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王者始立，諸侯皆見何? 當受法稟正教也。《尚書》" 輯五瑞 "，"覲四嶽"。謂 舜始即位，見四方諸侯，合符信。《詩》云: "玄王桓撥，受小國是達，受大國是 達。"言湯王天下，大小國諸侯皆來見，湯能通達以禮義也。《周頌》曰:"烈文辟 公，錫茲祉福。" 言武王伐紂定天下，諸侯來會，聚於京師受法度也。遠近莫不至，受 命之君，天之所興，四方莫敢違，夷狄咸率服故也。
何謂五瑞? 謂珪、璧、淙、璜、璋也。《禮》曰:"天子珪尺[有]二寸。"又, 曰:"博三寸，剡上，[左右各]寸半，厚半寸。(為)[半]珪為璋，方中圓外曰 璧，半璧曰璜。圓中牙身(玄)[方]外曰綜。"《禮記·王度》曰:" 玉者、有 象君[子]之德，燥不輕，濕不重，薄不(澆) [撓]，廉不傷，疵不掩。是以人君寶 之。" 天子之純玉，尺有二寸。公、侯九寸，四玉一石也叫白、子、男俱三玉二石也。 五玉者各何施? 蓋以為璜以徵召，璧以聘問，璋以發兵，珪以(償質) [質償]，瑞以 起土功之事也。珪以為信者何? 珪者兌上，象物皆聲生見於上也。信莫著于作見， 故以珪為信，而見萬物之始莫不自潔。珪之為書潔也。上兌、陽也，下方、陰也。陽尊、故其禮順備也。(在位)[位在]東方，陽見義於上也。璧以聘問何? 璧者、方中圓外，象地，地道安寧而出財物，故以璧聘問也。方中、陰德方也，圓外、陰繫於陽也。陰德盛於內, 故見象於內，位在中央。璧之為言積也，中央故有天地之象, 所以據用也。內方象地，外圓象天也。璜、所以徵召何? 璜者半璧，位在北方，北陰極而陽始起，故象半陰。陽氣始施，徵召萬物，故以徵召也。不象(陰)[陽]何? 陽始物微，未可見[也]。璜者、橫也，質尊之命也，陽氣橫于黃泉，故日璜。璜之為囂光也，陽光所及，莫不動也。象君之威命所加，莫敢不從，陽之所施，無不節也。璋以發兵何? 璋半珪，位在南方。南方陽極，而陰始起。兵亦陰也，故以發兵也。不象其陰何? 陰始起，物尚凝，未可象也。璋之為言明也，賞罰之道，使臣之禮，當章明也。南方之時，萬物莫不章，故謂之璋。琮以起土功發聚眾何? 琮之為言聖也，象萬物之宗, 聚聖也。功之所成，故以起土功發眾也。位[在]西方，西方陽，收功於內，陰出 (城) [成]於外，內圓象陽，外直為陰，外牙而內湊，象聚會也, 故謂之琮。后夫人之財也。五玉所施非一，不可勝條，略舉大者也。
合符信者，謂天子執瑁以朝諸侯，諸侯執圭以覲天子。瑁之為言冒也。上有所覆，下有所冒。故《覲禮》曰:"侯氏執圭升堂。"《尚書大傅》曰:"天子執瑁以朝諸侯。"又曰:"諸侯執所受圭與璧，朝于天子。無過者復得其珪以歸其(拜) [邦]; 有過者留其圭，能正行者復選其珪。三年珪不復，少絀以爵，[六年圭不復], [少黜以地], [九年圭不復]，[而地畢削]。" 圭所以選何?以為(琮 ) [珪] 信瑞也。璧所以留者，以財(弊)[幣]盡，輒更造。何以言之?《禮》曰: "圭造尺八寸。"有造圭，(門)[明]得造璧也。公圭九寸，四玉一石。何以知不以 玉為四器? 石持為也。以《尚書》合言"五玉"也。
臣見君所以有贄[者]何? 贄者、質也，質己之誠，致己之悃愊也。王者緣臣子 心以為之制，差其尊卑以副其意[也]。公侯以玉為贄者，玉、取其燥不輕，濕不重， [明]公[侯]之德全[也]。(輕) [卿]以羔[為贄]，[羔]者,取其群[而] 不黨。卿職在盡忠率下，不阿黨也。大夫以雁為贄者，取其飛成行列，大夫職在 (以)奉命之適四方，動作當能自正以事君也。士以雉為贄者，[雉]、取其不可誘之以食，懾之以威，必死不可生畜。士行(威)[耿] [介]，守節死義，不當移轉也。《曲禮》曰:"卿羔，大夫以雁，士以雉為贄，庶人之贄疋。童子委贄而退。野外軍中無贄，以纓拾矢可也。" 言必有贄也。疋謂騖也。卿大夫贄，古以麑鹿，今以羔膺何?以為古者質，取其內，謂得美草鳴相呼。今文取其外，謂羔跪乳，雁有行列也。《禮·[士]相見經》曰:"上大夫相見以羔，左顧右贄執麑。"明古以麑鹿，今以羔也。卿大夫贄變，君與士贄不變何?人君至尊，極美之物以為贄。士賤，伏節死義，一介之道也。故不變。
婦人之制以棗栗(暇) [腶] 脩者，婦人無專制之羲，御眾之任，交接辭讓之禮，職在供養臢食之間。其義一也。故后夫人以棗栗(暇)[緞]脩者，凡內脩陰也。又取其朝旱起，栗戰慄自正也。(暇)[緞]脩者、脯也。故《春秋傳》曰:"宗婦覿用幣，非禮也。然則[曷用]? 棗栗云乎? (暇)[腶]脩云乎?"
XXVI. Ritual Presents 1
167---The Feudal Lords Present Themselves to the Son of Heaven, and their Credentials are Tested (III A. 22a).
Why is it that when the King ascends the throne the Feudal Lords all present themselves to him? They are to receive the [new King's] laws, and to be furnished with his correct instructions. The Shang shu [says]: "Shun collected the Five Auspicious [Jade Tablets] when he gave audience to [the Chiefs of] the Four Mountains" 2. This means that when Shun ascended the throne he gave audience to the Feudal Lords of the four quarters, and tested their credentials 3. The Shih says: "The Dark King greatly established order; when he received [the Lord of] a small state he imbued him [with the rules of ceremonial behaviour], when he received [the Lord of] a large state he imbued him [with the rules of ceremonial behaviour]" 4. This means that when T'ang was King over all under Heaven the Lords of large and small states alike came to present themselves. T'ang knew how to imbue them with the rules of ceremonial behaviour. The Chou sung says: "[You,] brilliant and accomplished princes, have conferred on me this happiness" 5. This means that when King Wu had slain Chou and pacified all under Heaven the Feudal Lords came and gathered in the capital to receive the laws and measures. And so it was that from far and near none dared not to come; the Lord who had received his mandate had been glorified by Heaven, and none [of the Lords] of the four quarters dared exempt himself [from coming], while the barbarian tribes all offered their subjection.
168---The Five Jade Tablets (III A. 22a-24a).
a.How are the Five Auspicious [Jade Tablets] called? They are called: kuei, pi, tsung, huang, and chang6. b.The Li says: "The kuei of the Son of Heaven is one foot and two inches [long]". It further says: "Its width is three inches, it tapers to the point for one inch and a half, its thickness is a half inch" 7. The half of a kuei is a chang8. When it is square inside and round outside it is called a pi9. The half of a pi is called a huang10. When it is round inside and indented and straight out- side it is called a tsung11. c.The Li wang tu chi12 says: "Jade represents the spiritual power of the Noble Man; when dry it is not light, when wet it is not heavy; it is thin but not brittle, it is edged but not cutting; it does not hide even the slightest flaw. Therefore the Lord of men holds it in high esteem". d.The Son of Heaven has [a tablet of] pure jade one foot and two inches [long]; the Dukes and Marquises [have a tablet] nine inches [long, the material of which is] four [parts] jade to one stone; the Earls, Viscounts, and Barons each [have a tablet, the material of which is] three [parts] jade to two stone 13. e.What is the use of each of the Five Jade [Tablets]? The huang is [used] for summoning and calling, the pi is [used] for ceremonial visits, the chang is [used] for the mobilization of the army, the kuei is [used] for the testing of good faith, the tsung is [used] for the initiation of the cultivation of the earth 14. f.Why is the kuei [used] for testing good faith? The kuei is pointed at the top to symbolize [the ten thousand things,] the beginning of whose growth is seen at their tops. Good faith is never visibly manifested 15, therefore with the kuei good faith is made apparent; the beginning of the ten thousand things is always pure of itself. Kuei means kuei 'pure' 16. [The kuei tablet is] pointed at the top [symbolizing] the yang; it is square at the bottom [symbolizing] the yin. Yang is the higher; in its ceremonial behaviour it con- forms and perfects. Its position is in the east; the status of the yang is seen in its superiority. g.Why is the pi [used] for ceremonial visits? The pi is square inside and round outside, resembling Earth. The Way of the Earth is to produce its precious products in peace and quiet, therefore the pi is [used] for ceremonial visits. It is square inside [in conformity with] the yin, whose spiritual power is square 17. It is round outside [in conformity with the fact that] the yin is dependent on the yang. The spiritual power of the yin reaches its fullness in the interior, therefore its symbolization is seen in the inside. Its position is in the centre. Pi means chi 'to accumulate' 18. Inside it is square, symbolizing Earth; outside it is round, symbolizing Heaven. Therefore it is a symbol of Heaven and Earth, and is used as such 19. h.Why is the huang [used] for summoning and calling? The huang is the half of a pi. Its position is in the north; in the north the yin reaches its summit, and the yang begins to rise. Therefore it is a symbol of the half of the yin, and of the yang-fluid which begins to exercise [its influence] and summons and calls the ten thousand things. Therefore [the huang is used] to summon and call. Why does [the huang] not represent the yang? When the yang is at its beginning the [ten thousand] things are small and invisible. Huang means hêng 'to lie horizontally' 20, to substantiate the command of the superior; the yang-fluid lies horizontally in the Yellow Sources; therefore [the tablet is] called huang. Huang [also] means kuang 'ray' 21. Whatever is touched by the rays of the yang moves. [The huang] represents the majestic command of the Lord, which none dares disobey. Whatever the yang affects acquires moderation. i.Why is the chang [used] for mobilizing the army? The chang is the half of a kuei; its position is in the south; in the south the yang reaches its summit, and the yin begins to rise. The army also [belongs to] the yin. Therefore [the chang is used] to mobilize the army. Why [does the chang] not represent the yin? When the yin is at its beginning the [ten thousand] things are still inert, and cannot be represented. Chang means ming 'clear' 22. The way of rewards and punishments, and the ritual for envoys and Ministers should be 'distinct and clear' chang-ming23. During the time [that the sun is] in the south all the ten thousand things 'show themselves distinctly' chang24; therefore the tablet is called chang. j.Why is the tsung [used] for initiating the cultivation of the earth, and for sending out the multitudes? Tsung means tsung 'to collect' 25; it symbolizes the collecting of the ten thousand things, the result of cultivation. Therefore [it is used] for initiating the cultivation of the earth, and for sending out the multitudes. Its position is in the west; in the west the yang collects its results within, the yin goes out to complete it without. Inside [the tablet is] round, symbolizing the yang; outside it is straight, symbolizing the yin. Outside it is [moreover] indented; inside it converges, representing [the act of] gathering. Therefore [the tablet is] called tsung; it is a treasure of the Queen and the Consorts [of the Feudal Lords] 26. k.The uses of the Five Jade [Tablets] are not limited to one; they cannot be described exhaustively, only the most important have been presented.
169---The Testing of the Credentialsand the Returning of the Jade Tablets (III A. 24a-b).
a.The testing of the credentials means that the Son of Heaven takes the mao [tablet] in his hand when receiving the Feudal Lords at his court, while the latter take the kuei in their hands when presenting themselves to the Son of Heaven. Mao means mao 'to be covered' 27. The superior has [the object] with which to cover, the subject has [the object] which is to be covered. Therefore the Chin li says: "The Feudal Lords, taking their kuei [tablets] in their hands, ascend the hall" 28. The Shang shu ta chuan says: "The Son of Heaven takes the mao in his hand when giving audience to the Feudal Lords". b.[The Shang shu ta chuan] also says: "The Feudal Lords take for the audience with the Son of Heaven the kuei which they have received, together with the pi [tablets with them]. To those who are without fault their kuei [tablets] are returned to be taken back to their states. Those who have committed faults must leave their kuei [tablets], which are [only] returned after they have been able to correct their conduct. If after three years the kuei [can] not be returned they are slightly degraded in rank. If after six years the kuei [can] not be returned they are slightly degraded in territory. If after nine years the kuei [can] not be returned their territories are completely taken from them". c.Why is the kuei tablet returned [to the Lords after the audience]? Because the kuei is an auspicious [emblem of] good faith. The pi is kept because it is regarded as treasure or silk [given as] presents, and can again be manufactured after it has been used up. Why is it [thus] stated? The Li says: "The kuei [tablet] is manufactured [in the size of] one foot and eight inches" 29. There being a manufactured kuei it is clear that it is allowed to manufacture a pi. d.The kuei [tablet] of a Duke is nine inches [long; the material is] four [parts] jade to one stone. How do we know that [this does] not [mean that] four objects are made of jade and [one of] stone, [but that it refers to] a special 30 construction? Because the Shang shu in combination [with other objects] speaks of: "The Five Jade [Tablets]" 31.
170---The Presents Offered to the Lord (III A. 24b-25b).
a.Why does a subject, visiting his Lord, 'offer presents' chih? Chih means chih 'to substantiate' 32; to substantiate one's good faith, to show one's fidelity. The King, in conformity with the feelings of his subjects, establishes for their sake institutions which distinguish in grades the superior from the inferior, in order to respond to their wishes. b.The Dukes and Marquises offer presents of jade, to emphasize [the nature of] jade [,which is such that it is] not light when dry, and not heavy when wet; it indicates that the spiritual power of the Duke and the Marquis is complete 33. c.The Minister offers a lamb as a present, to emphasize [the nature of] sheep [,which is such that they] flock and do not form separate groups 34. The task of the Minister lies in being loyal to the utmost; in leading their inferiors they [should] avoid partiality. d.The great officer offers a wild goose as a present, to emphasize [the nature of the wild geese, which is such that] they form rows when they fly, and ranks when they rest. The task of the great officer lies in receiving orders [from the Son of Heaven by which they] direct the four quarters. In their actions they are expected to be able to keep themselves straight in the service of their Lord. e.The common officer offers a pheasant as a present, to emphasize [the nature of the pheasant, which is such that] it cannot be inveigled by food neither be subjected by force; it must be dead [before it can be caught], and cannot be reared [in captivity]. In his conduct the common officer is constant and intransigent 35, conscientious, ready to die for his duty, and expected to be unswerving. f.The Ch'ü li says: "A Minister offers a lamb as a present, a great officer a wild goose, a common officer a pheasant. The common man offers a p'i. A boy lays his present on the ground and withdraws. In the open country and in a military camp the giving of presents is not required, [but] one may offer a girth, a leather bracelet [used in archery], or arrows" 36. This means [that everybody has] the duty to give presents. g.P'i means mu 'tame duck" 37. h.Since a Minister and a great officer anciently offered a fawn and a deer as presents, why [do they] now [offer] a lamb and a wild goose? Because anciently [the Principle of] Substance [was adhered to], and the inner [qualities were] emphasized; that means: [the fawn and the deer] call to each other when they find good grass to eat. Now [the Principle of] Form [is adhered to], and the outward [qualities are] emphasized; that means: lambs kneel down when they suck, and wild geese form rows. The Li hsiang chien ching says: "When great officers of the first rank visit each other they offer lambs as presents, their heads [held] to the left as when holding a fawn" 38. It means that anciently a fawn and a deer [were used as presents, whereas] now a lamb is used. i.Why is it that the presents of a Minister and a great officer have been changed, whereas those of a [Feudal] Lord and a common officer have remained the same? The Lord of men, being most exalted, uses the most beautiful object for his present, while a common officer, being lowly, humble, conscientious, and ready to die for his duty, [follows] the way of the devoted servant. Therefore their presents are not changed 39.
171---The Presents at Private Visits (III A. 25b).
Why is it that presents are also given when paying each other private visits? As [a sign of] mutual respect, and to enhance the harmonious relation. The relation between friends and the practise of the Five Constant [Virtues] imply the duty of sharing one's property: it expresses the idea of helping the destitute and relieving those in distress: loving them in their hearts they wish to give them drink and food; therefore the giving of presents is the correlate of their good intentions. The Li shih hsiang chien ching says: "When great officers of the lower 40 rank visit each other they offer a wild goose as a present. Common officers in winter offer a [freshly killed] pheasant, and in summer one whose flesh has been dried" 41.
172---The Presents of Women (III A. 25b-26a).
The rule for women is that they offer dates, chestnuts, and dried spiced meat as presents because their acting on their own authority is not provided for, and because upon them does not rest the duty to control the multitudes, neither are they involved in the ritual of entertaining [guests with its rules of] refusing and giving precedence. Their task lies in the providing and preparing of food, and their duty is limited to this one only. Therefore even the Queen or the Consort [of a Feudal Lord] uses for her presents dates, chestnuts, and 'dried spiced meat' tuan-hsiu42, because in general the care for the indoor [-life belongs to] the yin. [The presents] also emphasize their getting up early 43, and their solicitude 44 with respect to their chastity. Tuan-hsiu means fu 'prepared meat' 45. Therefore the Ch'un ch'iu chuan says: "It is not according to the rites that the wives of great officers offer presents of silk on their visits. But what is then to be used? Dates and chestnuts with the appropriate words, dried spiced meat with the appropriate words" 46.
173---The Son does Not Give Presents (III A. 26a).
Why does the son, visiting his father, not offer a present? Their relation is too close, and [the son's] visits are not restricted to [a set] time. Therefore he does not offer presents. When [,how- ever,] the subject serves his Lord [this service is] connected with the status [he holds]. Because [the subject] enjoys [his Lord's] affection and support, therefore, to substantiate his good faith and give expression to his feelings [of gratitude], he offers presents.
1. The Yüan ta-tê ed. writes 文 質, which is corrected into 瑞 贄 by Lu and Ch'ên (8.1a). Liu (73.5b) suggests the reading 文 贄.
2. Shang shu chu shu, Shun tien, 2.5b; L. 34. By the 'Five Auspicious Jade Tablets' 五 瑞 wu-jui is meant the emblems of the five ranks of Feudal Lords acc. to Sun Hsing-yen (Shang shu chin ku wên chu shu, 1.31). The opinion that 四 岳ssŭ-yüeh means the Feudal Lords of the four quarters is, acc. to Sun (o.c. 1.19), an opinion of the ku-wên School. Karlgren (K. 18.261) prefers the theory that it is the title of one person.
3. 合 符 信 , see infra, par. 169.
4. Ode 304: Mao shih chu shu, 30.21b: L. 639; K. 18.88. Acc. to Mao's comm. the 'Dark King' refers to Hsieh 契, the first ancestor of the Shang Kings (cf. M.H. I. 173). Chêng Hsüan's explanation of the Ode also differs from the Po hu t'ung's: when Hsieh received his fief from Yao the territory was small; at the end of Shun's reign it had become large, in both cases he managed to promote his teachings 達 其 教 令 .
5. Ode 269: Mao shih chu shu, 26.11b; L. 572; K. 17.88. Acc. to Mao's Preface the Ode refers to King Ch'êng (Legge, Prolegomena, p. 78).
6. 珪, 璧, 琮, 璜, 璋 .
7. The two quotations probably are a combination of statements from the Chou li (chu shu, Yü jên, 41.1a; B. II. 519), I li (chu shu, P'ing li, Chi, 8.92a; C. 339), Li chi (chu shu, Tsa chi, 43.14a; C. II. 194). A kuei is an "oblong, flat, angular jade plaque" (Laufer, Jade, p. 86). The kuei of the Son of Heaven is called ch ên-kuei 鎮 丨(Chou li, B. I. 431. 483; II. 519). That of a Duke is called huan-kuei 桓 丨, and is nine inches long, that of a Marquis hsin-kuei 信 丨, seven inches long, that of an Earl kung-kuei 躬 丨, seven inches long (B. II. 519-520).
8. Cf. Jade, fig. 34.
9. Laufer's description of a pi is: "jade discs or perforated circular plaques" (o.c. p. 86; cf. figures 18-19, 71-72).
10. Cf. o.c. fig. 76-80.
11. 直 'straight' inserted by Liu (73.5b). Cf. also Jade, fig. 47-69.
12. An untransmitted chapter of the collection of rites.
13. An almost similar statement is quoted from the Li wei in the sub-comm of the Chou li (chu shu, Yü Jên, 41.2b). ? (此字為 “絲”字旁加 “汑”去水) 'pure', 'of pure colour and quality' is called 全 ch'üan in the Chou li text (l.c.); acc. to this text the kuei of a Duke is made of jade of the kind 龍 mang, that of a Marquis of the kind 瓚tsan, that of an Earl of the kind 將chiang, all of them being of inferior qualities. The proportion of 'pure jade' 玉 to 'stone' 石 seems to indicate the quality of the material used, causing the difference in weight and colouring. Acc. to S. Howard Hansford, Chinese Jade Carving, p. 24, "most of the colours of jade are certainly due to various compounds of iron (contained in it)".
14. Ho Hsiu's comm. (Kung yang chu shu, Ting 8, 26.7a) says: "[According to] the rites the kuei is [used] at audiences, the pi at ceremonial visits, the tsung for mobilizing the army, the huan for mobilizing the multitudes, the chang for summoning and calling."
15. 作 is probably superfluous; the I wên lei chü, 83.17a, quoting the Po hu t'ung, omits it.
16. 圭 , cf. Gr. Ser. nos. 879a-b.
17. I.e. because the Earth is square.
18. 績 chi, cf. ch. XV, par. 118c.
19. In the translation of these two sentences I have omitted 中 央, and reversed the order of the text.
20. 橫 .
21. 光 .
22. 明 .
23. 章 明 .
24. 章 . The tablet meant here is the ya-chang 牙 丨or the chung-chang 中 丨(see Chou li chu shu, 41.7b; B. II. 527; and cf. Jade, fig. 35).
25. 宗 .
26. I.e. the tsu 組 or ?(此字為 “馬” 字旁加 “且”) -tsung (Chou li chu shu, l.c.; Jade, p. 135, fig. 58-69).
27. 瑁, 冒 ; cf. Vol. I. p. 286, n. 137.
28. I li chu shu, 10.11a; C. 377, where the text is slightly different.
29. The quotation cannot be identified.
30. 特 instead of 持 (Lu).
31. Shang shu chu shu, Shun tien, 2.10b; L. 36; K. 20.84-85.
32. 贄, 質 . The second character is used for the first in the Mêng tzŭ, IIIb.3; L. 266. Cf. also the Shuo yüan, Hsiu wên, 19.8a.
33. Cf. Ho Hsiu's comm. in Kung yang chu shu, Chuang 24, 8.14a: "The Feudal Lords use jade [as a present to the Son of Heaven] because it is the clearest [material] which does not hide defects, while it is so pure that it does not attract dirt. Inside it is hard, and outside it feels soft. It resembles the Noble Man of perfect spiritual power."
34. 羣 而 不 黨 . The same explanation occurs in Ch êng Hsüan's comm. on the I li (chu shu, Shih hsiang li, 3.7b), and in the Shuo yüan, Hsiu w ên, 19.8a.
35. 威 介 wei-chieh. Ho Hsiu (l.c., see n. 33) writes 恥 丨 ch'ih-chieh.
36. Li chi chu shu, 5.28b; C. I. 106.
37. 匹, 鶩 . Cf. Vol. I, p. 55. P'i probably means: 'as is consistent (with the position of the common man)'. For mu 'tame duck' see K'ung Ying-ta's sub-comm. in Li chi chu shu, 5.29b, where it is further explained that in the same way as the tame duck cannot fly away so the common man is tied to his work of husbandry.
38. I li chu shu, 3.7b; C. 63. The I li text, moreover, says that the lamb is wrapped in a cloth with the four legs bound, the tying being in front. Ch êng Hsüan's comm. explains that the forelegs are held in the left hand, and the hind legs in the right.
39. I.e., the Lord uses jade presents, the common officer offers a pheasant.
40. 上 should be 下 .
41. I li chu shu, 3.7a; C. 63, and 3.1a; C. 58.
42. 腶 脩 .
43. 早 tsao ( 朝is redundant, acc. to Lu), homophonous with 棗 tsao 'dates'.
44. 戰 慄 chan-li (栗 is redundant, acc. to Lu), of which li is homophonous with li 'chestnut'.
45. 脯 fu ; for this passage cf. Vol. I, p. 57.
46. Kung yang chu shu, Chuang 24. 8.13b. For 'wives of great officers' tsung-fu 宗 婦 and 'visits' ti 覿, see Legge's note in his Tso chuan translation, p. 10 7.
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