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臣所以有諫君之義何? 盡忠納誠也。[《論語》曰]:"愛之能無，勞乎? 忠焉龍無悔乎?"《孝經》曰:"天子有諍臣七人，雖無道不失其天下;諸侯有諍臣五人，雖無道不失其國， 大夫有諍臣三人，雖無道不失其家; 士有諍友，則身不離於令名； 父有諍子，則身不陷於不義。" 天子置左輔、右弼、前(凝)[疑]、後承，以順。左輔主修政，刺不法。右弼主紀，周言失傾。 前凝主糾度定德經。 後承主匡正常, 考變 (天) [失]， 四弼興道，率主行仁。夫陽變於七，以三成，故建三公，序四諍, 列七人。雖無道不失天下，杖(辟)[群]賢也。
諸侯[之臣]諍不從得去何?以屈尊申卑，孤惡君也。去曰:"某質性頑鈍,言愚不任用，請退避賢。"如是 (之是待) [言待之] 以禮，臣待放; 如不以禮待，遂去。君待之以禮宗何? 曰:"予熟思夫子言，未得其道，今予不且留。 聖王之制，無塞賢之路，夫子欲何之?" 則遣大夫送至于郊。必三諫者何? 以為得君臣之義。必得於郊者，忠厚之至也。 冀君覺悟能用之。 所以必三年 [者]，古者臣下有大喪，君 (子) [三] 年不呼其門，所以復言恩。今己所言，不合於禮義，君欲罪之可得也。《援神契》曰:"三諫，待放愎(二干)[三年]，盡惓惓也。 所以言放者，臣為君諱，若言有罪 [而] 放之也。 所諫事已行者，遂去不留。 凡待放[者]，冀君用其言耳。 事已行，(篡各) [災咎] [將] (去) [至]，無為留[之]也。"《易》曰:"介如石，不終日，貞吉。"《論語》曰:"三日不朝，孔子行。" "臣待[放] 於郊 (者)，君 [不] 絕其祿者，示不欲 [其] 去也，道不合，[故去] 耳。[以其] 祿參 [分之] (三) [二] 與之，一留與其妻長子，使(終)[得]祭[其]宗廟。 賜之環則反，賜之玦則去。 明言子重恥也。"《王度記》曰:"反之以玦。其不待放者，亦與之物。 明有 (介主) [分土]，無(介)[分]民也。"《詩》曰: " 逝將去汝，適彼樂土。" 或曰: 天子之臣不得言放，天子以天下為家也。親屬諫不 (待) [得] 放者，骨肉無相去離之義也。《春秋傅》曰:"司馬(皮)[子反]曰: " [君]請處乎此，臣請歸。" "(皮) [反]者、楚公子也，時不(待)[得] 放。
士不得諫者，士賤，不得預政事，故不得諫也。 謀及之，得(固) [因] 盡其忠 耳。《禮 保傅》[曰]:"大夫進諫，士傳民語。"
妻得諫夫者，夫婦[一體]，榮恥共之。《詩》云:"相鼠有體，人而無禮；人 而無禮，胡不遄死?"此妻諫夫之詩也。諫讎從、讎得去之者，本娶妻非為諫正也。故 一與[之]齊，終身不改，此地無去(夫)[天]之義也。
子諫父，[父不從]，不[得]去者，父子一體而分，無相離之法，猶火去木而 滅也。《論語》:"事父母幾諫。"下言"又敬不違"。臣之諫君何取法? 法金正 木也。 子之諫父，法火以揉木也。 臣諫君以義，故折正之也。子諫父以恩，故但揉之 也，木無毀傷也。待放去，取法於水火，無金則相離也。
諫者何? 諫[者]、間也，(因也)，更也。是非相間，革更其行也。人懷五常，故[知]有五諫: 謂諷諫、順諫、窺諫、指諫、(伯) [陷]諫。 諷[諫] 者、智 也。[知]患禍之萌，深睹其事，未彰而諷告[焉]。 此智性也。 順諫者、仁 也 ,出辭遜順，不逆君心。仁之性也。 窺諫者、禮也，視君顏色不悅，且卻；悅 則復前，以禮進退，此禮之性也。 指諫者、信也。指 [者、質也]，質相其事也，此 信之性也。(伯) [陷]諫者、義也，惻隱發於中，直言國之害，勵志忘生，為君不避 喪身, 義之性也。 [故] 孔子曰:"諫有五，吾從諷之諫。"事君進思盡忠，退思 補過，去而不訕，諫而不露。 故《曲禮》曰:"為人臣，讎顯(者) [諫]。"纖微未見於外，如《詩》所剌也。 若過惡已著，民蒙毒螫，天見災變，事白異露，作詩以刺 之，幸其覺悟也。
明王所以立諫諍者，皆為重民而求己失也。《禮 · 保傅》曰:"於是立進善之 (旍) [旌]，懸誹謗之木，建招諫之鼓。" 王法立史記事者，以為臣下之儀樣，人之 所取法則也。勳則當應禮，是以必有記過之史，徹膳之宰。《禮·玉藻》曰:“動則左 史書之，言則右史書之。"《禮·保傅》日:"王失度，則史書之，(士)[工]誦 之,三公進讀之，宰夫徹其膳。"是以天子不得為非。 故史之義不書[過]則死，宰不 徹膳亦死。 所以謂之史何? 明王者使為之也。謂之宰何? 宰、制也。使制法度也。宰所 以徹膳何? 陰陽不調，五穀不熟，故王者為不盡味而食之。《禮》曰:“一穀不升，不 備(鶏) [鶉]鷃；五穀不升，[不備鳧雁];[三穀不升]，[不備雉兔]； [四穀 不升]，[不備囿獸]; [五穀不升]，不備三牲。"人臣之羲，當掩惡揚美，所以 記君過何? 各有所緣也。 掩惡者、謂廣德宣禮之臣。
所以為君隱惡何? 君至尊，故設輔弼，置諫官，本不當有遺失。 故《論語》曰: " 陳司敗問:" 昭公知禮乎?" 孔子曰:" 知禮。" "此為君隱也。君所以不為臣隱何?以為君之於臣，無適無莫，義之與比。賞一善而眾臣勸，罰一惡而眾臣懼。 若為卑隱, 為不可殆也。 故《尚書》曰:" (必)[畢]力賞罰，以定厥功。" 諸侯臣對天子, 亦為隱乎? 然本諸侯之臣，今來者為聘間天子無恙，非為告君之惡來也。故《孝經》曰:" 將順其美，匡救共惡。故上下治，能相親也。" 君不為臣隱, 父獨為子隱何? 以為父子一體，而分榮恥相及。 故《論語》曰:" 父為子隱，子為父 隱，直在其中矣。" 兄弟相為隱乎?曰: 然。與父子同羲。故周公誅四國，常以祿甫為主也。朋友相為隱者，人本接朋結友，為欲立身揚名也。 朋友之道[有]四焉，通財不在其中。 近則正之，遠則稱之，樂則思之，患則死之。夫妻相為隱乎?《傳》曰:" 曾 [子]去妻，黎蒸不熟。" 問曰:" 婦有七出，不蒸亦預乎?" 曰:" 吾聞之也，絕交 令可友，棄妻令可嫁也。黎蒸不熟而已，何間其故乎? 此為隱之也。"
101---The Meaning of Admonitions (11 B. 1a-b).
a.Why is a Minister in duty bound to admonish his Lord? It is in order that he may [thereby] show his utmost loyalty and express his sincerity. The Lun yü says: "How can he [be said truly to] love who exacts no effort [from the objects of his love]? How can he [be said truly to] be loyal who refrains from admonishing [the object of his loyalty]?" 1 The Hsiao ching says: "If the Son of Heaven has among his servants seven who [dare to] admonish him, though he has not the [right] Way, he will not lose his [possession of] all under Heaven; if a Feudal Lord has among his servants five who [dare to] admonish him, though he has not the [right] Way, he will not lose his state; if a great officer has among his servants three who [dare to] admonish him, though he has not the [right] Way, he will not lose his family; if a common officer has a friend who [dares to] admonish him, a good name will not cease to be connected with [his character]; and if a father has a son who [dares to] admonish him, he will not be endangered into [performing] unprincipled actions" 2. b.The Son of Heaven appoints an 'Assistant of the Left' tso-fu, an 'Aid of the Right' yu-pi, a 'Questioner of the Front' ch'ien-i, and a 'Helper of the Back' hou-ch'eng3, to conform to ..... 4. c.The Assistant of the Left supervises the right execution of the government, and censures what is not according to the rule. The Aid of the Right supervises the correction of [the Son of Heaven's] injurious 5 words, and [remonstrates with him, on his] partiality. The Questioner of the Front supervises the correction of measures, and fixes the canon of virtue. The Helper of the Back supervises the adjustment [of incorrect acts], and constantly examines deviations 6. The Four Aids 7 [contribute to the] flourishing of the Way, and assist in the practising of consideration for others. d.Now the yang receives its transformation in the seventh [month] and its completion in the third. Therefore [the Son of Heaven] sets up the Three Ducal Ministers and ranges the Four Warners 8, [thus] arraying seven men, so that even if he does not practise the Way he will not lose [his possession of] all under Heaven because he uses his host of worthies as his [supporting] staff.
102---To Offer One's Resignation After Three Futile Warnings (11 B. 1b-2b).
a.Why is it that when a Minister of a Feudal Lord admonishes and is not listened to he has the right to leave? Bowing before his superior he upholds [his,] the inferior ['s intention], and leaves the bad ruler alone 9. b.[The Minister] takes leave by saying: "I, So-and-so, have a nature which is blunt indeed", meaning therewith that he is stupid and useless, and [therefore] asks to be allowed to resign. When a worthy [Minister] acts thus the ruler should treat him with ceremony while the Minister awaits his dismissal. If he is not treated with ceremony then he leaves forthwith. c.How should the ruler treat him with ceremony? He says: "I have considered [thy,] my Master's words maturely, but do not yet grasp their meaning. Now thou dost not even want to stay. The Sage-kings have ordained that the road of the worthy should not be blocked. Whither dost thou, oh Master, wish to go?" Then he sends a great officer to escort him to the suburb 10. d.Why must [the Minister] have warned thrice [before he leaves]? It is in order that the [proper] relation between ruler and subject may be [fully] observed 11. That [even after his dismissal] he should wait in the suburb is [a sign of] his utmost loyalty and forbearance: he [still] hopes that his Lord will repent and use him [again]. e.[When he is not called back], he must wait three years [before entering the service of another Lord] because anciently, when a servant was observing great mourning, "his ruler for three years did not knock at his door [to summon him]" 12, and so he returns his master's kindness. Now what he has said [to his ruler] may not be in conformity with rites and propriety, and his ruler may want to indict him for it. The Yüan shên ch'i says: "After three [futile] warnings [to resign and] to wait for dismissal, but to return again within three years, is [a sign of] the utmost devotion". f.[The Minister is] said to be dismissed because the servant wants to screen his master. It is as if it is said that he has committed a crime, and [on that account] is dismissed. g.When the affair against which [the Minister] has warned has taken its course he simply leaves without [trying] to be stopped. For the waiting for a dismissal only [applies to the case when the Minister still] hopes that his Lord will use his advice. [But] when the events have taken their course, and calamities and disaster are on the point of coming, there is no reason to stop. The I says: "Firm as a rock; not [waiting until] the end of the day; integrity [bears] good fortune" 13. The Lun yü says: "[The people of Ch'i sent to the Duke of Lu a present of female musicians and fine horses, which the Duke accepted and in consequence of it] for three days did not hold a court. Confucius took his departure" 14. h.[During the time that] the Minister awaits his dismissal in the suburb the ruler does not cut off his revenue, to indicate that he does not want him to leave, but that it is only a [case of] dis- agreement of ways. Two thirds of the revenue are given to him, one third is retained and handed over to his wife and eldest son, that they may [continue the] sacrifice in the ancestral temple. i.When [the Minister, awaiting his dismissal, is] given the [jade ring] huan it is a sign that he may 'return' fan; when he is given the [jade half-ring] chüeh it is a sign that he must 'go' ch'ü15. It means that the Noble Man values his integrity. The Wang tu chi says: "He is called back by (sending him a jade ring; when he is not allowed to return he is given) a half-ring" 16. That during the time that he awaits his dismissal 17 he is still presented with some object means that though there may be a separation of territory he is not separated from the people 18. The Shih says: "It has gone so far that I intend to leave thee, going to that happy land" 19. j.Another opinion is: A Minister of the Son of Heaven may not be said to be dismissed [and expelled] because the Son of Heaven regards all under Heaven as his home. k.When a near relative has [vainly] remonstrated he is not allowed 20 [to offer his] dismissal, on the principle that [men of the same] bones and flesh cannot be separated. The Ch'un ch'iu chuan says: "Ssŭ-ma Tzŭ-fan said [to King Chuang of Ch'u]: 'If [you, my] Lord, want to stay here, I beg leave to return' " 21. Tzŭ-fan was a son of the Duke [Mu] of Ch'u [and brother of King Chuang], and at that time he had not the right to offer his dismissal 22.
103---A Common Officer has No Right to Admonish (11 B. 2b).
A common officer has no right to admonish because [his position is] lowly, and he may not take part in deliberations on the affairs of state; therefore he has no right to admonish. It is only when [the decision of] the deliberations reaches him that he is allowed to display his loyalty to the utmost by conforming himself to it. The Li pao fu says: "The great officer brings forward his admonition, the common officer transmits the words of the people" 23.
104---The Wife Admonishes Her Husband (11 B. 2b-3a).
A wife has the right to admonish her husband because they form one body and share with each other glory and shame. The Shih says: "Look at the rat; it has limbs. A man without decorum, a man without decorum, had best quickly die" 24. This is a poem of a wife admonishing her husband 25. When her admonition is not listened to she may [,however,] not leave him because the aim of taking a wife is not in order to be corrected by her admonitions. Therefore "once mated to him she is never to change [her state of life]" 26. This [corresponds with] the principle that Earth is never separated from Heaven.
105---The Son Admonishes the Father (11 B. 3a).
a.When a son remonstrates with his father, and the latter does not listen, he has not the right to leave because father and son, though separated, form one body. They cannot possibly separate, as fire cannot leave wood without being extinguished. The Lun yü [says]: "In serving one's parents one may gently remonstrate with them, using humble words, [but when not listened to] one must increase one's deference and not leave them" 27. b.According to what pattern does the Minister admonish his ruler? He models himself on metal, which straightens wood. The son admonishing his father models himself on fire, which makes wood pliable. The Minister admonishes his ruler on account of his duty, therefore he cuts off to make him straight; the son admonishes his father on account of his love, therefore he only softens him. The wood is not to be hurt or injured. [The Minister who is not listened to and after] awaiting his dismissal leaves 28 models himself on water and fire, which, without [the mediation of a vessel of] metal remain separated from each other 29.
106---The Five Kinds of Admonitions (11 B. 3a-4a).
a.What does chien 'to admonish' mean? Chien means chien 'to alternate', kêng 'to change' 30. As good and evil alternate, so one's conduct can be changed. b.Man harbours the Five Constant [Virtues], so we know that there are five kinds of admonitions. The first is called 'Allusive Admonition', the second 'Conciliatory Admonition', the third 'Watching Admonition', the fourth 'Indicating Admonition', the fifth 'Daring Admonition' 31. c.The Allusive Admonition indicates wisdom 32. To know the beginnings of a disaster, to watch attentively the process not yet visible, and to warn in covered terms, such is the nature of wisdom. The Conciliatory Admonition indicates consideration for others 33. To utter words in conformity with and not contradictory to the ruler's inclination, such is the nature of consideration for others. The Watching Admonition indicates ceremonial behaviour 34. To retreat when one sees that the ruler does not show a pleased countenance, and to go forward again when he shows kindness; to approach and withdraw with ceremony, such is the nature of ceremonial behaviour. The Indicating Admonition indicates sincerity 35. Chih 'to indicate' means chih 'simplicity' 36. To admonish [in the conviction that one] attends to one's duty in simplicity, such is the nature of sincerity. The Daring Admonition indicates duty 37. The feeling of solicitude finds its expression in straightforwardness. In speaking of the dangers of the state to hold fast to one's will and to forget one's life, for the sake of one's Lord not to shun death, such is the nature of duty. d.Therefore Confucius said: "There are five kinds of admonitions. I follow the Allusive Admonition" 38. e.In serving a ruler one must, when employed, constantly think of displaying one's loyalty to the utmost; when retired, one must constantly think of correcting one's faults 39; when discharged, one must abstain from slander; and when admonishing, one must not divulge [the ruler's mistakes bluntly]. Therefore the Ch'ü li says: "As the servant of man one does not address one's admonition in a direct way" 40. f.When [the ruler's faults are] small and not yet visible to the outside world [then he is admonished in the same way] as [some] song can censure [in general]. When his faults and bad behaviour have already manifested themselves, and the people suffer [from oppression as] from poisonous insects; when Heaven shows ominous signs, and strange phenomena are reported to appear, then [special] songs are made to censure him, in the hope that he may awake to consciousness.
107---The Meaning of Recording the Errors and Diminishing the Dishes (11 B. 4a-b).
a.The reason why an enlightened King appoints warners is that he has regard for the people['s needs] and wishes to be corrected for his faults. The Li pao fu says: "For this reason [the King] erects a standard to bring forward capable men, a stick on which to hang complaints, and a drum to summon warners" 41. b.The reason that according to the royal rule a Recorder 42 is appointed to note down [the King's] doings is to furnish a pattern for his Ministers, and to provide a standard for man. In his conduct he ought to conform himself to ritual rules; for this purpose there must be a Recorder who registers his faults, and a Steward who diminishes the number of his dishes of food 43. The Li yü tsao says: "The actions [of the Son of Heaven] are written down by the Left Recorder, his words are written down by the Right Recorder" 44. The Li pao ju says: "When the King has sinned against the rules the Recorder writes it down, the Music-master composes a poem on it, the Three Ducal Ministers bring it forward and read it, and the Steward diminishes the number of his dishes. In this way the Son of Heaven is prevented from committing errors" 45. Therefore, if the Recorder fails in his duty to write down the faults he is put to death. And if the Steward does not diminish the number of his dishes he is put to death also. c.Why is the Recorder called shih? It means that the King 'orders' shih him to do [as he does] 46. d.Why is the Steward called tsai? Tsai means chih 'to regulate' 47. He is ordered to regulate the rules and measures [for the King's repasts]. e.Why does the Steward diminish the number of the dishes [of the Son of Heaven when he has committed a fault]? If the yin and the yang are not in harmony the Five Species of Grain 48 will not ripen. Therefore the King cannot relish [his food] and eat to repletion. The Li says: "When one species of grain does not grow [the meat of] quails may not be prepared [for the kitchen of the Son of Heaven]. When two species of grain do not grow [the meat of] wild ducks may not be prepared. When three species of grain do not grow [the meat of] pheasants and hares may not be prepared. When four species of grain do not grow [the meat of] the animals of the [King's] park may not be prepared. When [all the] five species of grain do not grow [the meat of] the three victims may not be prepared" 49. f.If it is the duty of the servant of man to conceal the vices [of his Lord] and to proclaim his virtues, why [is it also the Recorder's duty to] note down his faults? Either [duty] has its raison d'être; to conceal the vices [of the Lord] is said of the servant who ['s task it is to] extend the spiritual power [of his ruler] and to propagate ritual [behaviour].
108---The Meaning of Screening Vices (11 B. 4b-5b).
a.Why must [the Minister] screen the vices of his Lord? The Lord is the most exalted, therefore he appoints counsellors and warning officials, the purpose of which is that [as a ruler] he should not commit errors. The Lun yü says: "The Minister of Crime of Ch'ên asked whether Duke Chao [of Lu, who had married a daughter of the House of Wu bearing the same surname, thus committing a glaring violation of the rules,] knew the rites. Confucius said: He did" 50. This is [an instance of] screening [the vices of] a ruler. b.Why does not the Lord screen his subject? Because the attitude of the ruler towards his subjects should be such that "he has neither enmities nor affections but ranges himself beside right" 51. The reward of one good act [is enough to] stimulate all his subjects, the punishment of one evil act [is enough to] frighten them. If he should screen his inferiors there would be no [authority to] be feared. Therefore the Shang shu says: "I will certainly exert my strength in rewards and punishments to consolidate what [my ancestors] have accomplished" 52. c.Does the Minister of a Feudal Lord also screen [the vices of his ruler] before the Son of Heaven? Yes, for the purpose of a Minister of a Feudal Lord going to court is to inform after the health of the Son of Heaven, and not to make a report of his Lord's wickedness. Therefore the Hsiao ching says: "[The Minister] follows in the wake of his [ruler's] virtues, and when he corrects him [it is only] to save him from evil. Hence superior and inferior are able to have affection for each other" 53. d.Since the Lord does not screen his subject, why is it only in the case of a father that he [is allowed to] screen his son? Because father and son, though separated, form one body and share each other's glory and shame. Therefore the Lun yü says: "A father screens his son, and a son his father; therein will be found uprightness" 54. e.Do brothers screen each other? Yes, on the same principle as do father and son. Therefore, when the Duke of Chou was punishing [the rebellion of] the Four States he constantly took Lu-fu to be the ring-leader 55. f.Friends screen each other because the aim of forming ties of friendship is the cultivation of one's personality and the contribution to each other's fame. g.Friendship finds its expression in four ways, and the sharing of wealth is not [yet] included among them 56. [The first is] to keep [a friend] straight when he is near; [the second is] to praise him when he is far; [the third is] to participate in his happiness; [the fourth is] to be ready to die for him in his distress. h.Do husband and wife screen each other? The Chuan says: "Tsêng-tzŭ divorced his wife for not cooking the li [-vegetable] 57 properly. [Some one] asked him: There are seven [reasons for] divorcing a wife 58; is [a case of] not cooking [properly] also provided for? [Tsêng-tzŭ] said: I have heard that bonds of friendship are severed in order to seek another friend, and wives are rejected in order to seek another mate. Mine is only a case of not cooking the li [-vegetable] properly. Why must thou ask for [other] reasons" 59? This is an instance of screening [a wife's real guilt].
1. Ch. XIV. 8, Lun yü chu shu, 14.4a; L. 278; Wa. 181 (whose translation is here followed).
2. Hsiao ching chu shu, Chien chêng, 7.4a; L. 483. Legge says in a note: "The numbers 7, 5, 3, 1 cannot be illustrated by examples, nor should they be insisted on". In fact, the Hsün tzŭ (15.91), gives the numbers 4, 3, 2, 1.
3. 左 輔, 右 弼, 前 疑, 後 承 . They are called 四 鄰ssŭ-lin 'the Four Neighbours' in the Shang shu ta chuan (1.24b). The Ta tai li chi (3.4b) gives them the names of 道tao, 充ch'ung, 弼pi, 承ch' êng (Wilhelm, p. 220, translates: Rat, Stärker, Warner, Helfer). The Li chi (C. I. 474; L. I. 350) calls them 師 shih, 保 pao, 疑 i, 丞ch'êng.
4. 以 顺 . The text is probably corrupt (Lu).
5. 害 inst. of 周(Lu).
6. Ch'en (5.19a) suggests to read 變 失 pien-shih inst. of 丨夫pien-fu in the text, where fu seems to introduce the next sentence.
7. 四 弼 ssŭ-pi. Cf. n. 3.
8. 四 諍 ssŭ-chêng. Cf. n. 3.
9. Ho Hsiu's comm. on Chuang 24 says: "When he is not listened to [the Minister] may leave because he [only] serves in order that the Way may prevail. When the Way does not prevail it is his duty not to [stay and] eat the bread of charity. To uphold the intention of the worthy he leaves the bad ruler alone" (Kung yang chu shu, 8.15b).
10. Cf. the Mêng tzŭ, IVb. 3 (L. 318).
11. Probably taken from the Kung yang chuan, Chuang 24. Ho Hsiu adds that the three warnings are analogous to the moon beginning to be visible three days after its disappearance (Kung yang chu shu, 8.15b).
12. Kung yang chu shu, Hsüan 1, 15.4a-b. Cf. ch. XLII, par. 286e.
13. Chou i chu shu, Yü kua, 4.7a; L. 91.
14. Ch. XVIII. 4, Lun yü chu shu, 18.3a; L. 332. Cf. M.H. V. 328-329.
15. For the jade ring and half-ring see Laufer, Jade, p. 210, fig. 110-116, 117. Huan 環is homophonous with huan還 ('to return', synonym of fan 反); chüeh玦 is homophonous with chüeh 絕 ('to cut off', synonym of ch'ü 去'to let go'). See Gr. Ser. nos. 256k and 312c, 296a. The Hsün tzŭ (19.65) says: "A man is cut off by [sending him] a jade half-ring, the cutting off is renounced by [sending him] a jade ring".
16. The words between round brackets are supplied by Ch'ên (5.21b).
17. 不 is superfluous (ibid.).
18. I.e., he may go to another state, but he still belongs to his ruler's subjects. It only applies to a Minister of the Son of Heaven, for whom all people are his subjects.
19. Ode 113: Mao shih chu shu, 9.13a; L. 172; K. 16.206. Mao's Preface, however, says that the Ode represents the remonstrations of the people against the heavy exactions.
20. 待 should be 得.
21. Kung yang chu shu, Hsüan 15, 16.15b. This conversation took place during the siege of the capital of Sung; Tzŭ-fan wanted to save the city and withdraw. Cf. also M.H. IV 243 and 356, and Vol. I, p. 322, n. 280.
22. He only expressed his intention to return.
23. Ta tai li chi, 3.3b; Wi. 219, where the first part of the passage reads: "The musicians bring in the recitals their direct admonitions."
24. Ode 52: Mao shih chu shu, 4.25b; L. 85; K. 16.188; Wa. 299.
25. Mao's Preface, however, says the Ode is meant as a correction by Duke Wên of Wei of the manners of his Ministers.
26. See ch. Chiao t'ê shêng of the Li chi (C. I. 607; L. I. 439). 齊 ch'i 'equal' and 妻ch'i 'consort' are cognate words (Gr. Ser. nos. 592a and d).
27. Ch. IV. 18, Lun yü chu shu, 4.5b; L. 170; Wa. 105. For the translation of 不 違 (Legge: "not abandon his purpose"; Waley: "not thwart them") by "not leave them" 不 去, see Lun yü chêng i, 5.106.
28. 木 should be 去(Lu's Pu i, 6a).
29. I.e., the ruler is 'fire', the Minister is 'water', 'metal' covers them: water is set going by fire when put in a metal boiler.
30. 諫, 閒, 更 . Chien is 閒 explained as tai 代 by Chêng Hsüan in his comm. on the I li (chu shu, P'ing li, 8.98a).
31. 諷 諫 fêng-chien, 顺 丨 shun-chien, 闚 丨k'uei-chien,指丨 chih-chien, 陷丨hsien-chien. Inst. of hsien-chien, which is the reading of the Ch'u hsüeh chi, adopted by Lu, Hung I-hsüan (Tu shu ts'ung lu, 16.16a) wants to retain the reading of the Yüan ta-tê ed. (4.10b): 伯丨 po-chien, in which po =迫 =陌 , thus 'Urgent Admonition'. For different names of the Five Admonitions see Kung yang chu shu, Chuang 24, 8.15b, and Chia yü, 3.18b.
32. 智 chih.
33. 仁 j ên.
34. 禮 li.
35. 信 hsin.
36. 指, 質 .
37. 義 i.
38. Cf. Chia yü, l.c.: "If I were to determine which is the best [of the Five Admonitions] to put into practice I would follow the Allusive Admonition".
39. Cf. Hsiao ching, Shih chün (L. 486), and Tso chuan, Hsüan 12 (L. 315).
40. Li chi chu shu, 5.16a; C. I. 96.
41. Ta tai li chi, 3.3b; Wi. 219.
42. 史 shih.
43. 徹 膳 之 宰 ch' ê-shan-chih-tsai. Cf. the Chou li (B. I. 70), Li chi (C. I. 711, 712), Ta tai li chi (Wi. 219), Hsin shu (Pao ching t'ang ed. 5.5a-b), Han shu (Dubs II. 304). See also ch. VI, par. 50b.
44. Li chi chu shu, 29.5b; C. I. 679. The Han shu, 30.18b gives the reverse order. The records of the actions are called 春 秋 ch'un-ch'iu, those of the words are called 尚 書 shang-shu (cf. Pelliot, Le Chou king en caractères anciens, p. 124, n. 1.).
45. Ta tai li chi, 3.4b; Wi. 219.
46. 史, 使 . This is not the traditional explanation (see Analytic Dictionary of Chinese, no. 885)! Cf. Gr. Ser. no. 971a-c.
47. 宰 tsai , 制 chih .
48. 五 榖 wu-ku, see Bretschneider, Botanicon Sinicum, II. 137.
49. The quotation cannot be identified, but cf. the somewhat similar statements in Ku liang chu shu, Hsiang 24, 16.9a, and Han shih wai chuan, 8.7b.
50. Ch. VII. 30, Lun yü chu shu, 7.12a; L. 204.
51. Cf. Lun yü IV. 10 (L. 168; Wa. 104, whose translation I followed; see also Mullie, Le mot-particule 之 tche, § 120-121).
52. 必 力 賞 罰 以 定 厥 功 . Probably a quotation from the New Text version of ch. T'ai shih (see Shang shu chin ku wên chu shu, 10.99, cf. Legge's transl. of the Book of History, 298). The Shang shu ta chuan (2.1a) writes 戮 (=勠) 力 , etc.; the Shih chi (4.7b; M.H I. 225, n. 2) 畢 立, etc. A somewhat similar statement also occurs in ch. K'ang wang chih kao (Ku ming) of the Shu ching, L. 565.
53. Hsiao ching chu shu, Shih chün, 8.4a-b; L. 486.
54. Ch. XIII. 18, Lun yü chu shu, 13.18b; L. 270. Cf. Waley's transl. p. 176, and infra, n. 56.
55. By the Four States is meant the fiefs given to the three brothers of the Duke of Chou and to Wu-kêng (Lu-fu), the descendant of the Yin Sovereign, cf. supra, ch. XI, n. 2 and 34. The story is very complicated, see Shang shu chin ku wên chu shu, 30.101-102. Cf. also Hu Shih, Shuo ju (Hu shih lun hsüeh chin chu, I. 11-12).
56. 不 在 其 中 pu-tsai ch'i-chung. Waley takes tsai-ch'i-chung to be an untranslatable idiom "used of results that occur incidentally without being the main object of a certain course of action" (Analects, p. 235, cf. supra, n. 54), but the possibility for the expression to be used with a negative seems to speak against this explanation.
57. 黎 (=藜) , acc. to Bretschneider (o.c. II. 261) the Chenopodium album, of which the young leaves may be eaten.
58. I.e, disobedience to the parents of her husband, barrenness, lewdness, jealousy, incurable disease, loquacity, thievishness (see Ta tai li chi, Wi. 248).
59. The quotation cannot be identified. A somewhat similar passage occurs in Chia yü, 9.2b, where, moreover, the reason for divorcing the wife is positively stated, viz. the fear that, where she already fails in such a trifling matter as cooking, the more she would fail in important affairs.
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