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王者所以不臣[者]三，何也? 謂 (三) [二] 王之後，妻之父母，夷狄也。不臣二王之後者，尊先王，通天下之三統也。《詩》云:"有客有客，亦白其馬。" 謂微子朝周也。《尚書》曰:"虞賓在位。"不臣丹朱也。不臣妻父母何? 妻者與己一體，恭承宗廟，欲得其歡心，上承先祖，下繼萬世，傳於無窮，故不臣也。《春秋》 曰:"紀季姜歸于京師。" 父母之於子，雖為王后，尊不加於父母。(加) [知] (王何)王者不臣也。(人) [又]譏宋三世內娶於國中，謂無臣也。夷狄者、與中國絕域異俗，非中和氣所生，非禮羲所能化，故不臣也。《春秋傅》曰:"夷狄相誘，君子不疾。"《尚書大傳》曰:"正朔所不加，即君子所不臣也。"
王者有蹔不臣者五，謂祭尸，受授之師，將(師)[帥]用兵，三老，五更。不臣祭尸者，方與尊者配也。不臣受授之師者，尊師重道，欲使極陳天人之意也。故《禮·學記》曰:"當其為師，則不臣也。當其為尸，則不臣也。" 不臣將 (師) [帥] 用兵者，重士眾為敵國，國不可從外治， 兵不可從內御，欲成其威，一其令。《春秋》之義，兵不稱使，明不可臣也。不臣三老五更者，欲率天下為人子弟。《禮》曰:"父事三老，兄事五更。"
王者不純臣諸侯何? 尊重之，以其列土傅子孫，世世稱君，南面而治。凡不臣 [者]，異 [於眾臣也]。朝則迎之於著，覲則待之於阼階，升降自西階，為庭燎，設九賓，享禮而後歸。是異於眾臣也。
始封之君，不臣諸父 [兄] 弟何? 不忍以己一日之功德加於諸父兄弟也。故《禮·服傳》曰:" 封君之子不臣諸父，封君之孫盡臣之。"
王者臣不得為諸侯臣，以其尊當與諸侯同。《春秋傳》曰:" 許公不世，待以 初。" 或曰:王者臣得復為諸侯臣者，為衰世主上不明，賢者非其罪而去，道不施行， 百姓不得其所，復令得為諸侯臣，施行其道。《易》曰:"不事王侯。"此據言王之致 仕臣也。言不事王可知。復言侯者，明年少，復得仕於諸侯也。
王者臣有不名者五: 先王老臣不名，親與先王戮力共治國，同功於天下，故尊而不名也。《尚書》曰:" 咨爾伯。"不曾名也。不名者、賣賢者而已。共成先祖功德，德加于百姓者也。《春秋》曰:"單(父) [伯]不言名。"《傳》曰:"[吾]大夫之命于天子者 (大)也。" 盛德之士[不]名，尊賢也。《春秋》曰:"公弟叔 (盻) [肸]。" 諸父諸兄不名。諸父諸兄者親，與己父兄有敵體之蠹也。《詩》云:"王曰叔父。"《春秋傳》曰:"王(禮者)[札子]何(無)? 長[庶]之稱也。" 不名盛德之士者，不可屈 [以] 爵祿也。 故《韓詩內傳》曰:"師臣者帝，(交)友 (受)臣者王，臣臣者(爵)[霸]，魯臣者亡。(不行)。"
XXI. Whom the King does Not Consider His Subjects
142---The Three Groups of Persons Not Considered as the King's Subjects (III A. 13b-14a).
a.Who constitute the three [groups of persons] whom the King does not consider his subjects? They are the descendants of the [Kings of the] two [previous] Dynasties, the parents of his wife, and the barbarian tribes 1. b.He does not consider the descendants of the [Kings of the] two [previous] Dynasties as his subjects, to honour the former Kings, and because [with these two Dynasties] he represents the 'Three Reigns' 2 to all under Heaven. The Shih says: "There is a guest, there is a guest, white are his horses" 3. This refers to the Viscount of Wei paying a court-visit to [the King of] Chou 4. The Shang shu says: "The guest [of Shun] of Yü was in his seat" 5. This refers to Tan-chu [,the son of Yao, Shun's predecessor], who was not treated as a subject [by Shun]. c.Why [does the King] not consider the parents of his wife his subjects? His wife forms one body with him. [Her task is] reverently to assist in the sacrifices in the ancestral temple, and to strive at satisfying his desire; so, above, she is in connection with his ancestors, and below, she continues, in endless succession, his line to ten thousand generations. Therefore [her parents are] not considered [the King's] subjects. The Ch'un ch'iu says: "Chi-chiang [,daughter of the Marquis] of Chi, went as bride to the capital" 6. The relation between parents and daughter is such that, even if she becomes the Queen, her dignity does not affect [her attitude towards] her parents 7. [Thus] we know that the King [,her Consort,] does not consider them his subjects [either]. Again [the Ch'un ch'iu] condemns [the fact that the Lords of the state of] Sung during three generations have taken their wives [from among the daughters of the great officers] within their [own] state, which means that [these great officers are] no [longer their] subjects 8. d.The barbarian tribes live in regions far from the Middle State, and have different customs; they have not been bred in an atmosphere of harmony and restraint, neither are they susceptible to the reforming influences of the ritual rules; therefore they are not considered to be [the King's] subjects. The Ch'un ch'iu chuan says: "When barbarians deceive each other the Noble Man [Confucius] does not criticize them" 9. The Shang shu ta chuan says: "Those to whom [the principle of changing] the first day of the first month does not apply are not considered the Sovereign's subjects".
143---The Five Groups of Persons Who Temporarily Are Not Considered Subjects (III A. 14a-b).
a.There are five [groups of persons] whom the King temporarily does not consider his subjects. They are: the impersonator of his deceased [father] at a sacrifice, the teacher from whom he receives tuition, the general in the field, the san-lao, and the wu-kêng10. b.The impersonator of the deceased [father] at a sacrifice is not considered a subject because during [the time of his function] he is identical with the exalted [deceased] 11. The teacher from whom he receives tuition is not considered a subject, out of reverence for the teacher, in order to emphasize the importance of the Way, and from the desire to cause him to explain exhaustively the design of Heaven and Man. Therefore the Li hsüeh chi says: "He who functions as one's teacher is not considered one's subject, neither is he who functions as impersonator of one's deceased [father]" 12. c.The general in the field is not considered a subject, out of consideration for the officers and soldiers, who act as champions for the state. As state[-affairs] may not be managed from without, so [the affairs of] war may not be conducted from within. It is desirable that the authority [of the general] should be complete, and his command unified. According to the doctrine of the Ch'un ch'iu [the general of] an army [in the field] is not to be called an envoy, which means that he is not considered a subject 13. d.The san-lao and the wu-kêng are not considered subjects because [the King] wishes to induce all under Heaven to behave [towards elders] like sons or younger brothers. The Li says: "[The Son of Heaven] serves the san-lao like a father, and the wu-kêng like an elder brother" 14.
144---The Feudal Lords are Not Ordinary Subjects (III A. 14b).
Why does the King not consider the Feudal Lords as ordinary subjects? He respects and honours them as holders of fiefs which can be passed on to their sons and grandsons, and as hereditary Lords who rule with their faces turned to the south. Their treatment as no [ordinary] subjects is different from that of subjects in general: at the spring-audience 15 [the Son of Heaven] receives them in the space between the door and the door-screen 16; at the autumn-audience 17 they are received at the eastern steps 18; they ascend and descend by the western steps; the hall-torch 19 is [then] lit, and they are feasted according to the 'ceremonial of the Nine Guests' 20, after which they return [to their own states]. This is [a] different [treatment] from [that of ordinary] subjects 21.
145---Paternal Uncles and Brothers are Not Considered Subjects (III A. 14b).
Why does a Lord who has been enfeoffed as the first [of his line] not consider his paternal uncles and his brothers as his subjects? He cannot bear to treat them as such on account of his spiritual power having [only] proved efficient the day before. Therefore the Li fu chuan says: "The son of a Lord who has been en- feoffed [as the first of his line] does not consider his paternal uncles his subjects [but only his brothers]; the grandson of such a Lord considers all of them his subjects" 22.
146---Is a Son Allowed to be His Father's Minister? (III A. 14b-15a).
a.The Li fu chuan says: "A son may act as a Minister to his father on account of the principle of not neglecting the capable" 23. The Shih says: "When [King] Wên and [King] Wu held their mandates the Duke of Shao acted as their support" 24. The Duke of Shao was King Wên's son 25. b.The Chuan [on the contrary] says: "A son may not act as a Minister to his father, for [it is essential that] within the women's doors peace be maintained, and at court reverence be observed. Man cannot avoid committing errors and violating principles out of feelings of love" 26.
147---May a Minister of the King be Employed by a Feudal Lord? (III A. 15a).
a.A Minister of the King may not be employed as a Minister by a Feudal Lord because he is of the same dignity as the Feudal Lord. The Ch'un ch'iu chuan says: "A refugee-prince is not to be treated as a subject 27 [by a Feudal Lord], he should be treated according to [the rank which he had] before" 28. b.Another opinion is: A Minister of the King may be employed as a Minister by a Feudal Lord when in a degenerate age the Overlord, misunderstanding the worthy, discharges him without guilt, so that the Way is not put into practise and the Hundred Clans do not know to whom to apply. [In this case] he is allowed to become a Minister to a Feudal Lord, in order to put the Way into practise. The I says: "He serves neither King nor Feudal Lord" 29. This statement refers to a retired Minister of the King. The statement that he does not serve the King is evident. The reference to the Feudal Lord means that if he is still young he may enter the service of a Feudal Lord.
148---Five Groups of Persons Not to be Addressed by Their Personal Name (III A. 15a-16a).
a.Of the King's subjects there are five [groups of persons] who are not addressed by their personal name 30. b.The old Ministers of the previous Kings are not addressed by their personal name: they have, in close relation with their Sovereigns, given their strength in the government of the state, and have shared with them their service to all under Heaven. Therefore, out of respect [for them], they are not addressed by their personal name. The Shang shu says: "[Shun said:] Ah, thou, [my] Uncle". The personal name [I] is not used [here] 31. c.Great officers of the first rank 32 are not addressed by their personal name [by the King], out of esteem for the worthy who may, in combination with him, complete the work and the spiritual power 33 of his ancestors for the benefit of the Hundred Clans. The Ch'un ch'iu [speaks of] Shan-po without using the personal name. The Chuan says: "This was our [,the state of Lu's,] great officer who had been nominated by the Son of Heaven" 34. d.A common officer who possesses spiritual power in abundance is not addressed by his personal name, to honour his worthiness 35. The Ch'un ch'iu speaks of 'the Duke's younger brother Shu-hsi' 36. The reason for not addressing a common officer who possesses spiritual power by his personal name is that it is not proper to slight him on account of his [lowly] rank and [small] renumeration 37. e.Paternal uncles and elder brothers are not addressed by their personal name on account of their near relation, [they and the speaker] having the same lineal descent. The Shih says: "King [Ch'êng] said [to the Duke of Chou: My] Uncle" 38. The Ch'un ch'iu chuan says: "Who is [meant by] Cha, the King's son? It is the denomination of an elder brother by a concubine" 39. f.Therefore the Han shih nei chuan says: "He who treats his Minister as his teacher [will attain] emperorship, he who treats his Minister as his friend [will attain] kingship, he who treats his Minister as his servant [will attain] hegemony, he who treats his Minister as his slave 40 will perish.
1. These three groups are called 三 恪 san-k'o. There are three series of the san-k'o: the first consists of the descendants of the two previous Dynasties and the descendants of Huang-ti, Yao, and Shun; the second consists of the descendants of the two previous Dynasties and one Dynasty preceding them; the third series is the one expounded by the Po hu t'ung, which also occurs in the Hsiao ching kou ming chüeh (Yü han, 58.34b). Cf. the T'ung tien, ch. 74, p. 406, and K'ung Ying-ta's sub-comm. on the Tso chuan, Hsiang 25 (Tso chuan chu shu, 36.14b).
2. 三 統 san-t'ung. see ch. XXVII, par. 176a.
3. Ode 284: Mao shih chu shu, 27.26a; L. 592; K. 17.91.
4. The Viscount of Wei 微 was the descendant of the Yin Dynasty.
5. Shang shu chu shu, I chi, 4.16b; L. 87. For Tan-chu being treated as a guest, cf. M.H. I. 92, n. 4.
6. Huan 9. She is here mentioned by her personal name.
7. This sentence seems to be a combination of a statement of the Kung yang chuan and that of Ho Hsiu (cf. Vol. I, p. 58).
8. See Hsi 25 and Ho Hsiu's comm. on it (Kung yang chu shu, 12.6a). Cf. also Vol. I, p. 353, n. 497.
9. Kung yang chu shu, Chao 16, 23.9b.
10. For the san-lao and the wu-kêng see ch. XIII, par. 113.
11. Cf. ch. Chi t'ung of the Li chi (C. II. 335; L. II. 245).
12. Li chi chu shu, 36.15b; C. II. 39.
13. Cf. ch. X, par. 87.
14. The quotation cannot be identified, but cf. ch. XIII, n. 22.
15. 朝 ch'ao, see ch. Ch'ü li of the Li chi (C. I. 91-92) and Chêng Hsüan's comm. on it (Li chi chu shu, 5.5a). Also Chou li chu shu, 37.1b.
16. 著 or 箸 or 寧 chu, see K'ung Ying-ta's sub-comm. o.c. 5.6b, Erh ya chu shu, Shih kung, 4.6b, Mao's chuan in Mao shih chu shu, 8.6a, and Shih mao shih chuan shu, 8.93.
17. 覲 chin, cf. n. 15.
18. 作 階 tsu-chieh.
19. 庭 燎 t'ing-liao, cf. Mao, Chêng Hsüan, and K'ung Ying-ta in Mao shih chu shu, 18.5b-6a, and Chou li chu shu, 36.8b (B. II. 381).
20. 九 賓 chiu-pin or 丨 儀 chiu-i, i.e. the five nobilities and the four official ranks, see Chou li chu shu, 37.5a; B. II. 397.
21. The opinion that Feudal Lords are not considered as ordinary subjects is also held by Ho Hsiu (his comm. in Kung yang chu shu, Yin 1, 1.20b) and Chêng Hsüan (his comm. on Ode 276 in Mao shih chu shu, 27.1b). Ho Hsiu says that the Son of Heaven addresses them with the terms po-chiu 'mother's elder brother' and shu-chiu 'mother's younger brother' when they have a different surname from the King's, and with po-fu 'father's elder brother' and shu-fu 'father's younger brother' when they have the same surname.
22. I li chu shu, Sang fu, 11.61b; C. 420.
23. The quotation is not to be found in the present ch. Sang fu of the I li.
24. Ode 262: Mao shih chu shu, 25.87b; L. 554; K. 17.85.
25. This is also said by Wang Ch'ung in his Lun hêng (Forke I. 316). The Shih chi (M.H. IV. 133) only says that the Duke of Shao had the same clan-name as the Chou.
26. The quotation cannot be identified.
27. 世 should probably be 臣, cf. ch. Chiao t'ê shêng of the Li chi (C. I. 583).
28. In this form the quotation does not occur in the Kung yang chuan, where, under Huan 7, the statement reads: "The high position [of a refugee-prince] will not be retained by his descendants [but he himself] should be treated according to [the rank which he had] before" (Kung yang chu shu, 5.2a). Cf. also Ho Hsiu's comm. on Yin 4: "A Lord who has faced south cannot by the virtue of his authority be degraded again to [the position of] a subject" (o.c. 2.18a).
29. Chou i chu shu, Ku kua, 4.16b; L. 96.
30. This is in conformity with Ho Hsiu's comm. on Huan 4 (Kung yang chu shu, 4.18a).
31. Shang shu chu shu, Shun tien, 2.28b; L. 47. Po 伯 'Uncle' is here used as a term of respect (cf. Kung yang chu shu, 4.17b, Ho Hsiu's comm.), and does not mean 'Baron' as Legge translates. In the Shih chi the quotation occurs with the name I, thus Po I 伯 夷 (M.H. I. 85), in which Po is taken as the first part of the proper name. Acc. to Sun Hsing-yen the Shih chi quotation is in the ku-wên version, that of the Po hu t'ung in the chin-wên version (Shang shu chin ku wên chu shu, 1.51-52). Cf. also ch. XXXIII, par. 206b.
32. 上 大 夫 , supplied by Ch' ên, 7.16b.
33. One character 德 is redundant (ibid.).
34. Kung yang chu shu, Chuang 1, 6.4a. Shan-po 單 伯 was his 'style' (Ho Hsiu's comm.). Fan Ning's comm. in Ku liang chu shu, 5.2a, says that Shan was his clan-name, and Po his 'style'.
35. Cf. the Mêng tzü, Va. 4 (L. 351).
36. Hsüan 17. Shu-hsi 叔 肸 was his 'style'. At Hsüan's usurpation of the throne he retired and lived in poverty (Ho Hsiu's comm. in Kung yang chu shu, 16.25b).
37. Transferred from the next paragraph by Ch'ên (7.16b).
38. Ode 300: Mao shih chu shu, 29.25a; L. 623; K. 17.96. 'Uncle' shu-fu is here father's younger brother, cf. n. 21.
39. Kung yang chu shu, Hsüan 15, 16.17b. Cha 札 was his 'style' (Ho Hsiu).
40. 虜 inst. of 魯 (Lu).
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