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王者易姓而起，必升封泰山何? (教) [報]告之義也。 始受命之時， 改制應天，天下太平，功成封禪以告太平也。
必於其上何? 因高告高，順其類也。 故升封者，增高也。 下禪梁甫之山基，廣厚也。刻石紀膿者，著己之功跡也， 以自效放也。天以高為尊，地以厚為德。 故增泰山之高以 (放) [報]天，附梁甫之基以報地。明天地之所命，功成事 (遂) [就] 有益於天地， 若高者加高，厚者加厚矣。
或曰: 封者金泥銀繩。或曰: 石泥金繩，封[之]以印璽。
封者、[附]廣也。言禪者， 明以成功相傳也。梁甫者、太山旁山名。正於梁 甫何? 以三皇禪於繹繹之山，明己成功而去， 有德者居之。 繹繹者、無窮之意也。 五 帝禪于[亭亭之山]。亭亭者、制度審諟，[道] 德著明也。 三王禪于梁甫之山者， 梁、信也，甫、輔也。[信]輔天地之道而行之也。
太平乃封，知告于天，必也於岱宗 何? 明知易姓也。刻石紀號， 知自紀于百王也。
燎祭天，報之羲也。望祭山川，祀群神 也。《詩》云:" 於皇明周，陟其高山。" 言周太平封太山也。又曰:" 墮山喬嶽，允 猶翕河。" 言望祭山川，百神來歸也。
天下太平，符瑞所以來至者，以為王者承 [天] 統理，調和陰陽，陰陽和， 萬物 序，休氣充塞，故符瑞並臻，皆應德而至。
德至 地，則嘉禾生，翼莢起，秬鬯出，太平感 。
德至山陵，則景雲出，芝實茂，陵出(異) [黑] 丹。阜出(蓮甫) [躉莆]， 山出器車，澤出神鼎。
德至淵泉，則黃龍見，醴泉 (通) [涌]，河出龍圖，洛出龜書，江出大貝， 海出明珠。
德至八方，則祥風至，佳氣時 喜, 鐘律調, 音度施，四夷化，越裳貢。
孝道童，則以(蓮甫) [蕙蒲] [出庖廚]， [躉莆]者、樹名也，其葉大於鬥扇， 不搖自扇，於飲食清涼，肋供養也。
繼嗣平 (明)，則賓連生於房戶。賓遽[闊達]者、木名[也]， [其狀] 連累相承，故 (在) [生]於房戶，象繼嗣也。
日曆得其分度，則翼 (以) 莢生於階間。 蓂莢 [者]、樹名也。 月一日(生)一莢[生]，十五日畢。至十六日(去)[一]莢 [去]，故莢階[而]生，(似)[以][明]日月也。
狐九尾何?狐死首丘, 不忘本也。明安不忘危也。必九尾者也, 九妃得其所， 子孫繁息也。 於尾者何?明 後當盛也。
嘉禾者、大禾也。 成王時，有三苗異畝而生,同為一穟, 大幾盈車， 長幾充箱，民有得而上之者，成王訪周公而問之。公曰:三苗為一穟，天下當和為丁乎? "以是果有越裳氏重九譯而來矣。
[鳳凰者、禽之長也]，[上有明王]，[太平乃來]，[居廣都之野]。[雄鳴曰節]，[雌鳴足足]，[小音中鐘]，[大音鼓]，[遊必擇地)，[飢不妄食]。[黃帝之時]， [鳳凰蔽日而至]， [東方止於柬園]，[食常竹實]，[栖常梧桐]，[終身不去]。
XVIII. The Fêng- and Shan-Sacrifices
126. The Meaning of the Fêng- and Shan-Sacrifices (5.1a-2a; 3 .1a-2a; 6.17b-20b)
a. Why is it that when the King has changed the name [of the former Dynasty for his own] and has set himself up [as the founder of a new Dynasty, his duty is] to ascend Mount T'ai and to offer the fêng-sacrifice? [The reason is to express] the idea of showing [his gratitude] and of reporting [his success] 1. On the very day 2 that he receives the mandate [of Heaven to ascend the throne], he changes the institutions [of the previous Dynasty, acting thereby] in response to [the will of] Heaven. In all under Heaven general peace [has been restored], and his efforts have come to a successful end: [now] he offers the fêng- and shan-sacrifices to announce [the accomplishment of this] general peace 3.
b. Why must [the sacrifice be offered] on Mount T'ai? It is the place where the ten thousand things originate and where [the yin and the yang] alternate 4.
c. Why must [the fêng-sacrifice take place] on the top [of Mount T'ai]? Taking advantage of the height [of the mountain] the announcement is made to the high [Heaven, thus acting] in conformity with the latter's nature. Therefore by ascending [the mountain and erecting on its top an altar] for the fêng-sacrifice its height is increased; by descending [the mountain and erecting an altar] for the shan-sacrifice at the base of [the peak of] Liang-fu its solidity is added to 5. At both [sacrifices] a stone is engraved recording the appellations [of the King and his predecessors], to show the results of their accomplishments, and to stimulate themselves to more toil 6. Heaven is honoured for its height; Earth owes its beneficent qualities to its solidity. Therefore the height of mount T'ai is increased [by an altar] that thank[-offerings] may be presented to Heaven 7; to the base of [the peak of] Liang-fu is added [an altar] that thank[-offerings] may be presented to Earth. It means [that when in conformity with what] Heaven 8 has commanded the King has accomplished his aim and brought his task to a successful end 9 [his duty is to] add to [the greatness of] Heaven and Earth; in the case of the high he adds to the height [of Heaven, in the case of] the solid he adds to the solidity [of the Earth].
d. Some say: "At the fêng-sacrifice a gold stamp [is used with] silver bindings". Others say: "A stone stamp [is used with] gold bindings and sealed with a seal" 10.
e. Therefore Confucius says: "When I climbed Mount T'ai and made an inspection of the [number of] Kings who had [announced] the change of [the dynastic] name, [I discovered that] those who could be counted amounted to more than seventy Lords" 11.
f. Fêng means kuang 'to broaden' 12. The use of [the word] shan means that by successful achievement [the Empire] will be transmitted [from ruler to ruler] 13. Liang-fu is the name of a side-peak of Mount T'ai. Why is it [that the shan-sacrifice is performed] on this very peak of Liang-fu 14? The Three August Ones performed the shan-sacrifice at mount I-i, meaning that after they had brought their efforts to a successful end they went to the powerful [mountain] to stay there [for the sacrifice] 15. [The name] l-i carries the meaning of inexhaustibility 16. The Five Emperors performed the shan-sacrifice on mount T'ing-t'ing 17. T'ing-t'ing means that the rules and regulations have been carefully examined, and that the virtuous influence [emanating from the possession] of the [right] Way has manifested itself brilliantly 18. The Three Kings performed the shan-sacrifice on mount Liang-fu. Liang means hsin 'sincere' 19; fu means fu 'to assist' 20. [The Kings] sincerely assisted in the display of the Way of Heaven and Earth 21.
g. After general peace [has been restored] the fêng-sacrifice is performed, [by which] we know that the announcement to Heaven is necessary. Why [are the fêng- and shan-sacrifices performed] on [Mount] Tai-tsung? To make it clearly known that the [dynastic] name has been changed 22. The engraving on stone to record the [new] appellation is to show that he [as new King] is [now] registered among the Hundred Kings.
h. The burnt offering to Heaven 23 has the meaning of [conveying feelings of] gratitude. [At the same time] 24 the wang-sacrifice is offered to the mountains and rivers, while the host of spirits are worshipped 25. The Shih says: "Ah, august is this [Lord of the House of] Chou, he ascends the high mountain" 26. It indicates that when [the House of] Chou [had restored] general peace, a fêng-sacrifice was offered to Mount T'ai. [The Shih] again says: "[And sacrifices are offered to] the smaller and higher peaks, [one after the other] relying on the charts; [then] a joint sacrifice to the rivers" 27. It indicates the wang-sacrifice to [all] the mountains and rivers, to the host of spirits and the returning [souls] 28.
127. The Appearance of Lucky Omens 29. (5.2a-4a; 3 .2a-4a; 6.20b-24a)
a. The reason that lucky omens appear when general peace prevails in all under Heaven is, because the King is assisting Heaven in the regulation [of things] and the harmonization of the yin and the yang 30. When the yin and the yang are in harmony the ten thousand things will be in hierarchic order, and the [blissful] fluid will permeate [everything]. Therefore, when lucky omens appear one after another, [it is a sign that] they have come in response to the spiritual influence [exercized by the King].
b. When the [King's] spiritual power affects Heaven, then the Pole Star becomes brilliant, sun and moon shed their illustrious light, and the Sweet Dew descends [from above] 31.
c. When his spiritual power affects Earth, then the Auspicious Grain begins to grow, the ming-chieh arises, the chü-ch'ang appears, and the hua-p'ing flourishes 32.
d. When his spiritual power affects the eight barbarian regions, then the Luminous Star becomes visible, and the Five Planets follow their prescribed courses 33.
e. When his spiritual power affects the vegetation, then the Vermilion Grass begins to grow, and there will be trees intertwining 34.
f. When his spiritual power affects the birds and quadrupeds, then the fêng-huang begins to fly, the lüan-bird dances, the ch'i-lin arrives, the White Tiger comes, the Nine-tailed Fox and the White Pheasant appear, the White Deer is visible, and the White Crow descends 35.
g. When his spiritual power affects the mountains and hills, then the Luminous Cloud appears 36, the chih [-plant] bears fruit and blooms 37, the hills produce multi-coloured [minerals] 38, the high plains produce the sha-fu39, the mountains produce the Natural Carriage 40, and the lakes produce the Spiritual Tripod 41.
h. When his spiritual power affects the wells and sources, then the Yellow Dragon appears, the Source of Fragrant Wine begins to flow 42, the [river] Ho produces the Dragon Chart, the [river] Lo produces the Turtle Book 43, the [river] Chiang produces the Great Shell, and the sea produces the Brilliant Pearl 44.
i. When his spiritual power affects the eight directions, then the Auspicious Wind comes 45, agreeable air [blows like] a seasonal boon, the bells and pitch-pipes sound harmoniously, the tonal rules receive their [strict] observation, the Four Barbarian Tribes 46 are converted, and the Yüeh-shang 47 bring their tribute.
j. When his filial behaviour reaches its consummation, then the sha-ju grows in the kitchen ['s quarters] 48. Sha-fu49 is the name of a tree. Its leaves are larger than the leaves of a door. Without [the tree] being shaken they fan the drinks and the food, keeping them fresh and cool, [thus] assisting in the nourishment [of man].
k. When the [King's] descendants [are treated] equally 50, then the pin-lien grows at the doors of his chambers. Pin-lien is the name of a tree. It has interlacing and mutually connecting [branches]. Therefore it grows 51 at the doors of his chambers, symbolizing the continuity of his progeny.
l. When the calendar obtains its [correct] divisions, then the ming-chieh52 grows in the interstices of the stair's steps. Ming-chieh is the name of a tree. Each day of the month there grows one pod 53, terminating with the fifteenth day. Starting with the sixteenth day one pod falls off [daily] 54. Therefore it grows in the interstices of the steps to mark the days and the month 55.
m. When the King causes the worthy not to fall short of [their tasks] 56, and not to trespass on each other's positions, then the p'ing-lu grows in the court-yard. P'ing-lu is the name of a tree. It blooms when the right man is in the right place, it dies when the wrong man is in the wrong place 57.
n. What is the Nine-tailed Fox? When a fox dies it turns its head towards the hill [where it was born]; it does not forget its [place of] origin. It means that in comfort a man must never lose sight of calamities [impending] 58. Why must [this fox appear] with nine tails? When the nine concubines [of the King each] receive their proper places, his sons and grand-sons will enjoy abundant peace. Why [is the emphasis laid] upon the tail? It is to indicate that his posterity shall be numerous 59.
o. The Luminous Star is a large star. The moon is invisible at times, but the Luminous Star is constantly to be seen, so that man can work at night, and the people derive profit from it 60.
p. The Sweet Dew is a beneficent dew. When it descends all things flourish 61.
q. The Vermilion Grass is grass of deep-red colour. It may be used to paint [clothes] red, in order to distinguish between high and low 62.
r. The Source of Fragrant Wine is a beneficent source. The appearance [of the liquid] is like the unfermented wine, and it may be used as a nourishment for the old 63.
s. The Auspicious Grain is a large [sort of] grain. In the time of King Ch'êng there were three sprouts which, from different plots, grew into one ear. It was almost large enough to fill a carriage, and almost high enough to occupy the box [of the vehicle] 64. When the people found it and presented it [to the throne] King Ch'êng summoned 65 the Duke of Chou and questioned him about it. The Duke said: "Three sprouts growing into one ear! All under Heaven is sure to attain harmonious unity"! Afterwards 66, ac- tually the yüeh-shang 67, having traversed several foreign regions 68, came to the court [of Chou].
t. 69The fêng-huang is the chief among the birds. When above there is an enlightened King, and general peace [prevails], then it appears. It lives in the wilds of Kuang-tu 70. The male's cry is: chieh; the female's cry is: chu-chu. Its soft cry [resembles the sound of] a middle-sized bell; its loud cry [resembles the sound of] a drum. When it roams it is always punctilious in choosing its ground, [even] when it is hungry it never consumes food haphaz- ardly. In the time of Huang-ti a fêng-huang, in its flight to the east, concealed the [light from the] sun. It rested in the Eastern Garden, constantly feeding on the seeds of bamboo, and constantly roosting in the wu-t'ung [tree] 71. Never did it leave until the death [of Huang-ti].
1. 報 告 之 義 也 . The Y. ed. has 教 instead of 報. Lu's emendation. The Wu ching t'ung i by Liu Hsiang (quoted by the T'ai p'ing yü lan, 536.1b; also in the Yü han, 52.4b) says: "Mount T'ai is the chief of the Five Mountains, and the Lord of the host of spirits ( 群 神 之 主; the Yü han has 宗 instead of 主); therefore the fêng-sacrifice is only performed on Mount T'ai; [at the sacrifice] announcement of the [prevailing] general peace is made to Heaven, and thanks are returned for the labours of the host of spirits" 告 太 平 於 天 報 群 神 之 功 . The same work, quoted in the Tpyl, 39.6a (Yü han, 1.c.), says: "[the King] returns thanks for the labours [of Heaven and Earth] and announces his achievement" 報 功 告 成.
2. 日 . The Y. ed. has 时. Lu's correction.
3. About the same is said by the Fêng su t'ung i, ch. 正 失 (2.3a) where, however, the text is faulty, and ch. 五 嶽 (10.1b) where the text reads: 王 者 受 命 易 姓 改 制 應 天 功 成 封 禪 以 告 天 地 "When the King has received the mandate [of Heaven], he changes the name [of the previous Dynasty], and changes its institutions. [Having acted] in response to [the will of] Heaven his efforts have come to a successful end, [and now] he offers the fêng- and shan-sacrifices to announce it to Heaven and Earth".
4. 萬 物 之 始 交 代 之 處 也 . The Y. ed. has 所 instead of 之 始 . The Fêng su t'ung i (10.1b) reads: 萬 物 之 始 陰 陽 交 代. The Wu ching i i (quoted in the Tpyl, 39.6a; Yü han, 52.4b): 東 方 萬 物 始 交 代 之 處 "The East is the place where the ten thousand things originate and interchange". Mount T'ai 泰 山 is in the present province of Shan-tung, the eastern part of China. The East is the place where the sun rises, it is the origin of all life-engendering forces.
5. 故 升 封 者 增 高 也 下 禪 梁 甫 之 基 (the Y. ed. has 山 基 ) 廣 厚 也 . Ch. 禮 器 of the Li chi (chu suh, 24.8a; C.I. 563) contains the statement: 因 天 事 天 因 地 事 地 "in conformity with Heaven a sacrifice is offered to Heaven; in conformity with Earth a sacrifice is offered to Earth", explained by Chêng Hsüan as meaning: 天 高 因 高 者 以 事 也 地 下 因 下 者 以 事 也 "Heaven is high, and in conformity with [the nature of] the high it is served; Earth is low, and in conformity with [the nature of] the low it is served", which is again explained by Lu Tê-ming in his 音 義 (o.c. 8b) as: 因 天 體 之 高 以 高 處 以 事 天 地 體 卑 下 因 卑 下 之 處 以 事 地 . "in conformity with the height of Heaven's body Heaven is served on a high place; Earth's body is low, and taking advantage of a low place Earth is served". The Fêng su t'ung i (2.3a-b) says: 必 於 其 上 示 增 高 也 … 下 禪 梁 甫 禮 祠 地 主 … 示 增 廣 也. "[that the fêng-sacrifice] must be performed on the top [of Mount T'ai] is to show that its height is increased . . . . at the base [of the mountain] the shan-sacrifice takes place on [the peak of] Liang-fu, where the Lord of Earth is ritually worshipped . . . to show that the solidity [of Earth] is increased" (增 廣is probably an error for 增 厚, cf. the 增 厚 of the Po hu t'ung where 廣, used verbally, is synonymous with 增). This statement by Ying Shao is quoted, with slight variations, in the Commentary on the Ch'ien han shu, Annals of Wu-ti (6.25b), and translated by Dubs (The History of the Former Han Dynasty, II. 86. n. 25.1) as: "[The sacrifice] fêng [was performed] on top of it, to show [that the Emperor] had increased in greatness. . . . [The Emperor] descended [the mountain and performed the sacrifice] shan at [Mount] Liang-fu. . . ., worshipping the Ruler of Earth, to show that he had increased the breadth [of his territory]". Professor Dubs' rendering of 增 高 and 增 廣 is incorrect, see infra and cf. his own note 16.3 (o.c. p. 66). Cf. moreover what Fu Ch'ien 服 虔 (quoted in the Commentary of the Hou han shu, 志, 7.6a) says: 封 者 增 天 之 高 歸 功 於 天 "the fêng-sacrifice [is performed by] increasing the height of Heaven, and giving [the honour of the achieved] merit to Heaven", and the still clearer text of the Sui shu (quoted in the Tpyl, 536.7b): "the fêng- and shan-sacrifices are concerned with what is high and what is solid. Heaven is honoured for its height, Earth owes its beneficent qualities to its solidity. The height of Mount T'ai is increased to give thank-offerings to Heaven; the base of [the peak of] Liang-fu is made more solid to give thank-offerings to Earth". Acc. to K'ung Ying-ta's Sub-comm. on ch. 禮 器 of the Li chi (chu shu, 24.9b) the fêng-sacrifice took place on an elevated altar t'an 壇, while for the shan- sacrifice a 'level base' shan 墠 is made, for which earth has been removed 除 地 為 墠 . The names of the altars have even led to the names of the sacrifices. So the Commentary in the Hou han shu, Annals of Kuang-wu-ti (1 下. 28b) says: 封 謂 聚 土 為 壇 墠 謂 除 地 而 祭 改 墠 為 禪 神 之 也"Fêng means that earth is gathered [and heaped up] for an elevated altar; shan means that earth is removed to [make the place of] sacrifice; [the word] shan [indicating the level base] is changed into shan [indicating the sacrifice], because it is imbued with spiritual power". Cf. however the explanation of shan given by the Po hu t'ung, infra n. 309. The difference between t'an and shan is explained by Chêng Hsüan in his Comm. on ch. 祭 法 of the Li chi (chu shu, 16.9b) in the same way as K'ung Ying-ta. It seems that, in general, t'an and shan are indiscriminately used for altar (Tz'ŭ hai, 丑. 196). The size of the altar for the fêng-sacrifice is given with many variations: 50 feet in diameter and 9 feet high (Le T'ai chan, 20), 120 feet wide and 20 feet high (Ying Shao in the Comm. on the Ch'ien han shu, 1.c.; the Fêng su t'ung i (2.3a) wrongly gives 120 feet wide and 3 feet high), 12 feet wide and 9 feet high (Ch'ien han shu, 25 上.37a; Ying Shao, in Comm. Ch'ien han shu, 6.25b, says this was the altar erected by Wu-ti). It was round, whereas the altar for the shan-sacrifice was square (Le T'ai chan, 20-21). Mount T'ai is, for the rest, only 1545 metres high (ibid., 4).
6. 皆 刻 石 紀 號 者 著 己 之 功 跡 以 自 効 也 . Lu's reading of the text, which in the Y. ed. omits 皆, has 也 after 跡, and 效 放 in stead of 効. K'ung Ying-ta's Sub-comm. on ch. 禮 器 of the Li chi (chu shu, 24.9b), quoting this statement of the Po hu t'ung, writes 勸 instead of 效 放. The Fêng su t'ung i (2.3a) has 著 己 績, the T'ung tien (54.310) 著 己 功 績 'to show his accomplishments'. Dubs (o.c. 86. n. 25.1) translates 紀 號 occurring in Mêng K'ang's Comm. (Ch'ien han shu, 6.25b) by 'recording his words', but K'ung Ying-ta (1.c.) paraphrases it as: 紀 錄 當 代 號 謚 'to record in engraving the appellation [of the present ruler] and the posthumous names [of the previous rulers] of the reigning Dynasty'. Ying Shao (quoted in the Commentary of the Ch'ien han shu, 1.c.) writes 紀 績, translated by Dubs as 'to record his achievements', but it is probably a contamination, for the text in the Fêng su t'ung i (2.3a) has: 紀 號 著 己 績 也'to record his appellation and therewith to show his accomplishments'. The sentence 刻 石 紀 號 is acc. to Chêng Hsüan's Comm. (Li chi chu shu, 24.8a) from some Commentary on the Hsiao ching 孝 經 說, acc. to K'ung Ying-ta an Apocryphal Work on the Hsiao ching (o.c. 9b).
7. 以 報 天 . The Y. ed. has 放 instead of 報. Lu's correction.
8. The Y. ed. has 天 地 instead of 天. Corr. by Lu.
9. 功 成 事 就 . In the Y. ed. 遂 is written instead of 就. Lu's corr.
10. The Fêng su t'ung i (2.3a) has only 金 泥 銀 繩 印 之 璽 'a gold stamp with silver bindings and sealed with a seal', which is evidently a contamination of the fuller Po hu t'ung text. Mêng K'ang's Comm. in the Ch'ien han shu, 1.c., reads in Dubs' translation (1.c.) "there was the sealing (feng) of a golden document on a stone envelop (han 函) with a golden mortar [seal] on a jade envelop top (chien 撿)". These brief descriptions gives us no clear idea of what the sacrifice really was. According to Chavannes (Le T'ai chan, 22-24) five jade tablets were inscribed and piled up one upon the other. They were held together by jade slabs of the same size on the top and at the bottom, then fastened with gold bindings. The whole was afterwards put in a box of jade, and this again in a stone box consisting of three rectangular pieces, which was then held together by ten stone laths and three gold bindings. The stone box was finally secured by twelve stone beams of each ten feet long, which in four layers of three beams pressed it on four sides. This seems to have been the practice during the Han, and the second description of the Po hu t'ung (stone stamp, gold bindings) roughly corresponds with it. The first description (gold stamp, silver bindings) applies, according to Ch'ên, to the custom during the Chou and before, which hypothesis is, of course, not based on fact.
11. 故 孔 子 曰 升 泰 山 觀 易 姓 之 王 可 得 而 數 者 七 十 有 餘 君 . In the Y. ed. 君 is missing. This legend has been repeatedly and variously told. The Shih chi contains two statements. One (28.5a-b) reads in Chavannes' translation (M.H. III. 423): "Dans l'antiquité, ceux qui ont fait le sacrifice Jong sur le T'ai-chan et le sacrifice chan sur le mont Leang-fou, ont étć au nombre de soixante-douze personnes, mais ceux dont moi, I-ou, je me souviens, sont au nombre de douze". The Shih chi seems to have copied this passage from the Kuan tzŭ, ch. 封 禪, which has, however, been lost since the beginning of the T'ang. See the 管 子 校 正 by Tai Wang 戴 望 1837-1873 (5.53). A similar statement is now found in ch. 地 數 of the Kuan tzŭ (3.83): "The fêng-sacrifice is offered on Mount T'ai, the shan-sacrifice on [the peak of] Liang-fu. The Kings who have performed these fêng- and shan-sacrifices [number] seventy-two Houses. The number of those who have gained and lost [their empires] are comprised herein". This chapter, acc. to Forke, Geschichte der alten Chinesischen Philosophie, 75, belongs to the nineteen sections of which the character is doubtful. Lo Kên-tsê includes it among the sections which he takes to have been composed in the period between Emperors Wu and Chao (Ku shih pien, IV. 622). The other statement (28.7a) reads in Chavannes' translation (o.c. 427): "K'ong-tse recensa et transmit à la postérité les six ouvrages canoniques; un récit traditionnel dit en abrégé que parmi ceux qui devinrent rois en fondant une dynastie de nom nouveau, ceux qui firent le sacrifice jong sur le T'ai-chan et le sacrifice chan sur le mont Leang-fou furent au nombre de plus de soixante-dix". The Ch'un ch'iu fan lu (7.21a-b) says: "[The number of] those who performed the fêng-sacrifice on the top of Mount T'ai and the shan-sacrifice at the base [of the peak] of Liang-fu, having assumed kingship by changing the [Dynasty's] name, and whose spiritual power was like [that of] Yao and Shun, amounted to seventy-two". Ying Shao's Fêng su t'ung i (2.2b) relates that "Confucius said that [the number of those who performed] the fêng-sacrifice on Mount T'ai and the shan-sacrifice on [the peak of] Liang-fu which could be counted amounted to seventy-two". The same statement is repeated verbatim in his Han kuan i, 下.13a ( 平 津 館 叢 書 ed.). Chang Hua 張 華 (232-300) in his 封 禪 議 (quoted in the Tpyl, 536.11b) says: "Those who have climbed Mount T'ai [number] seventy-four [Lords of Dynastic] Houses, [the number of those] whose posthumous names and appel- lations can be known amounts to fourteen". Finally the Han shih wai chuan (quoted by Chang Shou-chieh's 正 義 on Shih chi, 28.5b, and in an abbreviated form by Ssŭ-ma Chêng in his supplementary chapter in the Shih chi, M.H. I. 20) states the following: "When Confucius climbed Mount T'ai and made an inspection of those who assumed kingship by changing the [former Dynasty's] name ( 觀 易 姓 而 王) [he found that the number of] those who could be counted amounted to more than seventy persons, [while the number of those] who could not be counted amounted to tens of thousands".
12. 封 者 廣 也 . Mêng K'ang (I.c.) explains fêng by ch'ung 崇 'to elevate' (Dubs 1.c.). Mao's Chuan (Mao shih chu shu, 26.12a) explains fêng by ta 大 'great', so also K'ung An-kuo's Chuan (Shang shu chu shu, 2.15b) and Tu Yü's Commentary (Tso chuan chu shu, 52.28b). For further examples see Juan Yüan's Ching chi chuan ku, p. 22. The Commentary of Wei Chao (197-278) on the Kuo yü (Chin yü, 14.6b) explains fêng as hou 厚 'to privilege'. Kuang, ch'ung, ta, hou (literally 'thick, to make thick') all convey the idea of 'aggrandizement'.
13. 言 禪 者 明 以 成 功 相 傳 也 . The explanation of 禪 as 傳 'to transmit' is also given by Kao Yu's Commentary on the Huai nan tzŭ (10.10b). In the Books of Mencius, ch. 萬 章 上(Mêng tzŭ chu shu, 9 下. 5a; L. 361)禪is likewise used in this sense. The Po hu t'ung thus disagrees with the explanation of in the Commentary on the Hou han shu (which also occurs in the Commentary on ch. 保 傳 of the Ta tai li chi, 3.10b), cf. n. 301.
14. 正 於 梁 甫 何 . Acc. to Ch'ên 正 is superfluous.
15. 明 已 成 功 而 去 有 德 者 居 之 . The Sub-comm. on ch. of the Li chi (1.c.), quoting the Po hu t'ung, says: 禪 於 有 德 者 而 居 之 無 窮 已"[The three August Ones] performed the shan-sacrifice on the powerful [mountain] and stayed there without end", which reading is undoubtedly inferior to that of the Po hu t'ung.
16. 繹 繹 者 無 窮 之 意 也 . Mount I-i is probably the same as Mount I 嶧 in present Shan-tung, which in 219 B.C. was climbed by Ch'in Shih huang-ti, who had an inscription made on stone (Shih chi, 6.14b; M.H. II. 140). It was probably a range of mountains, which could suggest the idea of never-ending heights. The Fêng su t'ung i (2.3b) explains I-i differently: 繹 繹 者 無 所 指 斥 也 I-i means irreproachable".
17. 五 帝 禪 於 亭 亭 之 山 . The last four words are missing in the Y. ed.
18. 亭 亭 者 制 度 審 諟 道 德 著 明 也 . The Y. ed. omits 道. Instead of 諟 the Sub-comm. on ch.禮 器( Li chi chu shu, 1.c.) writes 諦. The Comm. on the Ta tai li chi, ch. 保 傳 (3.10b), quoting the Po hu t'ung, says that t'ing-t'ing means that "the rules for virtuous [conduct] have been examined and made known" 德 法 審 著.
19. (in the Y. ed. order is reversed) 信 也. The identification is probably through the homophony of 梁 and 良, both pronounced liang (*1 iang, Gr. Ser. 735a and 738a). The two words are sometimes used interchangeably, so the name of the famous charioteer Wang Liang is written 王 良 in the Books of Mencius (Mêng tzŭ chu shu, 6 上.2a; L. 262) and 王 梁 in ch 正 論 of the Hsün tzŭ (18.72). Liang 良 'good' is often used in the meaning of nsin 信'sincere' (see for examples the Ching chi chuan ku, p. 311).
20. 甫 者 (the Y. ed. omits 者)輔 也. The Fêng su t'ung i (2.3b) writes 梁 父, and explains it by 信 父 , i.e., that the words exchanged between father and son should be sincere.
21. 信 (missing in the Y. ed.) 輔 天 地 之 道 而 行 之 也. Ch. 封 禪 of the Shih chi (28.5a-b; M.H. III. 423-424) contains a statement, according to which all the twelve Sovereigns whom Kuan Chung or Kuan I-wu could remember and enumerate, performed the shan-sacrifice at Mount Yün-yün 云 云 (which may be identified with Mount I-i), with the exception of Huang-ti, who used Mount T'ing-t'ing, Yü 禹, who used Mount Kuei-chi 會 稽, and King Ch'êng, 成 who used Mount Shê-shou 社 首(for Kuei-chi see M.H. I. 162. n. 4; for Shê-shou M.H. III. 424. n. 5 and Le T'ai chan, 21).
22. A pun on the words tai 岱 in Tai-tsung 岱 宗 and tai 代 meaning 'to replace, change'. The Fêng su t'ung i (10.1b) explains 岱 by 長 chang 'chief'. "Tai-tsung is [only another name for] Mount T'ai" Ssŭ-ma Ch'ien explains in his quotation from the Shu ching (Shang shu chu shu, 2.10a; L. 35; Shih chi, 28.1b; M.H. I. 62; III. 415). Mount T'ai or Tai-tsung is one of the Five Sacred Mountains.
23. 燎 祭 天 . The Shu ching (1.c.) uses 柴 chai instead of 燎 liao. Acc. to Ho Hsiu's Comm. on Kung yang chuan, Hsi 31, the liao 'burnt offering' consisted of seven parts of the victims (少 牢, i.e. a pig and a sheep), which were burnt together with the precious jade kuei 珪(Kung yang cha shu, 12.28b).
24. The sacrifices to the mountains, rivers, etc. are all offered at the same time (K'ung An-kuo's Chuan in Shang shu chu shu, 2.5b), namely on the occasion of a 'Tour of Inspection' hsün-shou 巡 守. Acc. to K'ung Ying-ta's Sub-comm. on ch. 禮 器(Li chi chu shu, 24.9a) the Jêng- and shan-sacrifices must be performed on this Tour of Inspection, but only when general peace prevails. Otherwise it is omitted. The passage from the Shu ching referred to in n. 321, and the quotations from the Shih ching infra (see n. 322 and 323) describe such a Tour of Inspection, but the Po hu t'ung makes the latter refer to the performance of the fêng- and shan-sacrifices also.
25. 望 祭 山 川 祀 群 神 也 . Cf. the almost similar passage in the Shu ching (Shang shu chu shu, 2.5b; L. 34). The 望 wang-sacrifice was offered to 'the famous mountains and great streams of the nine provinces, namely the Five Sacred Peaks and the Four Rivers (the Chiang 江, the Ho 河, the Huai 淮, and the Chi 此 字 为 “水” 字 旁 加 “齊”, which all open to the sea)', see K'ung An-kuo's Chuan and K'ung Ying-ta's Sub-comm. in Shang shu chu shu, 1.c. and 9a. The Ch'un ch'iu, Hsi 31, mentions the 三 望, which Tu Yü holds to be the sacrifice to 'certain stars, with the mountains of Lu and its rivers' (Tso chuan chu shu, 16.9a; L. 219). Kung-yang sees in it the sacrifice to Mount T'ai, the Ho and the sea (Kung yang chu shu, 12.28a). The Chou li, ch. 大 宗 伯 (Chou li chu shu, 18.36b; B. I. 439) speaks of the 四 望, explained as meaning the sacrifice to the sun, the moon, the stars, and the sea, or the sacrifice to the Five Mountains, the Four Peaks, and the Four Rivers opening to the sea. Out of the various conflicting opinions Sun I-jang states his own: "Wang is the general name for the sacrifice to the mountains and rivers; ssŭ-wang stands for the sacrifice performed on and at the highest and greatest of these mountains and rivers, and embracing the sacrifices to all of them" (Li chi chêng i, quoted in the Tz'ŭ hai, 丑.126).
26. 於 皇 时 周 徙 其 高 山 . Ode 296: 般(Mao shih chu shu, 28.31b). The Y. ed. has 明 instead of 时. I have followed Chêng Hsüan's explanation of the words, except for 皇 which he explains by 君 'Lord, he who is Lord of', but should better be taken in the original, adjectival, sense. 高 山 is understood by Mao as referring to the four Sacred Mountains (the fifth, and central, mountain not being sacrificed to; Mao's opinion here runs counter to K'ung An-kuo's and K'ung Ying-ta's, see n. 321), but the context of the Po hu t'ung requires it to be rendered in the singular. Though sacrifices are offered to all the Sacred Mountains, it is only on Mount T'ai that the fêng- and shan-sacrifices take place (K'ung Ying-ta's Sub-comm. on Ode 273: 时 邁, Mao shih chu shu, 26.23b). The translations by Legge (L. 609), Waley (Wa. 238), and Karlgren (K. 17.94) of the Shih ching passage quoted give no sense in the Po hu t'ung text.
27. 墮 山 喬 嶽 允 猶 翕 河 . Ibid. In this case, too, Chêng Hsüan's explanation of the words is followed in order to make the Po hu t'ung context intelligible.
28. 百 神 來 歸 . Probably this expression is an extension and elucidation of the 群 神 in the Shu ching (l.c.), which, acc. to K'ung An-kuo, comprise 'the spirits of hills, hillocks, mounds, mountain-slopes, and of the ancient Sages and the worthy' 丘 陵 墳 衍 古 之 聖 賢 (Shang shu chu shu, 2.5b).
29. This paragraph coming close after the treatise on the fêng- and the shan-sacrifices seems to be irrelevant. The connection, however, becomes clear when we read in the Shih chi (ch. 封 禪, 28.5a-b) that, according to Kuan Chung's expostulation with Duke Huan of Ch'i, the fêng- and the shan-sacrifices could only be performed when general peace prevailed in all under Heaven, while the fact that general peace prevailed should be attested by the appearance of lucky omens. The Po hu t'ung only deals with a part of the considerable number of strange phenomena, taking its material chiefly from the Yüan shên ch'i. For a fuller enumeration I may refer to the Jui ying t'u 瑞 應 圖 by Sun Jou-chih 孫 柔 之 of the Liang Dynasty (502-556) and edited by Ma Kuo-han in the Yü han shan fang chi i shu, vol. 77; to the Sung shu by Shên Yo 沈 約 (441-513), which devotes three lengthy chapters to the subject (符 瑞, 上, 中, 下, ch. 27-29), giving the dates on which the omens appeared from antiquity to the end of the 5th century; and to the Lun hêng by Wang Ch'ung (27-97), which contains ample discussion on lucky omens.
30. 承 天 統 理 調 和 陰 陽 . The Y. ed. omits 天. The I wên lei chü (98.1b), quoting the Po hu t'ung, writes 顺 instead of 統. The Jui ying t'u (77.2a) says: 王 者 承 天 德 理. . . . "When the King assists Heaven in its regulation by spiritual power. . . .".
31. This conforms with a statement of the Yüan shên ch'i as it is quoted in the Sub-comm. on ch.禮 運 of the Li chi (chu shu, 22.28b). Ma Kuo-han's ed. of the Yüan shên ch'i (Yü han, 58.21a) gives a slight addition: "When the King's spiritual power affects Heaven, then it envelops and carries the sun 日 抱 戴 etc". For the Sweet Dew see infra, n. 357.
32. 德 至 地 則 嘉 禾 生 蓂 莢 起 秬 鬯 出 華 苹 盛 . For the last three words the Y. ed. has 太 平 感, corrected, foll. the T'ai p'ing yü lan, by Ch'ên who is supported by Liu (73.4a). The Yüan shên ch'i (Li chi chu shu, l.c.) omits these words, Ma Kuo-han (Yü han, 58.21b) writes . For the Auspicious Grain and the ming-chieh see infra, n. 360 華 苹 感 and n. 351, for the chü-ch'ang 秬 鬯 see ch. XX, 改 黜of the Po hu t'ung. The hua-p'ing is, acc. to the description in the Sung shu (29.43b; occurring also in the Hsiang jui t'u 祥 瑞 圖, quoted in the Tpyl, 873.6a), a plant of which "the branches are straight and horizontal; if the King displays 'virtue' it grows; if his 'virtue' is strong [the branches] turn upwards; if it is weak they turn down- wards".
33. 德 至 八 表 則 景 星 見 五 緯 順 軌 . The Y. ed. writes 文 instead of 八, corrected by Ch'ên. The Yüan shên ch'i (Li chi chu shu, l.c.) only has 德 至 八 極 則 景 星 見. 八 表 and 八 極 probably mean the same as 八 荒 , which occurs in the Shih chi (6.42b, where Chia I says of Ch'in Shih huang-ti that he had 'the intention of swallowing up the eight barbarian regions' 并 吞 八 荒 之 心 ), and is translated by Chavannes as 'les huit contrées sauvages' (M.H. II. 225). The Shuo yüan (18.4a) says that "within the eight barbarian regions 八 荒 are the four seas 四 海 , within the four seas are the nine provinces 九 州; the Son of Heaven dwells in the central province whence he rules the eight directions" 八 方. For the Luminous Star see infra, n. 356. 五 緯 is the same as 五 星'the Five Planets' (Chêng Hsüan's Comm. on ch. 大 宗 伯, Chou li chu shu, 18.2b). Chia Kung-yen's Sub-comm. gives a further explanation: they are called wei 緯, because the 28 mansions follow Heaven in their revolving leftward, forming the warp ching 經, whereas the five planets in their revolving rightward form the woof wei (o.c. 3a). The names of these Five Planets are: sui-hsing 歲 星 Jupiter, jung-huo 熒 惑 Mars, chêng-hsing 鎮 星 or 填 星 Saturn, t'ai-po 太 白 Venus, and ch'ên-hsing 辰 星 Mercury (Shuo yüan, 18.2b; Yang Shih-hsün's Sub-comm. in Ku liang chu shu, Preface, 3a; Schlegel, Uranographie chinoise, 614 ff.). They correspond with the Five Elements wood, fire, metal, water, and earth, and with the east, the south, the west, the north, and the centre respectively (cf. ch. 天 文 志 of the Ch'ien han shu, 26.19a-26a; ch. 天 文 訓 of the Huai nan tzŭ, 3.5b-6b). The K'ao ling yao 考 靈 耀 (an Apocryphal Book of History, quoted in the Tpyl, 5.3a) says that "when Jupiter has its right course the Five Grains will grow abundantly, when Mars has its right course sweet rain will fall in the proper time, when Saturn has its right course the earth will have no calamities, when Venus has its right course the Five Grains will develop and ripen and the people will be happy". The Pao p'u tzŭ (內 篇, 15.3a) contains the following recipe: In order to attain long life one should "in spring turn towards the east and drink the green fluid of Jupiter, letting it enter the liver; in summer submit to the red fluid of Mars, letting it enter the heart; in the last month of each of the four seasons drink the yellow fluid of Saturn, letting it enter the spleen; in autumn drink the white fluid of Venus, letting it enter the lungs; in winter submit to the black fluid of Mercury, letting it enter the kidneys". The expression 順 軌 is probably derived from the fuller expression 月 五 星 順 入 軌 道 , occurring in the Ch'ien han shu (26.10b), meaning (acc. to Wang Hsien-ch'ien's Comm.) "the moon and the Five Planets follow the constant way of declining to the west". The same chapter (26.35a) also contains the passage 天 下 太 平 五 星 循 度 "When general peace prevails in all under Heaven the Five Planets follow their regular [courses]". The Huai nan tzŭ. (8.1b) writes: 五 星 循 軌 而 不 失 其 行; Kao Yu's Commentary explains 軌 as 道 and 循 as 順.
34. 德 至 草 木 朱 草 生 木 連 理 . The same is said by the Yüan shên ch'i (Li chi chu shu, 1.c.; Yü han, 58.23a). For the Vermilion Grass see infra, n. 358. The Jui ying t'u (77.43b) says: "When a tree has different roots and the same trunk they are said to have intertwined lien-li 連 理. When through the King's spiritual power the [peoples of the] eight directions are converted and appeased and united into one nation the trees intertwine "木 連 理. Acc. to Ts'ao Chih 曹 植(192-232), quoted in the Tpyl, 873.13a, lien-li refers to trees 'with different trunks but the same branches'. The Sung shu (29.37a ff.) gives instances of all sorts of trees which have inter- twined, representing lucky omens.
35. The Yüan shên ch'i (Li chi chu shu, l.c.) has: "When his spiritual power affects the birds and quadrupeds, then the fêng-huang comes, the lüan-bird dances, the ch'i-lin arrives, the White Tiger moves about, and there appear the Nine-tailed Fox and the Pheasant with a White Head". Ma Kuo-han's ed. of the same work (58.23b) adds: "the White Crow descends, the White Deer is visible". For the fêng-huang see infra, under t, and for the Nine-tailed Fox see n. 355. The lüan-bird 鸞 鳥 is acc. to the Shuo wên (4 上.77-78) "the essence of the spirit of [the colour] red; its colour is deep-red with five shades, in its song the five tones [are comprised], it comes when [the people are so thankful that] songs of praise are produced [by them for their benevolent ruler]". The Shan hai ching (2.12a) relates that "in the Girl's Couch-mountains there is a bird' whose form is like that of a pheasant and is adorned with five colours. It is called the lüan-bird. When it is visible [it is a sign that] all under Heaven is peaceful and tranquil". The Jui ying t'u (77.46a), evidently elaborating the Shuo wên statement, says: "The lüan-bird is the essence of the spirit of [the colour] red. It is the companion of the fêng-huang. Inshape it resembles the pheasant, and it is five-coloured. It has the body of a hen, its feathers are adorned with five shades. Its natural song, which comprises the five tones, sounds like su-su yung-yung. When it is pleased it sings and dances". The lüan is nearly always mentioned together with the fêng-huang in the Shan hai ching (7.4b; 11.5a-b; 15.3b; 16.3a, 4a). On the ch'i-lin many pages could be written. Chinese literature abounds with allusions to this strange creature. It is an animal representing consideration for others jên 仁. The male is called ch'i 麒, the female lin 麟. It has the body of a stag, the tail of a cow, and the forehead of a wolf. It has one horn, is yellow-coloured, and possesses horses' hoofs. It does not tread on living insects, nor does it break living grass. It lives to 10,000 years (culled at random from the Tpyl, 889.6a-9a; cf. also the Lun hêng, ch. 50, Forke I. 359 ff.; for further literature see T'oung Pao, XXXVI, 399). Though it is an auspicious beast, when it appears while its time has not yet come, it is the presage of a calamity (Shuo yüan, 18.10b-11a; Chia yü, 4.16b-17a). In the 15th century the giraffe made from Bengal its first appearance in China, and was, not inappropriately, identified with the ch'i-lin (Duyvendak in T'oungPao, l.c.). Acc. to the Jui ying t'u the White Crow appears when the ancestral temples receive reverent attendance (77.45b), the White Deer is to be seen when the King never forgets to continue the laws and ordinances of the ancient Sages (49b), and the White Tiger, which possesses consideration for others jên and does not harm men, comes when the King does not commit cruel deeds (52b). The White Tiger is called kan甝 acc. to Erh ya chu shu, 11.4a, and Hao Ihsing's Comm. on the Shan hai ching, 2.21b.
36. So far the passage corresponds with the Yüan shên ch'i (Li chi chu shu shu, l.c.). The same work (ed. in Yü han, 58.22a) says: "When his spiritual power affects the mountains, rivers, hillocks, and hills, then the Luminous Cloud appears". The Luminous Cloud ching-yün 景 雲 is, acc. to the Jui ying t'u, 77.32a, also called Felicitous Cloud ch'ing-yün 慶 雲; it is neither vapour nor smoke, and it has a mixture of five colours.
37. 芝 實 茂 . The chih-plant usually comes out in the sixth month; in spring it is green, in summer purple, in autumn white, in winter black; it can protract man's life; it grows when the King treats the old with kindness and reverence (Jui ying t'u, 77.43a). The Lun hêng (19.13a; Forke, 11.215) mentions chih-plants of which the longest measured one foot and four to five inches, and the shortest seven to eight inches; stalks and leaves were of a purple colour.
38. 陵 出 黑 丹 . The Y. ed. writes 異 instead of 黑. Tan means cinnabar, but it is also used in the meaning of 'red'. So the Shan hai ching (2.6a) has 丹 水, which is explained by Hao I-hsing as 赤 水. The Comm. of Sung Chung on the Yüan shên ch'i explains the use of tan in 黑 丹 as: 'responding to the Five Canons of Rules tan completes the five colours' 應 五 典 備 五 色 也 (Yü han, 58.22b). Kuo P'o in his Comm. on the Shan hai ching (16.4a) says that besides tan indicating its own colour (red) "black, white, and yellow are also called tan" 黑 白 黃 皆 云 丹 也. In the Wên hsüan (3.8a) the expression occurs 黑 丹 石 錙. The Comm. of Hsieh Tsung 薛 綜 (d. 243 A.D.) explains it as 'black stone many-coloured'. 黑 石 雜 色 也. The Comm. of Liu Liang 劉 良 (T'ang Dynasty) says: "Chih is black; it means red and black minerals mixed up together" 錙 黑 也 言 丹 黑 土 石 相 雜. The Shan hai ching further contains the expression 櫨 丹, which is explained by Hao I-hsing as 黑 丹 (5.18a).
39. 阜 出 萐 莆 . The Y. ed. wrongly writes 連 甫. For the sha-fu see infra, n. 345. The Erh ya chu shu (6.9b) says: "A high plain is called lu. An extensive lu is called fu" 高 平 曰 陸 大 陸 曰 阜.
40. . This expression also occurs in ch.禮 運 of the Li chi (chu shu, 22.27a), and translated by Couvreur as 'des ustensils et des chars tout faits' (C. I. 536), by Legge as 'implements and chariots' (L. I. 392), probably following Chêng Hsüan, who in his Commentary explains 器 as indicating 'silver goblets and red vases' 銀 甕 丹 甑. K'ung Ying-ta in his Sub-comm. (o.c. 28a) quotes the Tou wei i 斗 威 儀 (an Apocryphal Book of Rites) which speaks of 山 車 垂 鉤, explained by Sung Chung's Comm. as meaning a natural carriage (not made by man) with wheels curved round without being bent by man. 器 車 had better be understood as one compound, synonymous with 山 車 'mountain carriage', 木 根 車 'tree-root carriage', 金 車 'metal carriage', or 象 車 'model carriage', which names occur in Sung Chung's Comm. on the Yüan shên ch'i (Yü han, 58.22a-b).
41. 澤 出 神 鼎 . The Spiritual Tripod is, acc. to the Jui ying t'u (77.35b), the essence of substance and form; it has knowledge of luck and disaster, of gain and loss; it can be light and it can be heavy; it rests quiet and it moves; its contents boil without being heated; it is always full without being refilled; whatever is in it will comprise the Five Tastes.
42. The Y. ed. has 通 ; the Yüan shên ch'i (Li chi chu shu, 22.28b) 湧; Ma Kuo-han (Yü han, 58.23a) 涌, followed by Lu and Ch'ên.
43. So far it corresponds with the Yüan shên ch'i (Li chi chu shu, l.c.). The Yellow Dragon 黃 龍 is the chief of the four dragons, [its colour is] the right colour of the four quarters (i.e. yellow occupies the central position), [it represents] the spiritual essence, it can assume a large and a small shape, it can be visible and invisible, it can shorten and lenghten itself. Sometimes it is there, then it disappears. . . . . it does not go in crowds, neither does it live gregariously, it waits for the wind and the rain before it floats in the midst of the spring-breeze, it roams in the wastes beyond the [visible] Heavens, whence it comes and whither it goes in response to the command [of Heaven], it descends and ascends according to [the condition of] the time: if a Sage appears it is to be seen, if not it hides (Jui ying t'u, 77.54b). For the Source of Fragrant Wine see infra, n. 359. For the Dragon Chart lung-t'u 龍 圖, also called ho-t'u 河 圖 'the Chart of the [river] Ho', and the Turtle Book kuei-shu 龜 書, also called lo-shu洛 書 'the Book of the [river] Lo', see Granet, La pensée chinoise, 177 ff., and what is said in the Shang shu chung hou (Yü han, 53.22a ff.). The Lun hêng (22.12a; Forke, I. 238) says that "the Chart of the [river] Ho and the Book of the [river] Lo indicate the rise and fall, the progress and the decline, and the opportunities of Emperors and Kings".
44. 江 出 大 貝 海 出 明 珠 . The Jui ying t'u (77.39b) says that the Great Shell appears when the King does not covet riches and treasures; its size can fill a carriage. The Brilliant Pearl is also called Brilliant Moon Pearl 明 月 珠. It appears when "the tax on fish and salt is just and only amounts to one tenth [of the produce]" (ibid., 39a).
45. 德 至 八 方 則 祥 風 至 . This corresponds with the Yüan shên ch'i (Yü han, 58.22a). The eight directions are the four quarters and their four corners. The Erh ya (chu shu, 5.13a) speaks of the 景 風 , which acc. to the Sub-comm. of Hsing Ping 刑 昺 (932-1010) is the same as 祥 風.
46. I.e. for the east the I 夷, for the south the Man 蠻, for the west the Jung 戎, and for the north the Ti 狄.
47. 越 裳 . The Yüan shên ch'i (Yü han, 58.44a) relates that "in the time of King Ch'êng the Yüeh-shang offered a white pheasant". This story also occurs in the Shang shu ta chuan (2.24b), in the Shuo yüan (18.13a), and in the Lun hêng (8.8a; Forke, I. 505). Elsewhere the Lun hêng (5.4a, Forke, II. 166; 16.18a; Forke, I. 367; 19.5b, Forke, II. 199; 19.19b, Forke, II. 208) writes 越 常 Yüeh-ch'ang instead of Yüeh-shang. In the Sung shu (29.44b) it is told that "in the time of the Duke of Chou the Yüeh-ch'ang came to offer a white pheasant and ivory". The Yüeh-shang or Yüeh-ch'ang were a tribe residing in the region between Yün-nan, Birma and Annam (Eberhard, Kultur und Siedlung der Rand- völker Chinas, 341). In 1 A.D. Wang Mang, when still being Commander in Chief, used the tribute of a white pheasant as a device to be likened to the Duke of Chou (Ch'ien han shu, 99 上.5a-b).
48. 孝 道 至 則 萐 莆 生 庖 廚 . Lu's reading of the faulty text of the Y. ed.
49. The Y. ed. wrongly writes 莲 甫. The Jui ying t'u (77.41a; Tpyl, 873.5b-6a) says that the sha-fu grows when the King does not overdo his relishes, and his table does not exceed the capacity of his kitchen. It is also called i-shan 倚 扇, or shih-lü 實 閭, or i-sha 倚萐. Its branches interlace, it has many leaves but few roots, the latter resemble silk threads. When it turns the wind arises. It guards the food and drinks, keeping them fresh and cool, and driving away and killing the insects. The Lun hêng (17.7b; Forke, II. 316 gives the name 'meat-fan') and the Sung shu (27.4a) write 萐 脯.
50. 繼 嗣 平 . The Y. ed. superfluously has 明 after 平. Dropped by Lu.
51. The Y. ed. has 在 instead of 生. The Tpyl (873.13b), quoting the Po hu t'ung, writes 賔 連 闊 達 pin-lien-k'uo-ta instead of 賓 連 pin-lien. The Jui ying t'u (77.43b) says: "When the King observes the [proper] distinction between principal wife and concubines, when there is [proper] discrimination between men and women, then the pin-lien-yüeh 賓 連 閱 grows at [the doors of] his chambers. Another name is pin-lien-ta 賓 連 達 , another pin-lien-k'uo 賓 連 闊 . It grows at [the doors of] his chambers to symbolize that in his visits to his concubines he observes regularity".
52. 蓂 莢 . The Y. ed. superfluously has 以 between the two words.
53. 月 一 日 一 莢 生 . The Y. ed. has 月 一 日 生 一 莢. Lu's emendation.
54. 一 莢 去 . The Y. ed. has 去 莢. Lu's correction.
55. 以 明 日 月 也 . The Y. ed. has 似 instead of 以 明. Acc. to the Jui ying t'u (77.41a-b; Tpyl, 873.7b) "the ming-chieh has round leaves and is five-coloured. Another name is li-chieh . Its fifteen leaves grow at the rate of one a day, from the first day of the moon until the full moon; on the sixteenth day the leaves begin to fall off at the rate of one a day until the last day of the moon. If the [lunar-]moon is short, then one leaf shrinks up but does not fall off". Sung Chung's Comm. on the Yüan shên ch'i (Yü han, 58.21b) says: "In the time of Yao the ming-chieh grew at both sides of the steps; it registered the first day of the moon. . . . its taste was sour. The King used it to harmonize the taste [of food], later it was replaced by vinegar". See also the Lun hêng, 17.8a; Forke, 11.317, who translates ming-chieh by 'monthly plant'.
56. 王 者 使 賢 不 肖 . The first three words are missing in the Y. ed. and supplied by Lu. Hsiao 肖 is probably cognate with hsiao 削 meaning 'to scrape off, to cut off; thus 'to fall short of, to be unlike (the original)'. The negative pu-hsiao in this way means 'not to fall short of, to be similar to, to imitate (an example)'. But usually the expression pu-hsiao is used to convey the meaning of 'not to be similar to', and hsiao then comes to bear the positive meaning of 'to be similar to', and cognate to hsiao 孝.
57. P'ing-lu 平 路 is written in the 平 露 Jui ying t'u (77.44a; Tpyl, 873.13b) and the Sung shu (29.43b). The Jui ying t'u says of it that it is "like a dais; it grows in the court-yard, and symbolizes the just government of the four quarters. If the King does not use favourites as officers, then the government of the four quarters will be just. If the eastern quarter is not governed justly, then the [leaves on the] west will droop; if the northern quarter is not governed justly, then the [leaves on the] south will droop; if the western quarter is not governed justly, then the [leaves on the] east will droop; if the southern quarter is not governed justly, then the [leaves in the] north will droop. If the four quarters are not governed justly, then the roots will be like threads of silk. [The plant is also] called p'ing-liang 平 兩".
58. 檀 弓 Ch. of the Li chi (chu shu, 7.1a; C. 1. 131) also contains this passage about the dying fox turning its head towards the hill; it is there taken as an example of faithfulness to one's home. The same is said by the Huai nan tzŭ, ch. 說 林 訓 (17.1b), where it is told that birds fly back to their native regions, hares return to their holes, dying foxes turn their heads towards the hills, and the han-chiang 寒 將 (either an aquatic bird or a kind of cicada) flies back to the water.
59. The Jui ying t'u (77.51a) says: "The Nine-tailed Fox 九 尾 狐 is a spirit animal. In appearance it is red-coloured; it has four feet and nine tails. It comes from the country of the Green Hills. Its sound resembles [the cry of] a baby. Those who eat [its flesh] will be impervious to magical and evil influences, to [the bites of] poisonous insects and the like. When Heaven, Earth, and the four quarters are ruled [according to] one [principle] the Nine-tailed Fox appears. Others say: it comes when the King does not incline to debauchery". The Shan hai ching, sect. 大 荒 東 經 (14.4b) also mentions the Nine-tailed Fox as an inhabitant of the country of the Green Hills. It further appears at three other places in the same work (1.4b; 4.6b; 9.2b), but here we have not to deal with lucky omens: the creatures described in the first two cases are man-eaters.
60. The Luminous Star ching-hsing 景 星 is described in the Shih chi (27.33a) as "a star possessing spiritual power ; its shape is not constant 其 狀 無 常 ; it appears in a country where the [right] Way is [followed]". The Ch'ien han shu (26.38a) has adopted this description, but mistakenly writes 常 常. Chavannes (M.H. III. 392) translates ching-hsing by 'l'étoile resplendissante". Chang Shou-chieh in his 正 義 on the Shih chi passage says that "its shape is like the crescent moon; it arises in the time between the dis- appearance of the moon and its reappearance; it assists the moon's light; when it is visible [it is a sign that] the Lord of men is virtuous, and has felicitously acquired enlightenment and sagenesss". See also the Lun hêng, 17.11b-12a; Forke, II. 323-334.
61. The Sweet Dew kan-lu 甘 露 is, acc. to the Jui ying t'u (77.32b) "a beneficent dew, the essence of spirituality, the auspicious sign of [Heaven's] favour for consideration for others [displayed]. When it congeals it is like fat; it is sweet like sugar. Another name is kao-lu 膏 露 'Fat Dew', another t'ien-chiu 天 酒 'Heavenly Wine'. Its colour is dark. [Because of] its sweetness it is called Sweet Dew . . . . The taste of the Sweet Dew is fresh and sweet . . . Drunk it gives man long life".
62. The Tpyl, 873.7a, quoting the Po hu t'ung, has 朱 草 赤 色 也 可 以 梁 絳 別 (=則) 成 黼 黻 之 服 列 為 尊 卑 之 差 "The Vermilion Grass is of a deep-red colour; it may be used to paint the clothes red with the fu-fu [ornament], in order to mark the distinction between high and low" (for the fu-fu ornament see Couvreur's translation of the Li chi, C. I. 368, note). The Jui ying t'u (77.40b) says: "The Vermilion Grass is also called chu-ying 朱 英 'Vermillion Bloom'. It is the essence of the hundred species of grasses". The Tpyl (873.6b), quoting the Kan ching fu 感 精 符 (an Apocryphal Work on the Ch'un ch'iu), says: "When it is eaten it causes man not to grow old". The Lun hêng (3.12b; Forke, I. 132): "The stalk of the Vermilion Grass is like a needle".
63. The Jui ying t'u (77.34b) says of the Source of Fragrant Wine 醴 泉 that it is "the essence of the liquids; its taste is sweet like the unfermented wine li 醴; if [the fluid] comes out of its source and reaches the plants, they bloom; if drunk it gives man long life".
64. "The stem of the Auspicious Grain is five feet long, and it has thirty-five ears" (Shang shu chung hou, quoted in Tpyl, 873.8a). "One ear has two grains; in a country where the government [follows the Principle of] Substance the same root produces different ears; in a country where the government [fol- lows the Principle of] Form the same ear arises from different roots" (Chin chêng hsiang shuo 晉 徵 祥 說, quoted in the Tpyl, 873.9a; the Chin chêng hsiang shuo is also called Chin chung hsing shu chêng hsiang shuo 晉 中 興 書 祥 說, it was written by Ho Fa-shêng 何 法 盛, beginning 5th cent. A.D.). "It has three roots, one stalk, and nine ears; it is by one to two feet higher than a common blade of grain" (Lun hêng, 2.23a; Forke. I. 180). "The Auspicious Grain is the chief among the Five Species of Grain; it is the essence of consummated virtue; [in a time when the Principle of] Form [is adhered to] it has one root and the same blossom; [in a time when the Principle of] Substance [is adhered to] it has different roots and the same blossom. This refers to the Auspicious Grain of the times of the Hsia and the Yin[Dynasties]; in the time of the Chou the Auspicious Grain has three roots and one and the same ear, it pierces the mulberry-tree as it grows, the ear is [as large as] to fill a carriage-box . . ." (Jui ying t'u, 77.41b). "In the Chou [there was the Auspicious Grain with] three sprouts and one ear; in the Shang it had one root and different ears; in the Hsia different roots and one blossom" (Sung shu, 29.1a). "In the time of King Ch'êng there were three stalks piercing the mulberry-tree and growing into one panicle; it was almost large enough to fill a carriage; the people took it and presented it to King Ch'êng; King Ch'êng asked the Duke of Chou what it was; the Duke of Chou said: Three sprouts having the same panicle! Can it mean that all under Heaven will be harmoniously united?" (Shuo yüan, 18.13a). Chia-ho 嘉 禾 'Auspicious Grain' is also the title of a book of the Shu ching that has not survived, composed by the Duke of Chou on the occasion of the appearance of this omen (see Shang shu ta chuan, 2.24a; the Preface 序 to the Shu ching, Shang shu chu shu, 12.31b; L. Preface, 9).
65. 召 . The Y. ed. writes 訪. Lu's corr. foll. the I wên lei chü. The Shang shu ta chuan (l.c.) also has , the Shüo yuan (l.c.) 成 王 問 周 公 此 何 也.
66. 後 . The Y. ed. has 以 昰.
67. See n. 343.
68. 重 九 譯 , literally 'to repeat by nine translations'. This expression also occurs in the Biography of Chang Ch'ien 張 騫 of the Ch'ien han shu (61.3b). The Shuo yüan (18.13a) writes 越 裳 氏 重 譯 而 朝, and explains further: "as the roads [they had travelled] were difficult and long, while the mountains and streams [they had had to traverse] were steep and deep, it was feared that through one interpreter they would not be understood. Therefore when they came to court their words had to be repeated by three different interpreters' 故 重 三 譯 而 來 朝 也. The Shang shu ta chuan (2.24b) gives the same explanation but only writes 故 重 譯 而 朝. The term seems to be the common one. It occurs, besides in the Shuo yüan and the Shang shu ta chuan, l.c., also in the Shang shu ta chuan, 1.33b, 34a; in the Han shih wai chuan, 5.6a, 8.9b; and in the Biography of Wang Mang (Ch'ien han shu, 99 上.6b, 24a). The Shang shu ta chuan, 1.32b, however, also gives the expression 八 譯 來 朝 , while the Ch'un ch'iu fan lu, 4.2b, writes: 傳 譯 而 朝 .
69. The whole of the following passage is missing in the Y. ed. and Lu's. It is supplied by Ch'ên from quotations in the Sub-commentaries on the Shih ching and the Tso chuan, and from entries in the Tpyl. For the fêng-huang see also Yoshihiko Izushi, A Study of the Origin of the Ch'i-lin and the Feng-huang, in Memoirs of the Research Department of the ToyoBunko, No.9, 1937, p. 79-109. Cf. also the Lun hêng, ch. 50 (Forke, I. 359 ff.), and the Shuo yüan, 18.12a.
70. 廣 都 之 野 . The Shan hai ching, sect. 海 內 經 (18.2b) gives a description of a region, which is considered as the burial-place of Hou-chi 后 稷, and where the lüan-bird and the fêng-huang lived. It is called the Wilds of Tu-kuang 都 廣 之 野. Tu-kuang also occurs in the Huai nan tzŭ, ch. 墬 形 訓(4.4b), which is said in Kao Yu's Comm. to be the name of a mountain in the southern region (cf. Erkes, Das Weltbild des Huai-nan-tze, n. 110. 127, 273). The Comm. of P'ei Yin 裴 駰 (450 A.D.) on the Shih chi (4.2a) quotes the passage of the Shan hai ching, but wrongly says it to be from sect. 大 荒 經, while it further writes 廣 都 之 野 'the Wilds of Kuang-tu' instead of Tu-kuang.
71. 食 常 竹 實 栖 常 梧 桐 . The Shuo yüan has in both places 帝 instead of 常, and 梧 樹 instead of 梧 桐 wu-t'ung. The Erh ya (chu shu, 9.9a) mentions the 襯 梧 ch'ên-wu, which Kuo P'o's Comm. iden- tifies as the wu-t'ung. It further mentions the 榮 jung, saying that it indicates the 桐 木, which Kuo P'o again identifies as the wu-t'ung. A distinction should, however, be made between wu and t'ung . The wu is the wu-t'ung or the ch'ên-wu and belongs to the Sterculia platanifolia; the t'ung, also called jung, belongs to the Paulownia (Bretschneider, Botanicon Sinicum, II. nos. 283, 309, 515, 516).
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