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風者、何謂也? 風之為言萌也。養物成功,所以象八斜。

陽立於五,極於九。五九四十五,日變,變以為風,陰合陽以生風[也]。 距冬至四十五日條風至,條者、 (王) [生]也。四十五日明庶風至,明庶者、迎眾也。

四十五日清明風至,清明者,清芒也。四十五日景風至,景[者]、大(風)[也], [言]陽氣長養[也]。四十五日涼風至,涼、寒也,(行)陰氣[行]也。四十五日昌盍風至,[昌盍者]、 戒收藏也。四十五日不周風至,不周者、不交也,[言]陰陽未合化也。四十五日廣莫風 [至],廣莫者、 大 [莫] 也。(同) [開] 陽氣也。

故曰: 條風至地暖,明庶風至萬物產,清明風至物形乾,景風至棘遣實, 涼風至黍禾乾,昌盍風至生薺麥,不周風至蟄蟲匿,廣莫風至,則萬物伏。

是以王者承順之叫榮風至,則出輕刑,解稽留。明庶風至,則修封疆,(埋)[理]田疇。清明風至,出幣帛,使諸侯。景風至,則爵有德,封有功。涼風至,報地德,(化)[祀]四鄉。昌盍風至,則申象刑,飾囷 倉。不周風至,則築宮室,修城郭。廣莫風至,則斷大辟,行獄刑。

XXIV. The Eight Winds

165---The Periods of the Eight Winds, and the King's Government in Conformity with Them (III A. 20a-21a).

a. What does fêng 'wind' mean? Fêng means mêng "to sprout out' 1. [The winds] nourish the [ten thousand] things until they have developed into maturity; therein they represent the Eight Trigrams 2.

b. The yang arises in the fifth [month], and reaches its extremity in the ninth. [Every] five times nine, [that is] forty-five, days the atmosphere changes, and, changing, becomes wind; [every] blending of the yin with the yang causes wind 3.

c. Forty-five days after the winter-solstice the t'iao wind arrives; t'iao means shêng 'to grow' 4. After another forty-five days the ming-shu wind arrives; ming-shu means ying-chung 'to welcome the multitude' 5. Again after forty-five days the ch'ing-ming wind arrives; ch'ing-ming means ch'ing-mang 'green luxury' 6. Again after forty-five days the ching wind arrives; ching means ta 'great' 7; it means that the yang-fluid has grown and become nourishing. Again after forty-five days the liang wind arrives; liang means han 'cold' 8; the yin-fluid [begins to] operate. Again after forty-five days the ch'ang-ho wind arrives; ch'ang-ho9 means 'to warn for [the time of] harvesting and storing up'. Again after forty-five days the pu-chou wind arrives; pu-chou means pu-chiao 'not intermingled' 10; it means that the yin and the yang have not yet blended and influenced each other. Again after forty-five days the kuang-mo wind arrives; kuang-mo means ta-mo 'great and vast' 11; it is the beginning of the yang-fluid 12.

d. Therefore it is said: When the t'iao wind arrives the earth begins to warm up; when the ming-shu wind arrives the ten thousand things germinate; when the ch'ing-ming wind arrives the [ten thousand] things take on a dry appearance; when the ching wind arrives the jujube-shrubs 13 bear fruit; when the liang wind arrives the millet ripens; when the ch'ang-ho wind arrives the wheat grows; when the pu-chou wind arrives the insects hibernate; when the kuang-mo wind arrives the ten thousand things lie low.

e. For this reason the King takes his part by conforming himself to them. When the t'iao wind comes he sets free the minor culprits 14, releasing them out of their prisons 15. When the ming-shu wind comes he has the frontiers repaired and the fields put in order. When the ch'ing-ming wind comes he distributes money and silk, and gives audience to 16 the Feudal Lords. When the ching wind comes he raises in rank those who have spiritual power, and enfeoffs the meritorious. When the liang wind comes he gives thank- offerings to the earth for its [display of] spiritual power, and performs sacrifices to the Four Directions 17. When the ch'ang-ho wind comes he extends the punishments by images 18, and has the granaries restored 19. When the pu-chou wind comes he has palaces and houses built, and the city walls repaired. When the kuang-mo wind comes he pronounces capital sentences, and orders imprisonments to be carried out.


1. 風, 萌 . This explanation is also given by the (Ch'un ch'iu wei) K'ao i yu, in Yü han, 55.52a.

2. The K'ao i yu says: "The Eight Trigrams 'establish' 立 the Eight Winds". Fu Ch'ien, quoted in the sub-comm. on the Tso chuan, Yin 5 (Tso chuan chu shu, 2.31a), says: "The Eight Winds are the winds of the Eight Trigrams".

3. With slight differences this paragraph occurs in the K'ao i yu (55.50a).

4. 條, 生 .

5. 明 庶, 迎 眾 .

6. 清 明, 青 芒 ,

7. 景, 大 .

8. 涼, 寒 ,

9. 昌 ? (此字為上 “太” 下 “皿”) .

10. 不 周, 不 交 .

11. 廣 莫. 大 莫 . .

12. For a comparison of these names and their explanation with those in other series see Shih chi, 25.4a ff. (M.H. III. 301 ff.), Huai nan tzŭ, 3.8b; 4.2a ff. (cf. Erkes, Das Weltbild des Huai-nan-tze, p. 38), Lu shih ch'un ch'iu, 13.3b (Wi. 159), K'ao i yu (Yu han, 55.50b ff.), I wei t'ung kua yen (Ku ching chieh hui han, 下. 7a ff.), the sub-comm. in Tso chuan chu shu, 2.31a.

13. 造 should be 簉 (Liu, 73.5a). For chi 棘 cf. Ode 109: Mao shih chu shu, 9.7a; L. 166: "Of the chi in the garden, the fruit may be used as food". Mao's comm. explains chi as 棗 tsao, for which see Botanicon Sinicum, II. 305.

14. 出 輕 刑 . The Huai nan tzŭ, 3.8b writes: 出 輕 繫. The K'ao i yu (55.52b) has 赦 小 罪 "absolves the minor delinquents".

15. 解 稽 畱 chieh chi-liu. The Ch'u hsüeh chi (20.32b), quoting the Po wu chih, says that chi-liu is the name for prison under the Chou.

16. 使 , Which also occurs in the Huai nan tzŭ, 3.8b, and explained as 聘 問 in the comm.

17. 四 鄉 ssŭ-hsiang. The Huai nan tzŭ, l.c., has 四 郊 ssŭ-chiao 'the four suburbs'.

18. See ch. XXXVIII, par. 226d.

19. 飾 = ? (此字為左“食” 右 “伤”去單人旁) = (Lu).

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IATHPublished by The Institute for Advanced Technology in the Humanities, © Copyright 2003 by Anne Kinney and the University of Virginia