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諸侯所以考黜何? 王者所以勉賢抑惡，重民之至也。《尚書》曰:"三載考績，三 考黜陟。"
禮記九錫，車馬、衣服、樂[則]、朱戶、納陛、虎賁、鈇鉞、弓矢、秬鬯，皆 隨其德，可行而賜(車馬)。 能安民者賜[車馬]，[能富民者賜]衣服，能使民和 樂者。賜以樂[則]，民眾多者賜以朱戶，能進善者賜以納陛，能退惡者賜以虎賁，能 誅有罪者賜以鈇鉞，能征不義者賜以弓矢，孝道備者賜以秬鬯。以先後與施行之次自不 相踰，相為本末然。 安民然後富(貴)[足]，[富足]而後樂，樂而後眾，乃多 賢，[多]賢乃能進善，進善乃能退惡，退惡乃能斷刑。內能正己，外能正人，內外行 備，孝道乃生。能安民，故賜車馬，以著其功德，安其身。 能使人富足衣食，倉鷹實， 故賜衣服以彰其體。 能使民和樂，故賜之樂[則]以事其先也。《禮》曰:"夫賜樂 者，(不)得以時王之樂事其宗廟也。" 朱盛色，戶所以紀民數也。故民眾多賜朱戶也。古者人君下賢，降階一等而禮之，故進賢賜之納陛以優之也。既能進善，當能戒惡,故賜虎賁。虎賁者、所以成不虞而距惡。距惡當斷刑，故賜之鈇鉞，鈇鉞、 所以斷 大刑。刑罰既中，則能征不羲。故賜[之]弓矢，弓矢、所以征不義，伐無道也。圭瓚秬鬯，宗廟之盛禮。故孝道備而賜之秬鬯，所以極著孝道。孝道純備，故內和外榮，玉以象德，金以配情，芬香條鬯，以通神靈。玉飾其本，君子之性; 金飾其中，君子之 道。君子有黃中通理之道美素德。金者、精和之至也，玉者、德美之至也，鬯者、芬香 之至也。君子有玉瓚秬鬯(乎車) 者以配道德也。其至矣，合天下之極美以通其志也，其唯玉瓚秬鬯乎? 車者、謂有赤有青之蓋，朱輪，特能居前，左右寢(米庶)[麋] 也。以其進止有節，德綏民，路車乘馬以安其身。言成章，行成規，卷龍之衣服表顯 其德。長於教誨，內懷至仁，則賜時王樂以化其民。尊賢達德，勳作有禮，賜之納陛以 安其體。居處修治，房內節，男女時配，賣賤有別，則賜朱戶以明其德列。威武有矜， 嚴位堅，賜以虎賁，以備非常。喜怒有節，誅伐刑，賜以鈇鉞，使得專殺。好惡 無私，執義不傾，賜以弓矢，使得專征。孝道之美，百行之本也。故賜以玉瓚，得專為 賜也。故《王制》曰:" 賜之弓矢，然後專殺。"又曰:" 賜圭瓚然後為暢，未賜 者，資暢於天子。"《王度記》曰:" 天子鬯，諸侯薰，大夫芭蘭，士蒹，庶人艾。" 車馬、衣服、樂[則]三等者賜與其物。《禮》:" 天子賜(諸)侯 (民) [氏] (服 車) [車服]，路先設，路下四惡之。" 又曰:" 諸公奉(選) [篋]服。"《王 制》曰:" 天子賜諸侯樂則以柷將之。"《詩》曰:"君子來朝，何錫與之? 雖無與 之, 路卓乘馬。又何以與之? 玄袞及繃。"《書》曰:"明試以功，串服以庸。"朱戶、納陛、虎賁者，皆與之制度，而鈇鉞、弓矢、玉鑽，皆與之物，各因其宜也。 秬者，黑黍，一稃二米。鬯者、以百草之香鬱金合而釀之，成為邕。 陽達於牆屋, [陰]入于淵泉，所以灌地降神也。玉瓚者、器名也，所以灌鬯之器也。以圭飾其柄， 灌鬯貴玉(器) [氣]也。
所以三歲一考績何? 三年有成，故於是賞有功，黜不肖。《尚書》曰:"三載考績，三考黜陟。" 何以知始考輒黜之?《尚書》曰:"三年一考，少黜以地。"《書》所言 "三考黜[陟] "者，謂爵土異也。小國考之有功，增土進爵，後考無功削黜，後考有功，上而賜之矣。五十里不過五賜而進爵土，七十里不過七賜而進爵土。能有小大，行有進退也。一說: 盛德始封百里者，賜三等，得征伐，專殺，斷獄。七十里伯始封，賜二等，至虎賁百人。後有功，賜弓矢。復有功，賜秬鬯，增爵為侯，益土百里。復有功，入為三公。五十里子男始封，賜一等，至樂[則]。 復有功，稍賜至虎賁，增爵為伯。復有功，稍賜至秬鬯，增爵為侯。末賜鈇鉞者，從大國連率方伯而斷獄。受命之(五) [王]，致太平之主，美群臣上下之功，故盡封之。及中興征伐，大功皆封，所以(著) [褒] 大功 [也]。盛德之士亦封之，所以尊有德也。以德封者必 試之 (必) [為] 附庸三年，有功，因而封 [之]五十里。元士有功者亦為附庸，世其位。大夫有功成封五十里，卿功成封七十里，公功成封百里。士有功德，遷為大夫。大夫有功德，遷為卿。卿有功德，遷為公。故爵主有德，封主有功也。諸侯有九賜習其 賜者何? 子之能否，未可知也。或曰得之，但未得行其習以專也。三年有功，則皆得用之矣。二考無功，則削其地而賜自并 (知) (之)，明本非其身所得也。身得之者得以賜，當稍黜之。爵所以封賢也。三公功成當封而死，得立其子為附庸。賢者之體，能有 一也，不二矣。一削為七十里侯，再削為七十里伯，三削為寄公。七十里伯，一削為五十里伯，(一) [二] 削為五十里子，三削地盡。五十里子，一削為三十里子，再削為三十里男，三削地盡。五十里男，一削為三十里男，再削為三十里附庸，三削爵盡。所以至三削何? 禮成於三，三三而不改，雖 (反) [百] 無益也。《尚書》曰: "三考黜陟。"先削地、後黜爵者何? 爵者、尊號也，地者、人所任也。今不能治廣土眾民,故先削其土地也。故《王制》曰:"宗廟有不順者，君黜以爵。" "山川神祇有不舉者，君削以地。" 明爵土不相隨也。或曰: 惡人貪(狼) [狠]重土，故先削其所重者以懼之也。 諸侯始封，爵土相隨者何? 君子重德薄刑，賞疑從重。《詩》云:"三曰叔父，建爾元子，俾侯于魯。"
君幼稚，唯考不黜者何? 君子不備責童子也。禮八十 [九十]日耄，(九十) [七年]曰悼。悼與耄，雖有罪不加刑焉。二王後不貶黜者何? 尊寶客，重先王也。以其 (當) [尚] 公也。罪惡足以絕之即絕，更立其次。 周公誅祿甫，立微子。妻父母不削，己昆弟削而不黜何? 非以賢能得之也。至於老小，但令得大夫受其罪而已。諸侯喑聾跛躄惡疾不免黜者何? 尊人君也。《春秋》曰:" 甲戌己丑，陳侯鮑卒。"《傳》 曰:"甲成之日亡，己丑之 [日] 死而得。"有狂易之病，蜚亡而死，由不絕也。世子有惡疾廢者何? 以其不可承先祖也。故《春秋傅》曰:"兄(弟)何以不立? [有] 疾也。何疾[爾]? 惡疾也。"
XX. Examination and Degradation
138---General Remarks (III A. 8a).
Why is it that the Feudal Lords are [regularly] examined and [promoted or] degraded [according to their merits]? The King therewith encourages the worthy and restrains the wicked, which is the highest degree of care for the people. The Shang shu says: "Every three years there was an examination of merits, and after three examinations there was [the process of] degrading and promoting" 1.
139---The Nine Distinctions (III A. 8a-10b).
a.The Li shuo [mentions] nine distinctions: Carriage and Horses, Robes and Garments, Musical Instruments, Vermillion Doors, Inside Staircases, [Gentlemen as] Rapid as Tigers, Ceremonial- and Battle-axes, Bows and Arrows, and Black Millet Herb-flavoured Liquor, which each are conferred according to the spiritual power displayed 2. b.Those who are able to comfort the people are granted Carriage and Horses; those who are able to enrich the people are granted Robes and Garments; those who are able to keep the people in harmony are granted Musical Instruments; those who have made their population numerous are granted Vermillion Doors; those who are able to promote the capable are granted Inside Staircases; those who are able to restrain the wicked are granted [Gentlemen as] Rapid as Tigers; those who are able to punish the culpable are granted Ceremonial- and Battle-axes; those who are able to chastise the unprincipled are granted Bows and Arrows; and those whose filial conduct is perfect are granted the Black Millet Herb-flavoured Liquor 3. c.As to the relative importance [of the distinctions], and the order of their bestowal, there is of course no overlapping, neither is it invertible. [For] it is only after the people have been comforted that wealth and sufficiency can be reached; only after wealth and sufficiency have been reached that they can have enjoyment; and only after they have relished enjoyment that they can be numer- ous and worthies can be abundantly produced. When there is an abundance of worthies the capable can be promoted; when the capable have been promoted the wicked can be restrained; when the wicked have been restrained sentences and punishments can [be dealt out. Thus,] inside, one corrects oneself, and, outside, one corrects others. When one's inside and outside conduct is perfect the filial Way is born. d.Those who are able to comfort the people are granted Carriage and Horses, so that their merit and spiritual power be made illustrious and their bodies may enjoy comfort. e.Those who are able to lead the people to wealth and sufficiency, showing in their clothes and food and in the full granaries, are granted Robes and Garments to adorn their bodies. f.Those who are able to lead the people to harmony and happiness are granted Musical Instruments, to use in their sacrifices to the ancestors. The Li says: "Those who have been granted Musical [Instruments] are allowed, in time with the King's music, to sacrifice in their ancestral temple" 4. g.Vermillion is the richest colour; the door [is used] to take the census. Therefore those who have increased [the number of the people] are granted the Vermillion Door. h.Formerly, when the Lord of men degraded a worthy, it was ritually done by decreasing [the number of the steps of] his staircase by one step. Therefore the promotion of a worthy is done by granting him Inside Staircases as a [form of] distinction. i.Since those who are able to promote the capable should [also] be able to restrain the wicked they are granted [Gentlemen as] Rapid as Tigers, that they may be prepared against unforeseen events and check evil. j.Those who [have to] check evil must [have the means to] sentence and punish; therefore they are granted Ceremonial- and Battle-axes, that with these Ceremonial- and Battle-axes they [may be able to] sentence capital offences. k.When the penal code has been established it is possible to chastise the unprincipled; therefore Bows and Arrows are granted to chastise the unprincipled, and punish those who do not adhere to the Way. l.The Libation-cup and the Black Millet Herb-flavoured Liquor belong to the exquisite ritual [objects] of the ancestral temple. Therefore those whose filial conduct is perfect are granted the Black Millet Herb-flavoured Liquor to make extremely manifest their piety. When one's filial behaviour is pure and perfect then at home one attains harmony, and out-doors one attains glory. m.Jade symbolizes spiritual power, gold represents [a virtuous] nature. The perfumes [of the liquor] rise upwards, and enter into communication with the spirits. Jade adorns the handle [of the libation-cup and indicates] the inner nature of the Noble Man; gold adorns the inside [of the ladle and indicates] the behaviour of the Noble Man. [It means that] the Noble Man's inside is yellow [as gold], that his behaviour is in communication with the right principle, and that he has embellished and purified his spiritual power. Gold is the acme of refinement and harmony. Jade is the acme of spiritual power and beauty. The Herb-flavoured Liquor is the acme of fragrance. The Noble Man who is in possession of a Jade Libation-cup with Black Millet Herb-flavoured Liquor [has been granted them] to match the spiritual power [proceeding from his possession] of the Way; he has then reached [his per- fection] indeed. He has united what is most beautiful in all under Heaven, so as to enter into communication with their ambitions. How should it only be [a case of] Libation-cup and Black Millet Herb-flavoured Liquor [as objects for use]? n.Of the carriages it is said that they have a red or a green small dais 5, and vermillion wheels. A male bear sejant is [pictured] in front, on the left and the right are deer couchants. o.Those who in their application for office and in their resignation from it observe the rules of decorum, and in their deportment the rules of self-restraint, are granted Carriage and Horses to replace their going on foot. Those whose speech has attained a perfect polishment, and whose conduct has become a standard, are granted Robes and Garments to make manifest their spiritual power. Those who have distinguished themselves in their teachings and exhortations, and harbour the highest [feelings of] consideration for others, are granted Musical Instruments to reform their people. Those whose abodes are well ordered, and in whose apartments there is no promiscuity, are granted the Vermillion Door to make known their [sense of] discrimination. Those who honour the worthy, promote those who have spiritual power, and in their bearing follow the ritual [rules], are granted Inner Staircases to ease their bodies. Those who by their courage are resolute and audacious, and whose adherence to principles is strong and unyielding, are granted [Gentlemen as] Rapid as Tigers, that they may prepare themselves against extraordinary events. Those who are able to rouse themselves to martiality, and whose mind is always alert and watchful, are granted Battle-axes, and given the right to execute on their own initiative. Those who harbour [feelings of] consideration for others and [possess] spiritual power, and who unflinchingly hold fast to principles, are granted Bows and Arrows, and given the right to start a punitive expedition on their own initiative. Those who serve their parents with filial piety and love are granted the Black Millet Herb-flavoured Liquor to enable them [to perfect] their sacrifices 6. Therefore the Wang chih says: "When Bows and Arrows are conferred [on a Feudal Lord] he can inflict death of his own accord" 7; further it says: "When a Jade Libation-cup is conferred he can make the Herb-flavoured Liquor [for himself]; when he is not granted [the Libation-cup] he has to receive the material for the liquor from the Son of Heaven" 8. p.The Wang tu chi says: "The Son of Heaven [uses for the making of the liquor] the ch'ang, a Feudal Lord the hsün, a great officer the lan-chih, a common officer the hsiao, and the common man the ai [-plant]" 9. q.The three grades [of distinctions]: Carriage and Horses, Robes and Garments, and Musical Instruments, are conferred together with the objects. r.The Li [says]: "When the Son of Heaven confers upon a Feudal Lord Carriage and Garments the coach is set out first, then behind it are the steeds, four in number" 10. Further it says: "The Ducal Ministers present the garments in a basket [to the Feudal Lords]" 11. s.The Wang chih says: "When the Son of Heaven grants Musical Instruments to a Feudal Lord the presentation is made by the handing over of the chu" 12. The Shih says: "The Noble Men are coming to court. What will they be given? Although there is nothing to give them there are state carriages and teams of horses. What is further to be given them? Black ceremonial robes and embroidered garments" 13. The Shu says: "[The Feudal Lords were] clearly examined as to their works, and [were rewarded with] Carriages and Garments for use" 14. t.The Vermillion Door, the Inner Staircases, and the [Gentlemen as] Rapid as Tigers are granted as institutions, while the Ceremonial- and Battle-axes, the Bows and Arrows, and the Jade Libation-cup are granted as objects. In each [of the cases the form of the grant] follows the nature [of the objects]. u.The chü is black millet with two grains contained in one husk. The ch'ang is a concoction [made of a] mixture with the yü-chin the most odorous of all plants; they make [together] the ch'ang [-wine] 15. The yang [-elements of it] rise to the walls and roofs, the yin [-elements] enter the deep springs, moistening the earth and causing the spirits to descend 16. v.Yü-tsan17 is the name of a vessel. It is the vessel with which to pour out the ch'ang [-wine]. The handle is adorned with a jade plaque. The liquor is poured out [with this cup] because the influence of jade is highly esteemed.
140---The Meaning of Promotion and Degradation After Three Examinations (III A.11a-12b).
a.Why is it that once in three years an examination of merits is held? [A period of] three years forms a complete [cycle], therefore within this period the meritorious are rewarded and the undeserving degraded. The Shang shu says: "Every three years there was an examination of merits, and after three examinations there was [the process of] degrading and promoting" 18. b.How do we know that at the first examination [the undeserving are already] degraded? The Shang shu says: "After three years there was an examination, and minor degradations [consisting in diminution] of land [were applied to the undeserving]" 19. The statement in the Shu that "after three examinations there was [the process of] degrading and promoting" means that [the promotion and degradation with respect to] rank are different from [those with respect to] land. c.In small states, after the [first] examination, the meritorious receive an addition of land and a promotion in rank; at the next examination the undeserving are stripped [of part of their territory] and degraded [in rank]; at the third examination the meritorious are promoted and granted distinctions. d.[Holders of fiefs of] fifty li square, while promoted in rank and receiving an addition of land, shall not be granted more than five distinctions; [holders of fiefs of] seventy li square, while promoted in rank and receiving an addition of land, shall not be granted more than seven distinctions. As there is [a distinction between] small and great with respect to ability, so there is [a distinction between the ways of] promoting and degrading with respect to [the judgement of] behaviour. e.One opinion says: He who for his abundant spiritual power is enfeoffed as the first [of his line] with [a territory of] one hundred li [square] is granted the third set [of three distinctions], and the right to start a punitive expedition, to execute on his own judgement, and to pronounce sentences of incarceration. An Earl who as the first [of his line] is enfeoffed with [a territory of] seventy li [square] is granted the second set [of three distinctions] up to one hundred [Gentlemen as] Rapid as Tigers. When afterwards he achieves merit he is granted Bows and Arrows, and when again he achieves merit he is given the Black Millet Herb-flavoured Liquor, while he is promoted to the rank of Marquis, and his territory is increased to one hundred li. When he again achieves merit he is called to court to act as [one of] the Three Ducal Ministers. A Viscount or a Baron who as the first [of his line] is enfeoffed with [a territory of] fifty li [square] is granted the first set [of three distinctions] up to Musical Instruments. When he achieves merit he receives gradually additional distinctions 20 up to the [Gentlemen as] Rapid as Tigers, and is raised to the rank of Earl. When he again achieves merit he is granted the Black Millet Herb-flavoured Liquor, and is promoted to the rank of Marquis. Those who have not been granted Ceremonial- and Battle-axes are, in questions of execution and imprisonment, subordinated to the 'heads of a union of ten states' lien-shuai21 or to the Regional Chiefs. f.A King who has received the mandate [of Heaven], being a ruler who has brought about general peace, holds the merits of all his subjects, high and low, in high esteem, therefore he gives out as many fiefs as he can: those who have assisted him to establish [his own Dynasty] and to depose [the previous Dynasty] are all enfeoffed as a reward for their important work. g.A common officer who has abundant spiritual power is also enfeoffed, as a token of honour to those who have spiritual power. Those who are enfeoffed on account of their spiritual power must first be tested as holders of sub-fiefs. When after three years they prove to be meritorious they receive fiefs of fifty li. h.A common officer of the Son of Heaven 22 who has achieved merit also receives a sub-fief, while his position is made hereditary. i.A great officer who has achieved merit 23 receives a fief of fifty li, a Minister a fief of seventy li, a Ducal Minister a fief of one hundred li. j.A common officer who has displayed spiritual power is promoted to the rank of great officer, a great officer who has displayed spiritual power is promoted to the rank of Minister, and a Minister who has displayed spiritual power is promoted to the rank of Ducal Minister. k.So ranks are bestowed on account of spiritual power displayed, and fiefs are given on account of merit achieved. l.Why is it that the Nine Distinctions granted to a Feudal Lord are not hereditary 24? Because it is as yet unknown whether the son will show ability or not. m.Another opinion is: They are [hereditary], but it is not allowed to apply those connected with autonomous authority. Only when after three years [the son has] achieved merit has he the right to use all [the prerogatives attached to the distinctions]. If after two examinations [the son] fails to distinguish himself he is deprived of his land and naturally also of his [inherited] distinctions 25. It indicates that he has not acquired [the land and the distinctions] by his own personal [merits. In the case of] those who have acquired them by their own personal [merits] they are left their distinctions, but their rank and land 26 are reduced by degrees to enfeoff other worthies therewith. n.If [one of] the Three Ducal Ministers who has achieved merit and is entitled to a fief dies, his son may be set up as the holder of a sub-fief. [He is considered to possess] the same abilities as his worthy [father], and will not turn out to be disgraceful 27. o.A Marquis [with a territory] of one hundred li becomes a Marquis [with a territory] of seventy li at the first degradation; he becomes an Earl [with a territory] of seventy li at the second degradation; at the third degradation he becomes a 'refugee prince' 28. p.An Earl [with a territory] of seventy li becomes an Earl [with a territory] of fifty li at the first degradation; he becomes a Viscount [with a territory] of fifty li at the second degradation; at the third degradation his land is completely [taken from him]. q.A Viscount [with a territory] of fifty li becomes a Viscount [with a territory] of thirty li; he becomes a Baron [with a territory] of thirty li at the second degradation; at the third degradation his land is completely [taken from him]. r.A Baron [with a territory] of fifty li becomes a Baron [with a territory] of thirty li at the first degradation; he becomes a holder of a sub-fief of thirty li at the second degradation; at the third degradation his rank is completely [taken from him]. s.Why is it with the third degradation [that the extreme measure is taken]? The rites have their completion with three. When after three [examinations] one has not improved even one hundred 29 [examinations] will be useless. The Shang shu says: "After three examinations there was [the process of] degrading and promoting" 30. t.Why is first the land reduced, and afterwards the rank? Rank is an appellation of honour, land is that for which a man bears responsibility. If, now, he is not able to govern a territory and a population of some magnitude [properly] he is first deprived of [a part of] his territory. Therefore the Wang chih says: "When there has been neglect of [the proper order of the sacrifices in] the ancestral temple the [neglectful Feudal] Lord is reduced in rank; when the spirits of the hills and streams have not received attention he is deprived of [a part of his territory]" 31. It means that rank and territory are not [necessarily] connected. u.Another opinion is: Evil people are greedy and covetous 32, they value [the possession of] land. Therefore they are first deprived of the thing they value, so as to frighten them. v.Why [are, in the case of] a Feudal Lord who is enfeoffed as the first [of his line], rank and territory connected with each other? The Noble Man emphasizes [the importance of] spiritual power, and is sparing with punishments. Should there be any doubt 33 as to the giving of a reward [or the nflicting of a punishment] he follows what he emphasizes. The Shih says: "The King says: My Uncle, I will set up thy eldest son, and make him Lord of Lu" 34.
141---The Deposal of a Feudal Lord (III A. 12b-13b).
a.Why is it that the ruler [of a state], when he is [still] young and weak, is only examined [but is] not [subject to] degradation? The Noble Man does not fully hold a youth responsible. The Li [says: "A man of] eighty or ninety is called a mao, [a youth of] seven is called a tao" 35. Neither a mao nor a tao, though they have committed a crime, are subjected to punishment. b.Why are the descendants of [the Kings of] the two [previous] Dynasties not deprived of [all] their ranks? They are honoured as guests, which is [an expression of] piety towards the former Kings [,their ancestors], and are ranked above the [other] Dukes 36. c.If [,however,] they commit crimes which are such that they should be cut off then they are cut off, but a successor is set up. [So] the Duke of Chou executed Lu-fu, and set up the Viscount of Wei [as his successor] 37. d.Why is it that [in the case of a Lord having committed a crime] the parents of his wife are not deprived of their territory while his brothers, though their lands are taken from them, are not degraded? Because it was not on account of their worthiness and ability that they had received [their ranks and lands] 38. As to the very old and the very young, their great officers should only bear the brunt. e.Why is it that a Feudal Lord, though he is mute or deaf or lame or a cripple or suffers from a loathsome disease, is not deposed? Out of piety towards the Lord of men. The Ch'un ch'iu says: "[On the days] chia-hsü and chi-ch'ou the Marquis of Ch'ên, Pao, died". The Chuan says: "On the day chia-hsü he disappeared, on the day chi-ch'ou he was found dead" 39. [The Marquis] was suffering from mental derangement; he wandered away, was lost, and died. He had [then] not yet been deposed. f.Why is the Generation-son, when he is suffering from a loathsome disease, excluded [from the succession]? Because he will not be able to serve his ancestors. Therefore the Ch'un ch'iu chuan says: "Why had not [Chê,] the eldest brother [of the Marquis of Wei,] been set up [as Marquis]? He was suffering from a disease. What kind of disease? A loathsome disease" 40.
1. 三 載 攷 積 三 攷 黜 徏 Shang. shu chu shu, Shun tien, 2.32b; L. 50. The Shang shu text continues: 幽 明 庶 積 咸 熙. Some texts punctuate after , so the Shang shu ta chuan 1.8b, the Han shu, Biogr. of Ku Jung, 85.4a; other texts punctuate, like the Po hu t'ung, before 幽, so Han shu, Biogr. of Li Hsün, 75.28b, the Shih chi, 1.27b (M.H. I. 88; the Shih chi paraphrases: 遠 近 眾 功 咸 興 ). The difference of meaning in both readings is only slight.
2. From the Li wei han wên chia, acc. to the sub-comm. in Kung yang chu shu Chuang 1, 6.6b-7a. Cf. also Vol. I, p. 25. Lu suggests the reading 所 行 instead of 可 丨 .
3. Cf. Vol. I, p. 27.
4. The quotation cannot be identified.
5. 芝 ? (此字為上 “草” 中 “太” 下 “皿”) (Hung I-hsüan, o.c. 16.16b).
6. Cf. Vol. I, p. 26, n. 119, and p. 29, n. 122.
7. Li chi chu shu, 12.2a; C. I. 280, where the wording is slightly different.
9. 鬯 ch'ang , hsün薰, lan-chih 蘭 芝 (Ch'ên, 7.4b), hsiao 蕭(ibid.), ai 艾, all odoriferous plants, belonging to the Artemisia species.
10. I li chu shu, Chin li, 10.15a-b; C. 379.
11. Ibid. Both Couvreur and Steele (II. 5) take 諸 公 to refer to one person. I have followed Chia Kung-yen's sub-comm. o.c. 16a.
12. 柷 Li chi chu shu, 12.2a; C. I. 279. For the chu , the instrument used to start the orchestra, cf. ch. VI, n. 122.
13. Ode 222: Mao shih chu shu, 22.3b; L. 401; K. 16.252.
14. Shang shu chu shu, Shun tien, 2.11a; L. 37.
15. 秬, 鬯, 鬱 金 . Mao's comm. on Ode 262 gives the following explanation: "Chü is the black millet, ch'ang is a fragant plant whose 'leaves' ( 築 , see Chêng Hsüan's comm. in Chou li chu shu, 19.22b) are boiled together [with the millet] and condensed (鬱, K'ung Ying-ta's sub-comm. in Mao shih chu shu, 25.89b), [the concoction is then] called ch'ang" (Mao shih chu shu, 25.88b). Chêng Hsüan's comm. (l.c.) says that chü-ch'ang is wine made from black millet, and called ch'ang because the fragrant vapours 'rise upwards' t'iao-ch'ang 條鬯. He further (Chou li chu shu, 19.25a and 22b) distinguishes between the chü-ch'ang wine, which does not contain the yü (or any other odorous) plant, and the yü-ch'ang, which contains it. For other opinions see K'ung Ying-ta, l.c., Chia Kung-yen in Chou li chu shu, l.c., Ch'ên Huan in Shih mao shih chuan shu, 25.79; cf. also Bretschneider, Botanicon Sinicum II. 157 and 231, Biot's transl. of the Chou li, I. 468, note.
16. Cf. the somewhat similar passage in ch. Chiao t'ê shêng of the Li chi, C. I. 612; L. I. 443.
17. 玉 瓚 , i.e. 'Jade Libation-cup'.
18. See n. 1.
19. This quotation does not occur in the present Shang shu.
20. 稍 賜 .
21. See ch. VII, par. 55a.
22. 元 士 yüan-shih, cf. Vol. I, p. 278, n. 78.
23. 有 should be dropped before 功 成 (Liu, 73.4a).
24. 習 should be read 不 襲 (Lu).
25. 知 should be 之 (Lu).
26. 地 has been added by Lu.
27. 不 貣 (=忒) 矣 inst. of 不 二 (=貳)矣 (Liu, 73.4b).
28. 寄 公 chi-kung, i.e. a Lord who has lost his territories (I li, C. 407).
29. 百 inst. of 反 (Liu, 73.4b).
30. See n. 1.
31. Li chi chu shu, 11.34a; C. I. 276, where the text is more elaborate, and the order of the statements is reversed. Cf. also ch. XIX, par. 128d. The quotation is not particularly relevant.
32. 貪 狼 . Hung I-hsüan (o.c. 16.17a) suggests the reading 丨 戾 , which means the same.
33. Lu mentions the reading of 宜 inst. of 疑 , in which case the translation would be: "In the bestowing of rewards he should follow what he emphasizes."
34. Ode 300: Mao shih chu shu, 29.25a; L. 623; K. 17. 96. Cf. ch. VII, n. 71.
35. 耄, 悼 . Li chi chu shu, Ch'ü li, 1.12a; C. I. 9.
36. The title of 'Duke' kung was given to some holders of a fief of 100 li, to the 'Ducal Ministers', and to the descendants of the last two Dynasties.
37. Lu-fu or Wu-kêng was the descendant of the last Yin Sovereign (cf. M.H. I. 207, n. 4). The Viscount of Wei was an elder brother of this Sovereign, and the first holder of the fief of Sung; he passed for the first ancestor of Confucius (M.H. IV. 214ff.; V. 284, n. 2).
38. But on account of their being relatives of the King.
39. Kung yang chu shu, Huan 5, 4.19a.
40. Ibid., Chao 20, 23.17a. The Tso chuan (Chao 7; L. 619) gives as the reason for Chê being passed over that he was feeble in walking, and so must remain at home.
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