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王者所以巡狩者何? 巡者、循也。 狩 [者]、牧也。 [王者]為天下循 (守) [行]，守牧民也。道德太平。恐遠近不同化。 幽隱有不得[其]所[者]，[故 必親自行之]，[謹敬重民之至也]。考禮義，正法度，同律曆，計時月，皆為民 也。《尚書》曰:"遂覲東后，時月正日，同律度量衡，修五禮。"《尚書大傳》 曰:" 見諸侯，問百年，太師陳詩以觀民(命)風俗，命市納賈以觀民好惡。 山川神祇 有不舉者為不敬，不敬者削以地；宗廟有不順者為不孝，不孝者黜以爵; 變禮易樂 [者] 為不從，不從[者]君流。改制度衣服，為畔，畔者君討。 有功者賞之。" 《尚書》曰:" 明試以功，車服以庸。"
巡狩所以四時出何? 當承宗廟，故不踰時也。以夏之仲月者，同律度當得其中也。 二月八月畫夜分，五月十一月陰陽終。《尚書》曰:" 二月未巡狩，至于岱宗柴。" "五月南巡狩，至于南岳。" "八月西巡狩，至于西岳。" "十有一月朔巡狩，至于北岳。"
所以(五) [不]歲巡狩何? 為太煩也。 過五年，為太踈也。因天道時有所生，歲有所成。三歲一閏，天道小備，五歲再閏，天道大備。 故五(歲)[年]一巡狩,三年 (小備)二伯出述職黜陟。一年物有終始，歲有所成，方伯行國，時有所生，諸侯行邑。《傳》曰:"周公入為三公，出為二伯，中分天下，出黜陟。"《詩》曰:"周公東征, 四國是皇。" 言東征述職，周公黜陟而天下皆正也。又曰:" 蔽芾甘棠, 勿剪勿伐，召伯所茇。"言邵公述職，親說舍於野樹之下也。《春秋·穀梁傳》曰:"古之君民以時視民之勤。"
巡狩[必]祭天何? 本巡狩為[天]，祭天、[所以]告至[也]。《尚書》曰: "東巡狩至于岱宗柴"也。王者出，必告廟何? 孝子出辭反面，事死如事生。《尚書》 [曰]:" 歸假于祖禰。"《曾子問》曰:""王者諸侯出，(稱)[親]告祖禰，使祝遍告五廟，尊親也。"王者將出告天者，示不專也。故《王制》曰:""類于上帝,宜乎社，造于禰。"類祭以祖配不?日:接者尊，無二禮，尊尊之羲。造于禰，獨見禰何? 辭從卑，不(復)[敢]留尊者之命，至觸不(賺)[嫌]不至祖[也]。即祭告天,為告事也。祖為出辭也。羲異。告于尊者，然後乃辭出。王者諸侯出，必將主何? 示有所尊。故《曾子[問]》曰:"王者將出，必以遷廟主行，載于齋車,示有尊也。" "無遷主，以幣帛[皮] (主) [圭]告于祖觸廟，遂奉以出，每舍奠焉。" "蓋貴命也。"必以遷主者，明廟不可空也。
王者巡狩，諸侯待子境者何? 諸侯以守蕃為職也。《禮·祭羲》曰:"天子巡狩, 諸侯待于境"也。
王者巡狩，必舍諸侯祖廟何? 明尊無二上也。故《禮·坊記》曰:"君適其臣，升自阼階，示[民]不敢有其室也。"《禮 [運]》曰:"天子適諸侯，必舍其祖廟。"
王者巡狩崩于道，歸葬何? 夫太子當為喪主，天下皆來奔喪，京師四方之中也。即如是，舜葬蒼梧，禹葬會稽[何]? 于時尚質，故死則止葬，不重煩擾也。[王者所以太平乃巡狩何]? [王者始起]，[日月尚促]，[德化未宣)，[獄 訟未息]，[近不治]，[遠不安]，[故太平巡狩也]。
岳者何謂也? 岳之為言(桶)[捔][也]。(桶)[捔]功德[也]。東方為 岱宗者[何]? 言萬物粟相代於東方也。南方霍山者[何]?霍之為言護也，言萬物 護也，太陽用事，護養萬物也。[小山繞大山為霍]。[南衡山者]，[上承景 宿]，[銓德均物]; [故曰衡也]。西方為華山者[何]? 華之為言穫也。言萬物 成熟，可得穫也。北方為恆山[者何]? 恆者、常也。萬物伏藏於北方有常也。中央為 嵩山[者何]? [嵩]、言其(後)[高]大之也。 故《尚書大傳》曰:"五岳: 謂岱山、霍山、華山、恆山、嵩山也。"謂之瀆何? 瀆者、濁也。中國垢濁，發源東 注海，其功著大，故稱漬也。《爾雅》云:"江、河、淮、濟為四瀆"也。
XIX. Tours of Inspection
128---The Meaning of the Tours of Inspection (III A. 4a-b).
a.Why does the King make a 'Tour of Inspection' hsün-shou? Hsün means hsün 'to follow [a road]'; shou means mu 'to shepherd' 1. On behalf of Heaven 2 the King goes along [the roads] to guard and shepherd his people. b.After the spiritual power [proceeding from his possession] of the Way has brought about general peace [the King] fears that the distant regions have not yet in the same way been affected [by his influence] as the nearer, and that among the hidden and secluded [worthies] there are some who have not yet received their proper positions; therefore he makes a point of personally performing [the task of inspection], which is the highest [expression of his] care and esteem for the people. c.[On his Tour of Inspection] he examines the rites and music 3, rectifies the rules and measures, makes uniform the musical pitch-pipes and the calendar, and harmonizes the seasons and months, all for the benefit of the people 4. The Shang shu says: "[Shun] thereafter gave audience to the Nobles of the east, putting in accord their seasons and months, and rectifying the days; he made uniform the musical pitch-pipes, the measures of length and weight, and the steelyards; he regulated the Five [Classes of] Rites" 5. d.The Shang shu ta chuan says: "[On his Tour of Inspection the Son of Heaven] gives audience to the Feudal Lords, and inquires after those who are one hundred years old. [He orders] the Grand Music Master to display the songs that he may be informed of the people's customs; he orders the Superintendent of the Markets to present [lists of] prices that he may see what the people like and dislike. If [in any of the feudal territories] the spirits of the hills and the rivers have not received attention he takes it to be [an act of] irreverence, and the irreverent [Lord] is deprived of [a part of] his land. If there has been neglect [of the sacrifices] in the ancestral temple he takes it to be a lack of filial piety, and the unfilial[Lord] is reduced in rank. Any deviation from the rites or any change in music he takes to be [an instance of] disobedience, and the disobedient Lord is banished. Any change in the [fashion of] clothes or in the [social] institutions he takes to be [an act of] rebellion, and the rebellious Lord is executed. [But]those who have acquired merit are rewarded" 6. The Shang shu says: "[When the report of the Feudal Lords on their government] was clearly tested by their works they received chariots and robes according to their services" 7.
129---The Tours of Inspection Take Place During the Middle Months of the Four Seasons (III A. 4b-5a).
a.Why is it that the Tours of Inspection are held in [each of] the four seasons [of the appointed year]? They should follow upon [the sacrifices in] the ancestral temple, and must therefore not exceed a seasonal period 8. b.In the middle month of summer the musical pitch-pipes and the several measures [of length, capacity, and weight] are made uniform that they may attain their proper exactness 9. [The Tours of Inspection take place] in the second and eighth months [when] day and night are [equally] divided, and in the fifth and the eleventh months [when] the yin and the yang have reached their apogee. The Shang shu says: "In the second month [Shun] made a Tour of Inspection eastwards, as far as [Mount] Tai-tsung; in the fifth month he made a tour southwards, as far as the Southern Mountain; in the eighth month he made a tour westwards, as far as the Western Mountain; and in the eleventh month, on the first day of the month, he made a tour northwards, as far as the Northern Mountain" 10.
130---Inspecting Offices on the Tour (III A. 5a-b).
a.Why is it that the Tours of Inspection are not held yearly? It would be too cumbersome. [On the other hand to refrain] for more than [a period of] five years would be too negligent. b.For it is the Way of Heaven that every season has its [own] produce and every year its [own] accomplishment. In three years there is one intercalary month; the Way of Heaven has [then] reached its smaller [cyclical] completion. In five years there are two intercalary months; the Way of Heaven has [then] reached its greater [cyclical] completion. Therefore every five years there is one Tour of Inspection. c.Every three years the two Regional Chiefs go out [on their in- spection. The Feudal Lords] report on their administration 11, and they are degraded or promoted [according to their merits]. In one year the things have gone through their beginning and end. Every year has its [own] accomplishment, the Regional Chiefs visit [and inspect] the principalities; every season has its [own] produce, the Feudal Lords visit [and inspect] their cities. The Chuan says: ["The Dukes of] Chou and Shao 12, when in the capital, [each] functioned as [one of] the Three Ducal Ministers; when leaving the capital [for inspection] they [each] functioned as [one of] the two [Regional] Chiefs. [The latter] divided between themselves [the supervision of] all under Heaven, degrading and promoting [the deserving and undeserving]" 13. The Shih says: "When the Duke of Chou marched to the east the Four States were corrected" 14. It means that when the Duke of Chou marched to the east, receiving the reports on the administration [from the Feudal Lords] and giving out degradations and promotions, all under Heaven was rectified. [The Shih] further says: "Young and tender is this sweet pear-tree; do not lop it or knock it, for the Lord of Shao took shelter under it" 15. [This] refers to the Duke of Shao, who [as Chief of the West] received the reports on the administration [from the Feudal Lords], and of his own choice took up his abode 16 under a tree in the open field. The Ch'un ch'iu ku liang chuan says: "Of old those who were Lords over men should at regular times inquire into their people's needs" 17.
131---The Meaning of the Sacrifice to Heaven and the Announcements to the Ancestors (III A. 5b-6b).
a.According to what principle must a sacrifice be offered to Heaven before a Tour of Inspection? A Tour of Inspection is made on behalf of Heaven, and Heaven is sacrificed to that the announcement may thereby reach it. The Shang shu says: "[In the second month Shun] made a Tour of Inspection eastwards, as far as [Mount] Tai-tsung, [where he presented] a burnt-offering [to Heaven]" 18. b.When the King sets out [on a Tour of Inspection], why must he announce it to the ancestral temple? As a filial son he takes leave at his departure, and presents himself again at his return. He serves the dead as if he served the living. The Shang shu says: "At his return [Shun] went to the shrines of his first ancestor and his father" 19. The Tsêng tzŭ wên says: "When the King or a Feudal Lord is leaving [his territory] he personally announces it to the shrines of the first ancestor and his father, while he orders the invocator to announce it to the five ancestor-shrines successively" 20. [This is an act of] reverence towards his [deceased] parents. c.The reason that the King announces his departure to Heaven is that he is not acting of his own accord. Therefore the Wang chih says: "[When the King is about to set out on a Tour of Inspection] he offers the lei-sacrifice to the Lord on High, the i-sacrifice to the God of the Earth, and the ts'ao-sacrifice to the shrine of his father" 21. d.At the lei-sacrifice the first forefather is associated [with the Lord on High; however] the forefather 22 is not mentioned because there cannot be two exalted ones who are ritually [served according to] the principle of exalting the exalted one 23. e.The ts'ao-sacrifice is offered to the shrine of the father. Why [is it] only [said that he] visits his father's shrine? Though the taking of leave proceeds from the lower [-placed ancestor] he dares not neglect the command of the exalted [first ancestor. But as it has already been said that] he visits his father's shrine there is no objection to his not [mentioning his] visit to the shrine of the first ancestor 24. f.The sacrifice and the announcement to Heaven [have the meaning of] an announcement of the undertaking [whereas the sacrifice to] the ancestors [has the meaning of] taking leave at the departure. The [two] meanings are different. [First] the announcement is made to the exalted one, then the leave-taking follows. g.Why is it that when the King or a Feudal Lord sets out [on a Tour of Inspection or on an expedition] he must take his ancestral tablet with him? To show that there is [always someone] to whom he can pay respect. Thus the Tsêng tzŭ wên says: "When the King is going to depart [on a Tour of Inspection] he takes along with him the tablet which has been [latest] removed from its shrine, conveying it in the carriage of purity, [thus] showing [that it is necessary to have with him] someone to whom he can pay respect" 25. h.If there is no such tablet he would, with gifts of silk, skins, and jade-tokens, announce [his purpose] to the shrines of his first ancestor and his father. He then takes those gifts with him. At every stage [of his march] he would place offerings of food by them. Thus does he honour the command [of his ancestors] 26. i.It must be the tablet that has been [latest] removed from its shrine [and placed in the general shrine, which is taken along on the expedition], indicating that the [specific] shrines may not be left empty 27.
132---The Feudal Lords Wait at the Boundaries (III A. 6b).
Why is it that when the King is making his Tour of Inspection the Feudal Lords wait for him at the boundaries [of their states]? The Feudal Lords have the guarding of the frontiers as their task. The Li chi i says: "When the Son of Heaven is on his Tour of Inspection the Feudal Lords wait for him at the boundaries [of their states]" 28.
133---The Son of Heaven is Lodged in the Ancestral Temple (III A. 6b).
When the King is on his Tour of Inspection, why must he be lodged in the ancestral temple of the Feudal Lord [whom he visits]? It expresses the idea that "there cannot be two superiors to be [equally] honoured" 29. So the Li fang chi says: "When a ruler visits his subject he ascends by the eastern steps, to show that [the subject] dares not consider the house to be his own [on that occasion]" 30. The Li yün says: "When the Son of Heaven visits a Feudal Lord he must be lodged in the ancestral temple" 31.
134---The Three Ducal Ministers Partly Remain at the Capital and Partly Accompany the Son of Heaven (III A. 6b).
When the King leaves [the Royal Domain for a Tour of Inspection] one Ducal Minister remains with his retinue to guard [the capital] while two Ducal Ministers accompany him with their retinues.
135---Returning the Corpse to the Capital when the King Dies on the Way (III A. 6b).
a.Why is it that when the King dies on his way during a Tour of Inspection his corpse is returned [to the capital] to be buried? It is because his Heir should act as chief-mourner when all under Heaven gather to partake in the funeral-ceremonies in the capital, which is the centre of the four quarters. b.This being so, why was Shun buried at Ts'ang-wu, and Yü at Kuei-chi? 32 At that time [the customs were] still primitive, so that they were buried on the spot where they had died. It was not deemed necessary to cause the trouble and fuss [connected with the returning of the corpse to the capital].
136---A Tour of Inspection Only Takes Place After General Peace has been Restored (III A. 7a).
Why is it that only after general peace [has been restored] the King makes a Tour of Inspection? When a King has just established himself his time is still pressed, his spiritual reforming [influence] has not yet [had the opportunity to] spread, the contentions have not yet ceased, the nearer regions are not yet [properly] administered, and the distant regions are not yet pacified. Therefore [he waits until] general peace [has been restored before he goes on] a Tour of Inspection. How do we know that a Tour of Inspection is only made after general peace [has been restored]? Because King Wu did not make such a tour, and it was only with King Ch'êng that a Tour of Inspection was performed 33.
137---The Five Mountain-Peaks and the Four Streams (III A. 7a-b).
a.What does yo 'peak' mean? Yo means cho 'to examine' 34; to examine one's merits and spiritual power. b.Why is [the mountain-peak in] the east called Tai-tsung 35? It means that it is in the east that the ten thousand things receive their transformation, and 'replace each other' hsiang-tai36. Why is [the mountain-peak in] the south called Ho-shan? Ho means hu 'to protect' 37. It means that the elder yang holds sway, and protects and nourishes the ten thousand things. Why is [the mountain-peak in] the west called Hua-shan? Hua means huo 'to harvest' 38. It means that the ten thousand things, having attained ripeness, may be harvested. Why is [the mountain-peak in] the north called Hêng-shan? Hêng means ch'ang 'constant' 39. The ten thousand things lie hidden in the northern region, and enjoy a constant [rest]. Why is [the mountain-peak in] the centre called Sung-kao 40? Sung means that its height is great. Therefore the Shang shu ta chuan says: "By the Five Mountain-peaks are meant the Mounts of Tai, Ho, Hua, Hêng, and Sung". c.What does tu mean? Tu means cho 'impure' 41. The muddy impurities of the Middle State, coming from the sources, are drained eastwards into the sea. The service [of the rivers] is apparent and great, therefore they are called tu 'streams'. The Erh ya says: "The Chiang, the Ho, the Huai, and the Chi form the Four Streams" 42.
1. 巡, 循, 狩, 牧 . Shou is generally explained as 收 shou 'to collect' (T'ai p'ing yü lan, 537.4b and K'ung Ying-ta's sub-comm. on the Wang chih, in Li chi chu shu, 11.33b, both quoting the Po hu t'ung). Ho Hsiu explains it by 守 shou 'to guard' (Kung yang chu shu, Yin 8, 3.16a).
2. Instead of 'all under Heaven' (Lu). Cf. infra, par. 131 a.
3. 禮 樂 inst. of 丨 義 (Ch'ên, 6.24b).
4. Cf. ch. Wang chih of the Li chi (C. I. 276; L. I. 217).
5. Shang shu chu shu, Shun tien, 2.10a; L. 35. The Five Classes of Rites were the rites for auspicious events, those for inauspicious events, those for receiving guests, the rites of war, those for festival meetings.
6. Cf. the almost similar statement in the Li chi, l.c. (see n. 4).
7. Shang shu chu shu, Shun tien, 2.11a; L. 37.
8. For these four sacrifices in the ancestral temple see Li chi chu shu, Wang chih, 12.18a. They were held in the first, fourth, seventh, and tenth months (Ch'un ch'iu fan lu, 15.3b). The tours were held every five years in the second, fifth, eighth, and eleventh months, cf. next paragraph.
9. A pun on chung 中 'exactness' and chung 仲 'middle month'.
10. Shang shu chu shu, Shun tien, 2.10a-b; L. 35-37.
11. 述 職 shu-chih, cf. the Mêng tzŭu, Ia.14 (L. 159); Shuo yüan, Hsiu wên, 19.9b. Acc. to Chêng Hsüan the Feudal Lords presented themselves at court every four years, that is, every year the Feudal Lords of each of the four quarters in turn went to the capital; in the year of inspection they waited for the King at the sacred mountain of their region (east, south, west, or north), where audience was held (Shang shu chin ku wên chu shu, 1.38).
12. 周 召 inst. of 丨 公(Liu, 73.4a).
13. The quotation cannot be identified. The Kung yang chuan says that of the three Ducal Ministers two, the Duke of Chou and the Duke of Shao, supervised the eastern and the western regions, while the third remained in the capital (Kung yang chu shu, Yin 5, 3.5a). Cf. also Vol. I, p. 320, n. 271.
14. Ode 157: Mao shih chu shu, 15.35b; L. 238; K. 16.220. For the Four States see ch. XII, n. 55.
15. Ode 16: Mao shih chu shu, 2.16a; L. 26; K. 16.176. Cf. ch. VII, n. 25.
16. 親 稅 (instead of 說 ) 舍 (Liu, 73.4a).
17. Ku liang chu shu, Chuang 29, 6.19b, which continues: "when the people badly need their working power the erection of buildings is slowed down, when their income is insufficient the taxes are decreased, when they have shortage of food the public services are abolished".
18. Shang shu chu shu, Shun tien, 2.10a; L. 35. For the 'burnt offering' see Vol. I, p. 332, n. 319.
19. Ibid., 2.10b; L. 37. Cf. ch. X, n. 18.
20. In this form the passage does not occur in the present Tsêeng tzŭ wên, cf. ch. X, n. 16.
21. Li chi chu shu, 12.1a; C. 1.278. Cf. ch. X, n. 17.
22. 祖 instead of 接 (Ch'ên, 6.27b).
23. I.e., as Heaven is more exalted than the first forefather both cannot be mentioned in the same breath.
24. Cf. ch. X, par. 84a.
25. Li chi chu shu, 18.21 b; C. 1.433, where the wording is slightly different. Huang K'an, quoted in K'ung Ying-ta's sub-comm., says that the tablet taken is that which has been newly put in the 'general shrine', i.e. the shrine for the forefathers from great-great-grandfather's father upwards.
26. Cf. the Li chi, C. 1.435.
27. Cf. ibid., where exceptions to the rule are also mentioned. The 'specific' shrines are those of father, grandfather, great-grandfather, and great-great grandfather.
28. Li chi chu shu, 48.14a; C. II. 312.
29. Cf. ch. Fang chi of the Li chi (C. II. 403; L. 285).
30. Li chi chu shu, 51.24b; C. II. 419, where the text is more elaborate. The quotation occurs verbatim, however, in ch. Chiao t'ê shêng (C. I. 580, L. I. 421).
31. Li chi chu shu, 21.23b; C. I. 511.
32. For Ts'ang-wu 蒼 梧 see M.H. I. 91, for Kuei-chi 會 稽 see ibid. 162, 171.
33. Against this opinion are the Tso chuan, Hsüan 17 (L. 315), the Preface to the Shu ching (L. 8), the Shih chi (4.10a; M.H. I. 288), Chêng Hsüan's comm. on Ode 273 (Mao shih chu shu, 26.24b), Ch'ên Huan (Shih mao shih chuan shu, 26.14). K'ung Ying-ta says that although peace and order have not yet been restored a Tour of Inspection is allowed, but not the fêng- and shan-sacrifices (Mao shih chu shu, 26.23b).
34. 嶽, 捔 .
35. 岱 宗 .
36. 相 代 . Cf. Vol. I, p. 326, n. 300, and p. 331, n. 318.
37. 霍, 護 ; see Gr. Ser. nos. 775a and 784k. Instead of the Ho-shan, the Hêng-shan 衡 山 is given for the south in the Fêng su t'ung i, 10. 1b, where also Ho-shan is simply taken to be another name for Hêng-shan.
38. 華, 穫 .
39. 恆, 常 .
40. 嵩 高 .
41. 瀆, 濁 .
42. Erh ya chu shu, Shih shui, 7.14b. At present the Huai 淮 and the Chi 濟 no longer enter the sea.
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