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天 [子] 所以(以)親射何? 助陽氣達萬物也。春，[陽] 氣微弱，恐物有窒塞不 能自達者。夫射自內發外，貫堅入剛，象物之虫，故以射達之也。
天子所以射熊 何? 示服猛、[遠]巧佞也。熊為獸猛。巧者、非但當服猛也，示當服天下巧佞之臣 也。
諸侯射麋者[何]? 示 (達) [遠]迷惑人 [者]也，麋之言迷也。
士射鹿豕者 [何]? 示除害也。
大夫士兩射者? [大夫士俱] 人臣，示為君親視事， 身勞苦也。
侯者以布為之何? [布者]、用人事之始也。 本正則 (未) [未] 正矣。
所以名 [之] 為侯 [者] 何? 明諸侯有不朝者，則 [當] 射之。故《禮》射祝曰:" 嗟爾不寧侯，爾不朝 王所，以故天下失業。 亢而射爾。"
所以不射正身何? 君子重同類，不忍射之， 故(畫)[畫]獸而射之。
射 (主) [正] 何為乎? 曰: 射義非一也。夫射者、執弓堅固，心平體正，然後中 也。二人爭勝, 樂以德也。
(故射選士大)。 夫勝者、發近而制還也。其兵短而害長也，故可以成難也。所以必因射肋陽選 士者, 所以扶助微弱而抑其強，和調陰陽，戒不虞也。
何以知為戒難也?《詩》 云:" 四矢反兮，以禦亂兮。"
射於堂上何? 示從上制下也。《禮》曰: " 賓主執弓請升，射於兩楹之間。"
天子射百二十步，諸侯九十步，大夫七十步, 士五 十步。[所以]明尊者所服遠也，卑者所(服)[制]近也。
所以十月行鄉飲酒之禮何? 所 [以] 復尊卑長幼之羲。春夏事急，(俊) [浚]井 次墻，至有子使父，弟使兄，故以事閑暇，復畏幼之序也。
王者父事三老，兄事五更者何? 欲陳孝悌之德以示天下也。 故雖天子必有尊也,言 有父也; 必有先也，言有兄也。
天子臨辟雍，親 (祖) [袒] 割牲，尊三老，父象也。 (竭忠) [謁者] 奉几杖，授安車 (濡) [輀] 輪。(恭)[供] 綏執授，兄事五更， 寵接禮交加, 客謙敬順貌也。《禮記 · 祭羲》曰:" 祀于明堂，所以教諸侯之孝 也。 享三老、五更于太學者，所以 [教] 諸侯 [之] 悌也。"
不正言父兄，言(五) [老]、粟者何? 老者、壽考也。 欲言所令者多也。更者、更也，所更曆者眾也。
即 如是，不但言老言三何? 欲言其明於天地人之道而(走)[老]也。五更者、欲言其明 於五行之道而更事也。
三老、五更幾人乎? 曰:" 各一人。" "何以知之?" 既以父 事，父一而已，不宜有三。"
XIII. District Archery
109---The Son of Heaven Practises Archery in Person (II B. 5b).
Why does the Son of Heaven in person practise archery? To aid the yang-fluid in stimulating the ten thousand things. In spring the yang-fluid is small and weak, and it is to be feared that the [ten thousand] things, meeting obstructions, will not be able to come out by their own strength. Now in archery [the arrow proceeds] from the inside to the outside, it pierces and enters the solid and hard [target, thus] resembling the bringing forth of [nascent] things. Therefore by means of archery they are stimulated [to come out].
110---The Target (II B. 6a-b).
a. The Han wên chia says: "The Son of Heaven shoots at [a target with the picture of] a bear; a Feudal Lord shoots at [a target with the picture of] a stag; a great officer shoots at [a target with the picture of] a tiger and a leopard; a common officer shoots at [a target with the picture of] a deer and a boar" 1.
b. Why does the Son of Heaven shoot at [a target with the picture of] a bear? It indicates that he suppresses the ferocious and keeps at a distance the cunning and artful. As the bear is an animal [which is at the same time] ferocious and cunning, so [the Son of Heaven] should not only suppress the ferocious but also 2 the cunning and artful among his subjects in all under Heaven.
c. Why does a Feudal Lord shoot at [a target with the picture of] a 'stag' mi? It means that he keeps the deceitful and doubtful at a distance. Mi 'stag' means mi 'deceitful' 3.
d. Why does the great officer shoot at [a target with the picture of] a tiger and a leopard? It means [that his task is] to suppress the ferocious.
e. Why does the common officer shoot at [a target with the picture of] a deer and a boar? It means [that his task is] to eliminate the harmful.
f. Each takes [from the shooting at his target] the spiritual power with which to be able to subdue [evil].
g. Why is it that the great officer and the common officer in archery use [a target with the figures of] two animals? Both are the servants of man; it means that on behalf of their Lord they have to attend to their affairs and to toil and moil personally.
h. Another opinion is: The subject represents the yin; therefore his number is even 4.
i. Why is the target made of cloth? Cloth is the first thing man uses for his needs. When the beginning is right the end will be right also 5.
j. Why [is the target] called hou6? It means that when among the 'Feudal Lords' chu-hou7 there are those who do not pay court-visits they ought to be shot. Therefore the Li shê chu says: "Alas, thou art not a peaceable Lord, thou dost not present thyself at the King's court, therefore thou shalt be pointed out and shot" 8.
k. Why is not the real body shot at? The Noble Man has esteem for his fellow-beings, and cannot bear to shoot at them. Therefore he draws pictures of animals to shoot at.
111---The Meaning of Archery (II B. 6b-7a).
a. What is to be done in order [to be able] to hit the mark? The rules of archery are not [limited to] one; [but] in general [it may be said that] when one is about to shoot one should hold the bow strongly and firmly, "set his heart at ease and straighten his body" 9, whereafter he will [certainly] hit the mark.
b. When two men contest the victory they will rejoice [in being able] to cultivate their spiritual power 10. The winner and the loser, descending [from the platform on which the archery takes place], honour each other by the ceremonial giving of precedence.
c. Thus the choice of [worthy] officers can be made. [For, though in an archery-contest] the marksman 11 only covers a smail distance [with his shot] the regulating power [which is implied] reaches far. And though as a weapon [the arrow is short] it can hurt at long range. Therefore danger can be averted [with it]. It is necessary that by means of archery the yang be aided and [worthy] officers be chosen, in order to support the weak and petty and suppress the forceful, to harmonize the yin and the yang, and to be ready for the unforeseen.
d. How do we know that [by means of archery] danger can be averted? The Shih says: "The four arrows [of his set] come [one after the other] to the same place, [thus showing that he is able] to stop rebellion [in all the four quarters of the state]" 12.
e. By means of archery one practises [the correct use of] rites and music 13.
f. Why does archery take place on a platform? To show that regulations proceed from the high to the low. The Li says: "The guest and the host take the arrow in their hands, and invite each other to ascend [the platform]. They shoot from between the two pillars [of this platform[" 14.
g. The Son of Heaven shoots [his arrow from a distance of] one hundred and twenty paces, a Feudal Lord [from a distance of] ninety paces, a great officer [from a distance of] seventy paces, and a common officer [from a distance of] fifty paces. It means that the controlling [-power] of the superior reaches far, that of the inferior [only] a short way.
112---The District Feasting (II B. 7a).
Why is it that in the tenth month the ritual of the district feasting is performed. 15? To restore the correct relations between superior and inferior, and between old and young. In spring and summer work is pressing: wells have to be dug and the tz'ŭ [-plant] 16 has to be grown on the walls, so that sons are obliged to invite [the help of] their fathers, and younger brothers [that of] their elder brothers. Therefore with [the arrival of] the time of leisure the distinction between seniors and juniors is restored 17.
113--- The Meaning of Entertaining the Old (II B. 7a-8a).
a. Why is it that the King serves the san-lao 三 老 as his father, and the wu-kêng 五 更 as his elder brother 18? He wishes his feelings of filial piety and fraternal love to be manifested in all under Heaven. Therefore, though Son of Heaven, he must have one to whom he gives honour, namely a father, and one to whom he yields precedence, namely an elder brother.
b. When the Son of Heaven proceeds to the pi-yung19 he person- ally bares his arm to kill the victim, [thus] honouring the san-lao, who represents his father 20. [At the departure] the usher offers [the san-lao] a stool, a stick, and a comfortable carriage the wheels of which are wrapped in rushes, [while the Son of Heaven] hands him the cord [wherewith to ascend the vehicle]. The serving of the wu-kêng as if he were the [King's] elder brother consists in granting him a ceremonial reception, but added to it the King bears the modest, respectful, and reverential demeanour [due] to a guest 21. The Li chi chi i says: "The sacrifice in the ming-t'ang serves to teach the Feudal Lords filial piety; the feasting of the san-lao and the wu-kêng in the Great College serves to teach them fraternal love" 22.
c. Why are they not plainly called father and elder brother, but lao and kêng? Lao means shou-k'ao 'advanced in age' 23; it means that those whom [such an old man] can order about are many. Kêng means 'to change'; the things which [in the life of such an old man] have changed are numerous 24.
d. It being so, why are they not simply called lao 'old', but is the word san 'three' added to it? It expresses the idea that [the san-lao] has grown old in the understanding of the ways of Heaven, Earth, and Man. [The expression] wu-kêng means that he has experienced the change of things by his understanding of the way of the Five Elements 25.
e. How many persons do the san-lao and the wu-kêng represent? Each represents one man 26. How do we know it? Because [it is stated that the san-lao is] served like a father. There is only one father, and it is not proper to have three.
1. Cf. Chêng Hsüan's comm. on the I li (chu shu, Hsiang shê li, 5.61b; C 169; St. 1. 115), and see also Chou li chu shu, 41.21b-23a, 7.7b-8a (B. II. 546-548, 1. 138-139) and K'ung Ying-ta's sub-comm. in Li chi chu shu, Shê i, 62.9aff.
2. 亦 inst. of 示 (Lu).
3. 麋, 迷 , (see Gr. Ser. no. 598e-f).
4. This is also Chêng Hsüan's opinion, see n. 1.
5. l.e., cloth being one of man's first inventions its use for the target means respect for antiquity.
6. 侯 .
7. 諸 侯 .
8. Chou li chu shu, Tzŭ jên, 41.23b; B. II. 548. Cf. also Li chi chu shu, Shê i, 62.8b (C. II. 676; L. II. 450), which gives a different explanation.
9. Li chi, Shê i, l.c.
10. Cf. Lun yü III. 7, and Li chi, C. II. 679.
11. Lu reads 勝 者, Ch'ên (5.31 a) 射 者.
12. Ode 106: Mao shih chu shu, 8.31a; L. 162; K. 16.205.
13. See Li chi (C. II. 671 and 677), I li (C. 101ff., 212ff.; St. I. 51ff., 150ff). The important thing is not the actual shooting but the ceremonial behaviour before, during, and after it (including keeping time with the music).
14. Probably from the I li (chu shu, Hsiang shê li, Chi, 5.63a; C. 169), where the statement is somewhat different. The target was placed below the platform, the 'stands from where to shoot' wu 物 were between the two pillars on the platform.
15. Ch'ên (5.32a) distinguishes four kinds of district feasting: 1. the feasting of the worthy and able every three years after the termination of their studies (referred to in I li, ch. Hsiang yin chiu li); 2. the feasting offered by a great officer of a district to the worthy of the country (referred to in Li chi, ch. Hsiang yin chiu i); 3. the feasting connected with the archery-game held by the chief of a 'province' chou in spring and autumn (referred to in Chou li, ch. Chou chang); 4. the feasting connected with the cha-sacrifice in the 12th month (referred to in Chou li, ch. Tang chêng). The feasting here related seems to be this last one, see also Chêng Hsüan's comm. on the Chou li (chu shu, 12.4a) and Li chi (chu shu, 17.15b).
16. 次 (=茨) . A creeping plant, growing on the walls, which cannot be brushed away or removed. Legge (Book of Poetry, p. 74) and Bretschneider (Botanicon Sinicum, 11.60 and 243) identify it as the Tribulus terrestris.
17. In the Chou li, 12.4a this restoration of the precedence of the seniors is described as 正 齒 位 chêng ch'ih-wei.
18. san-lao , wu-kêng .
19. See ch. XV.
20. Cf. ch. Yüeh chi of the Li chi (C. II. 102), where about the same statement occurs, but with t'ai-hsüeh inst. of pi-yung.
21. Approximately the same statement as this one (beginning from "honouring the san-lao") occurs in Liu Chao's comm. on the Hou han shu (Ssŭ-ma Piao's section 志, 4.7b) as a quotation from the Yüan shên ch'i. Cf. also Ho Hsiu's comm. in Kung yang chu shu, Huan 4, 4.17b.
22. 老 者 壽 考 也 Li chi chu shu, 48.12b; C. II. 310, where for 'feasting' 食shih is used instead of 享 hsiang here. The sacrifice in the ming-t'ang (for which see ch. XV) was for King Wên, acc. to Chêng Hsüan's comm. Both the san-lao and the wu-kêng are here served like elder brothers. In fact, the terms were interchangeable (Chêng Hsüan in Li chi chu shu, 39.16a, K'ung Ying-ta, ibid., 17b).
24. The Tu tuan (2d sect. 7b) says: " 更 Kêng means 長 ch'ang 'long [span of life', wu-kêng means] 更 相 代 至 五 'the generations which [he has seen] changing successively amount to five', 能 以 善 道 改 更 己 'he is able to change himself by being well versed in the Way"'.
25. Sung Chung's comm. on the Yüan shên ch'i (see n. 21) says: "the san-lao is an old man who knows the affairs of Heaven, Earth, and Man ........ the wu-kêng is an old man who knows the affairs of the alternation 更 代 of the Five Elements" (cf. also Vol. I, p. 51).
26. This is also Chêng Hsüan's opinion (comm. on ch. Wên wang shih tzŭ, Li chi chu shu, 20.30a). Ts'ai Yung (quoted by K'ung Ying-ta, o.c. 33a), however, takes the san-lao to consist of three men, and the wu-kêng of five.
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