act as Ministers not leave [their Lord when their admonitions have not been listened to]? They pattern themselves on wood, of which the branches and the leaves do not separate.
v. According to what pattern does the father screen his son? He patterns himself on wood, which conceals fire.
w. According to what pattern does the son screen his father? He patterns himself on water, which detaches itself from metal [and engulfs it.]
x. According to what pattern has the Lord his multitudes of people? He patterns himself on Heaven, which has its multitudes of stars.
y. According to what pattern does the King bestow his favours first on his relatives and close associates, and afterwards on the distant? He patterns himself on the rain from Heaven, from which the highest [parts of the earth] first receive [the benefit].
z. According to what pattern [is there distinction between] old and young? It patterns itself on the Four Seasons, which [each] are divided into the first, the middle, and the last [months].
aa. According to what pattern [is the relation between] friends? It patterns itself after the waters, which assist each other by their flowing together.
bb. According to what pattern do the parents give life to their child and nourish it? They pattern themselves on water, which gives life to wood and rears it.
cc. According to what pattern does the son nourish his parents? He patterns himself on summer, which nourishes the trees; that is: fire nourishing its mother [wood].
dd. According to what pattern does the son not neglect his grandfather's command on behalf of that of his father? He patterns himself after metal, which does not stand in awe of earth, but of fire.
ee. According to what pattern does the yang go leisurely, whereas the yin goes hurriedly? They pattern themselves after the sun, which goes slowly, and the moon, which goes quickly.
ff. According to what pattern is there a division of land but not a division of people? It patterns itself after the Four Seasons, which each have their division [of tasks] while that which produces [the things in them] is [the same] 'connecting' [force] t'ung89; it is as if we speak of tung90 'east', the eastern quarter [being the place where] everything in all under Heaven is given life.
gg. According to what pattern does the Lord take nine women as his wives? He patterns himself after the nine provinces, and resembles 91 Heaven, which bestows [its engendering powers].
hh. According to what pattern does [a man] not marry [a woman of] the same clan-name? He patterns himself on the Five Elements, which, being of different species, engender each other.
ii. According to what pattern does the son wear mourning for his parents? He patterns himself on wood, which withers in the absence of water.
jj. According to what pattern does the mourning last three years? It patterns itself after [the fact that there is] one intercalary month in three years, by which the Way of Heaven is terminated.
kk. According to what pattern does the father wear mourning for his son, and the husband for his wife? They pattern themselves after [the fact that] in one seasonal year the things have their end and beginning, and Heaven's humour changes on their behalf.
ll. According to what pattern does [a man] at sixty close his door [to his wife]? He patterns himself after the yang-force, which declines after six months.
mm. According to what pattern does man possess the Five Reservoirs and the Six Storehouses 92? He patterns himself after the Five Elements and the Six Cardinal Points.
nn. According to what pattern is the eye of man? It patterns itself after the light of sun and moon.
oo. The sun shines at day, the moon shines at night; according to what pattern does the eye of man alternate 93 its light? It patterns itself after the sun, which also alternates its activity.
pp. According to what pattern does the King oversee the descendants of the two [previous] Dynasties? He patterns himself after wood, which needs metal to be straightened, and water to be moistened.
qq. According to what pattern does the enlightened King first give out rewards and afterwards punishments? He patterns himself after the Four Seasons, which first give life and afterwards kill.
1. 五 行 .
2. 行 .
3. Shang shu chu shu, Hung fan, 11. 6b; L. 325.
4. 水, 准 (=凖) .
5. 木, 觸 .
6. 火, 委 隨 .
7. This sentence is superfluous acc. to Liu (73. 1b).
8. 化 .
9. 金, 禁 .
10. 土, 吐 . Liu (73.2a) reads: "Earth [has its position] in the centre. The reason that it is in the centre is because Earth occupies the central [position]. It generally brings forth the ten thousand things. 'Earth' t'u means t'u 'to bring forth' ".
11. Li chi chu shu, 37.20b; C. II. 63, where the text, however, is a little different. Spring represents the east.
12. 地 土 .
13. An Apocryphal Book of the Ch'un ch'iu. The T'ai-i 大 一 'Great Unity' is the state before the separation of Heaven and Earth, acc. to ch. Li yün of the Li chi (chu shu, 22.20a).
14. 母 , inserted by Lu, but Liu (73.2a) wants to insert 尚instead, thus: "it is the highest among the ten thousand things".
15. Shang shu chu shu, Hung fan, 11.6b; L. 325.
16. Considered superfluous by Liu (73.2a-b).
17. I have followed Liu's reading (ibid.).
18. Shang shu chu shu, Hung fan, 11.6b; L. 325.
19. 落 inst. of 諾 (Liu, 73.2b).
20. Li chi chu shu, 14.1a ff; C. I. 330ff.
21. 東 方, 動丨 .
22. 南 方, 任 . Nan and jên are phonetically related (Gr. Ser. nos. 667f and 649).
23. 西 方, 遷丨 .
24. 北 方, 伏 丨 .
25. 寅, 演 .
26. 律, 太 簇, 率 .
27. 卯, 茂, 夾 鍾 .
28. 辰, 震, 姑 洗 .
29. 甲, 乙 .
30. 孚 甲 .
31. 春, 偆, 動 .
32. 角 .
33. 太 嗥 .
34. 勾 芒 .
35. 萌 .
36. This sentence has been placed after the previous one by Ch'ên (4.31 a).
37. 巳, 仲 呂 .
38. 午, 蕤 賓 .
39. 未, 味, 林 鍾 .
40. 丙, 丁, 炳 明, 強 .
41. 夏, 大 .
42. 徵, 止 .
43. 炎 帝 .
44. 祝 融, 屬 續 (Cf. Vol. I, p. 310, n. 225).
45. Cf. for the lüan-bird Vol. I, p. 335, n. 331.
46. 申, 身, 夷 則 .
47. 酉, 老, 南 呂 .
48. 戌, 滅, 無 射, 無 厭 Cf. infra, n.78.
49. 庚, 辛, 更 .
50. 秋, 愁 .
51. 商, 強 .
52. 少 暤, 少 斂 .
53. 蓐 收, 縮, 虎 .
54. 亥, 侅 (=核), 應 鍾 .
55. 子, 孶 .Cf. Vol. 1, p. 270, n. 33, and ch. XXIX, n. 14.
56. 黃 鍾 .
57. 丑, 紐, 大 呂 .
58. 壬, 任, 癸, 揆 度 . Sun I-jang (Tsa i, 10.3a) reads: "kuei 癸 means k'uei 揆 'to measure', [i.e.] 'measurable' k' êe k' uei-tu "可 揆 度.
59. 冬, 終 . .
60. 羽, 舒 .
61. 颛 頊 .
62. 玄 冥, 大 冥 , (inst. of 入 丨; Liu, 73.2b).
63. 體 象 龜 ? (此字為左 "虫" 右 "宅") 也 , Lu's reading of the corrupt text.
64. 戊, 茂, 己 .
65. 宮, 中 .
66. 黃 帝, 后 土 .
67. 鍾, 動 .
68. Sun I-jang (l.c.) reads: "it means that the yang-fluid under the Yellow Sources 'moves in obscurity' 潛 藏 動; it moves and nourishes the ten thousand things". For this whole paragraph 79 cf. Vol. I, p. 47-49, and Han shu, ch. 21A.
69. 呂, 柜 .
70. 蔟, 凑 .
71. 夾, 孚 甲 .
72. 姑, 故, 洗, 鮮 .
73. 蕤，下, 賓, 敬 .
74. 林 鍾, 眾 .
75. 夷, 傷, 則, 法 .
76. 南, 任 .
77. 無 射, 終 .
78. 無 有 終 已 也 . The Han shu, 21A. 7a, explains 射 as 厭 yen 'to scathe' and continues "it means that the yang-fluid, with deep concern for the [ten thousand] things, causes the yin-fluid, to stop oppressing them; they begin again [to rise] after having terminated [their course, that is,] they are unscathed"言 陽 氣 究 物 而 使 陰 氣 畢 剝 落 之 終 而 復 始 亡 厭 已 也 . Hung I-hsüan (o.c. 16.16a) reads 繹 i 斁 or i instead of 終 chung. Cf. also M.H. III. 313, and BMFEA, 14.88.
79. 應, 動 .
80. 生 者 inst. of 王 者(Ch'ên, 4.38a).
81. Probably something is missing in the sentence.
82. 熒 inst. of 榮 (Lu in his Pu i, 5b).
83. 上 should be 土.
84. I have followed Ch'ên's reading (4.40a): 同 时 而 起 託 義 相 生.
85. The quotation cannot be identified.
86. Instead of the corrupt text I have followed Sun I-jang's reading (Tsa i, 10.3a-b): 一 說 云 甲 木 畏 金 金 以 乙 妻 庚 受 庚 之 化 木 者 法 其 本 柔 可 曲 直 甲 故 浮 也 肝 法 其 化 直 乙 故 沈 金 畏 火 以 辛 妻 丙 受 丙 之 化 金 法 其 本 直 庚 故 沈 肺 法 其 化 直 辛 故 浮 五 行 皆 同 義.
87. 天 inst. of 天 子(Ch'ên, 4.42a).
88. ?(此 字 为 “急”加 “攴” 字 旁) inst. of 敘(ib. 4.43a).
89. 通 .
90. 東 .
91. 象 . Probably 丞 (= 承; Lu, Pu i, 5b; Ch'ên 4.44b) is better, thus: "continues [the task of]".
92. Cf. par. 196.
93. 不 is to be dropped.
|<Previous Section>||<Next Section>|
|Published by The Institute for Advanced Technology in the Humanities, © Copyright 2003 by Anne Kinney and the University of Virginia|