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王者受命必改朔何? 明易姓，示不相襲也。明受之於天，不受之於人，所以變易民 心，革其耳目，以助化也。故《(喪服)大傳》曰:" 王[者]始起，改正朔，易服 色，殊徽號，異器械，別衣服" 也。是以舜、禹雖繼太平，猶宜改以應天。
王者改作，樂必得天應而後作何? 重改制也。《春秋瑞應傳》曰:" 敬受瑞應而王，改正朔，易 服色。"《易》曰:" 湯武革命，順乎天而應乎民也。"
文家先改正，質家先改正，質家先伐何? 改正者、文，伐者、質。文者先其文， 質者先其質。《論語》曰:"予小子履敢用玄牡，敢昭告于皇王后帝。" 此湯伐桀告天 以夏之牲也。《詩》云:" 命此文王，于周于京。" 此言文王改號為周，易邑為京 也。又曰:"清酒既載，騂牡既備。" 言文王之牲(周) [用] 騂，周尚赤也。
正朔有三何?本天有三統，謂三微之月也。明王者當奉順而成之，故受命各統一正 也。 敬始重本也。
三微者、何謂也? 陽氣始施黃泉，萬物[始]動微而 未著也。十一月之時，陽氣始養根株黃泉之下，萬物皆赤，赤者、盛陽之氣也。故周為 天正，色尚赤也。十二月之時，萬物始牙而白，白者、陰氣，故殷為地正，色尚白也。 十三月之時，萬物始達，孚(由)[甲]而出，皆黑，人得加功，故寰為人正，色尚 黑。
《尚書大傳》曰:"夏以孟(十二)[春]月為正，殷以季冬月為正，周以仲冬月 為正。夏以十三月為正，色尚黑，以平旦為朔。殷以十二月為正，色尚白，以雞鳴為 朔。周以十一月為正，色尚赤，以夜半為朔。不以二月後為正者，萬物不齊，莫適所 統, 故必以三微之月也。
三正之相承，若順逮環也。" 孔子承周之弊，行夏之(陸) [時]， 知繼十一月正者，當用十三月也。
天道左旋，改正者右行，何也? 改正者、非改天道也，但改日月耳。日月右行，故 改正亦右行也。
天質地文。質者據質，文者據文。周反統天正何也? 質文再而復，正朔三而改。三 微質文，數不相配，故正不隨質文也。
王者所以存二王之後何也? 所以尊先王，通天下之三統也。明天下非一家之有，謹 敬謙讓之至也。故封之百里，使得服其正色，用其禮樂，永事先祖。《論語》曰: "夏禮吾能言之，杞不足徵也。殷禮吾能言之，宋不足徵也。"《春秋傳》曰:"王者 存二王之後，使服其正色，行其禮樂。"《詩》曰:"厥作踝將，常服黼冔。"言微子 服殷之冠，助祭於周也。《周頌》曰:"有客有客，亦白其馬。"此微子朝周也。
二王之後,若有聖德受命而王，當因其改之耶? 天下之所安得受命耶? 非其運次者。
王者必一質一文[者]何?[所]以承天地，順陰陽。陽之道極，則陰道受; 陰之 道極,則陽遵受。明二陰二陽不能相繼也。質法天，文法地而已。故天為質，地受而化 之, 養而成之，故為文。《尚書大傳》曰:"王者一質一文，據天地之道。"《禮三正 記》曰:"質法天，文法地"也。
XXVII. The Three Rectifications 1
174---The Meaning of Rectifying the First Month of the Year (III B. 1a).
a. Why is it that a King, having received his mandate [from Heaven], must alter the first month of the year? It means that he has changed the [dynastic] name, and indicates that he has not inherited [his kingship]. It means that he has received [his kingship] from Heaven and not from man. By this [measure] he changes the people's hearts and renovates their ears and eyes, as an aid in the [process of their] reform. Therefore the Ta chuan says: "When a King ascends the throne he rectifies the first month of the year, he changes the colour of his equipage, he transforms the emblems of the standards, he alters the vessels and instruments, and he modifies the clothing" 2.
b. That is the reason why [even] Shun and Yü 3, though they continued [the succession] in [conditions of] general peace, still deemed it proper to change [the institutions of their predecessors], in order to respond to [the will of] Heaven. Why is it that the King only introduces his reforms 4 after he has obtained Heaven's [auspicious] responses? To emphasize the importance of the change of the institutions. The Ch'un ch'iu jui ying chuan says: "Having reverently received auspicious responses [from Heaven] the King rectifies the first month of the year and the colour of the equipage". The I says: "T'ang and Wu deprived [the previous Dynasties] of their mandates in accordance with [the will of] Heaven, and in response to [the wishes of] the people" 5.
175---What Comes First: The Rectification of the First Months of the Year or the Attack on the Reigning Dynasty (III B. 1a-b) 6.
Why is it that the adherents of the Principle of Form begin with the rectification of the first month of the year, whereas the adherents of the Principle of Substance begin with the attack [on the reigning Dynasty]? The rectification of the first month of the year is [a matter of] form, the attack is [a matter of] substance. The adherents of the Principle of Form put form first, the adherents of the Principle of Substance put substance first. The Lun yü says: "I, the Little Child Li, venture to use a black male victim, and venture clearly to announce it to the August King, the Lord Emperor" 7. This [refers to] T'ang who, when going to slay Chieh [,the last Sovereign of the Hsia], announced it to Heaven, using a victim [according to the rites] of Hsia. The Shih says: "[Heaven gave] the appointment to this King Wên, in Chou, in the capital" 8. This refers to King Wên, who changed the dynastic name [from Yin] into Chou, and made his residence the capital. [The Shih] also says: "The [vessels of] clear wine were laid out, the red male victim was ready" 9. [This] refers to King Wên, who for his victim used a red [bull], because [the House of] Chou honoured [the colour] red.
176---The Meaning of the Three Rectifications (III B. 1b-2b).
a. Why are there three Rectifications of the first month of the year? It is based on [the fact that] Heaven has the Three Reigns 10, that is to say the Three Diminutive Months 11. It means that the King, adapting himself to them, should complete [the cycle]. Therefore, after receiving his mandate, he begins the regulation of one [of the Three] Rectifications [as a sign of his] reverence for the beginning, and his respect for the origin.
b. Shuo 'first month' means su 'to revive', kê 'to renovate' 12; it means that the ten thousand things are renovated at this [moment], and so will receive their [further] regulation by it.
c. The Li san chêng chi13 says: "There are three First Months which alternate; upon [the Principle of] Form follows [the Principle of] Substance, and so on".
d. What is meant by the Three Diminutive Months? When the yang-fluid begins to manifest itself the ten thousand things in the Yellow Sources move imperceptibly, but do not yet come out. In the eleventh month, when the yang-fluid begins to nourish the roots, the ten thousand things below the Yellow Sources are all [tinged with] red; red [represents] the yang-fluid at its fullest; therefore the Chou, adhering to the Celestial Rectification, honoured the colour red. In the twelfth month, when the ten thousand things begin to sprout out, they assume [the colour] white; white [represents] the yin-fluid; therefore the Yin, adhering to the Terres- trial Rectification, honoured the colour white. In the thirteenth month, when the ten thousand things begin to come out, penetrating through their scales, they are all black; man has to add his labour [to aid them]; therefore the Hsia, adhering to the Human Rectification, honoured the colour black 14.
e. The Shang shu ta chuan says: "The Hsia took the first month of spring as the correct [beginning of the year]; the Yin took the last month of winter as the correct [beginning of the year]; the Chou took the middle month of winter as the correct [beginning of the year]. The Hsia, taking the thirteenth month as the correct [beginning of the year], honoured the colour black, and began the month at day-break. The Yin, taking the twelfth month as the correct [beginning of the year], honoured the colour white, and began the month at cock's crow. The Chou, taking the eleventh month as the correct [beginning of the year], honoured the colour red, and began the month at midnight. For the beginning of the year the second and following months are not used because the ten thousand things [have then already grown] unevenly, and cannot be fitted into the regulation [of the whole year]. Therefore one of the Three Diminutive Months must be used" 15.
f. The succession of the Three Rectifications is like the flow of an endless circle. Confucius, having inherited the decadence of Chou, employed the chronology of the Hsia, and knew that, though he had succeeded to [the use of] the eleventh month [of the Chou], in order to rectify it, he should use the thirteenth month [of the Hsia.]
177---The Changing of the First Month Proceeds Backwards (III B. 2b).
Since the Way of Heaven is to revolve to the left, why does the change of the correct [beginning of the year] proceed [backwards] to the right? The change of the correct [beginning of the year] does not mean a change of the Way of Heaven, but only a change of the sun [-day] and the moon [-month]. As the sun and the moon move to the right so the change of the correct [beginning of the year] also proceeds to the right 16.
178---The Rectification is Denoted by the Expression 'To Change the Month' (III B. 2b-3a).
The sun being superior to the moon, why is the expression [for the rectification] not 'the correct sun [-day]' but 'the correct moon [-month]'? The days accumulate to form a month; the [ten thou- sand] things receive their transformation by months, therefore the rectification is based upon [this transformation of] things.
179---The Rectification of the First Month Does Not Follow the Principles of Substance and Form (III B. 3a).
Heaven [stands for] substance, Earth [stands for] form; [the Principle of] Substance bases itself on substance; [the Principle of] Form bases itself on form. But why did the Chou apply the reign of the Celestial Rectification 17? Substance and Form return after two [shiftings], in the rectification of the first month [of the year] the change occurs after three [shiftings]. The number [of shiftings] of the Three Diminutive Months and that [of the Principles] of Substance and Form do not run parallel. Therefore the rectification of the first month does not follow [the Principles of] Substance and Form.
180---The Way is Not to be Changed by the Kings (III B. 3a).
Why is it that there are things which a King, after having received his mandate and assumed kingship, does not change? The King changes the form of the Way but not its essence. So [the rule that] the Lord should face south and the subject face north, [the use of] the cap of white deer-skin and the white silk nether-garments gathered at the waist, the notes and the tastes, are not to be changed, neither are the [relations of] affection between relatives: [this is what is meant by] the Way is not to be changed by the hundreds of Kings 18.
181---The Preservation of the Descendants of the Last Two Dynasties (III B. 3a-b).
a. Why does the King preserve the descendants of the last two Dynasties? To honour the Ancient Kings, and to represent with them the Three Reigns in all under Heaven 19. It means that all under Heaven is not [to be regarded as] the possession of one House; it is an expression of the utmost reverence and modesty. Therefore [those descendants are] enfeoffed with [territories of] one hundred li; they are allowed to have an equipage with their [own] correct colour, and to practise their [own] rites and music; they [are enabled to] perpetuate the sacrifices to their ancestors. The Lun yü says: "[Confucius says:] I can talk about the rites of Hsia, but the state of Ch'i supplies no adequate evidence. I can talk about the rites of Yin, but the state of Sung supplies no adequate evidence" 20. The Ch'un ch'iu chuan says: "The King preserves the descendants of the last two Dynasties, allowing them to have an equipage with their [own] correct colour, and to practise their [own] rites and music" 21. The Shih says: "When he made his presentation of libations he wore as ritual garments the embroidered skirts and the [ceremonial cap] hsü" 冔 22. [This] refers to the Viscount of Wei wearing the cap of Yin, when he assisted at the sacrifice of Chou. The Chou sung says: "There is a guest! There is a guest! White are his horses" 23. This [refers to] the Viscount of Wei coming to the court of Chou [,and using the colour white of the Yin Dynasty].
b. If a descendant [of one] of the last two Dynasties by his sage spiritual power should receive [Heaven's] mandate to assume kingship, ought he to follow [his ancestor's institutions] or 24 ought he to change them? What Heaven has annihilated 25 how can it receive its mandate [again]? [Besides,] 26 it is not [a case of] continuing the cycle [of reigns] 27.
182---The Principles of Form and Substance (III B. 3b-4a).
a. Why must a King, after [the Principle of] Substance has been adhered to, follow [the Principle of] Form? To continue [the actions of] Heaven and Earth, and to conform himself to [the succession of] the yin and the yang. When the way of the yang has reached its summit the yin takes over its task; when the way of the yin has reached its summit the yang takes over its task; it means that neither the yang succeeds a yang nor the yin succeeds a yin. It is simply [the fact of the Principle of] Substance modelling itself on Heaven, and [the Principle of] Form modelling itself on Earth. Therefore Heaven [provides] the substance; Earth receives it, transforms it, and, nourishing it, makes it complete, thus [providing the] form. The Shang shu ta chuan says: "After [the Principle of] Substance has been adhered to, a King follows [the Principle of] Form, basing himself on the Way of Heaven and Earth". The Li san chêng chi says: "[The Principle of] Substance models itself on Heaven, [the Principle of] Form on Earth" 28.
b. The Emperors and Kings at their accession put Substance first and Form afterwards, so as to conform themselves to the Way of Heaven and Earth. It is the principle of the fundamental and the accessory, the succession of the before and the after. There is nothing which has not first its natural substance, to become embellished form afterwards.
1. 三 正 san-chêng. For different renderings of the expression cf. Franke, Studien zur Geschichte des konfuzianischen Dogmas, p. 236, n. 1; Woo Kang, Les trois théories politiques du Tch'ouen Ts'ieou, p. 143, n. 2; M.H. III. 322, n. 2.
2. Li chi chu shu, 34.4b; C. 1.779.
3. Lu's reading is "Yü and Shun"; here the reading of the Yüan ta-tê ed. is restored.
4. 樂 is redundant (Ch'ên, 8.10a).
5. Chou i chu shu, K ê kua, T'uan, 8.22a; L. 254.
6. Cf. ch. X, par. 85.
7. Ch. XX. 1, Lun yü chu shu, 20.1a; L. 350. The text of the quotation has 皇 王 后 帝, cf. the different readings mentioned in n. 20 of ch. X.
8. Ode 236: Mao shih chu shu, 23.23b; L. 435; K. 17.66.
9. Ode 239: ibid., 23.55b; L. 445; K. 17.68.
10. 三 統 san-t'ung, cf. Woo Kang, o.c. 142, whose translation 'trois règnes' I have followed.
11. 三 微 之 月 san-wei chih yüeh, cf. ibid., 144, n. 1. Woo Kang translates san-wei by 'trois mois primitifs'.
12. 朔, 蘇, 革
13. An untransmitted chapter of the collection of rites.
14. For Celestial, Terrestrial, and Human Rectifications t'ien-chêng, ti-chêng, jên-ch êng, cf. Woo Kang, o.c. 143, n. 2, and infra, par. 179.
15. Cf. Woo Kang, o.c. 151, n. 2.
16. For the movement of Heaven, sun, and moon, see ch. XXXIV, par. 209 and ch. XXXV, par. 212.
17. t'ien-chêng 天 正, cf. n. 14. According to the succession of the Principles of Substance and Form the Chou was an adherent of the Principle of Form (Earth), but according to the succession of the Three Rectifications it adhered to the Celestial Rectification.
18. Cf. Vol. I. p. 275, n. 45, and p. 315, n. 247.
19. Cf. Franke, o.c. 233, n. 1.
20. Ch. III. 9, Lun yü chu shu, 3.6b; L. 158. The quotation is to prove that under the Chou the descendants of the Sovereigns of Hsia and Yin were preserved in the states of Ch'i and Sung.
21. The quotation is not from any of the Commentaries on the Ch'un ch'iu, but appears to correspond with Ho Hsiu's comm. on Yin 3 (Kung yang chu shu, 2.8a), which, moreover, also contains the statement "allowing them to initiate ( 統, glossed as 始 by K'ung Ying-ta) the first month of the year".
22. Ode 235: Mao shih chu shu, 23.13a; L. 430; K. 17.65. For the hsü see ch. XLI, par. 271c.
23. Ode 284: ibid., 27.26a; L. 592; K. 17.91.
24. 抑 instead of 其 (Liu, 73.5b).
25. 天 之 所 廢 instead of 天 下 之 所 (Lu).
26. 且 supplied by Lu.
27. The meaning of this passage is not very clear. Probably it is the posing of an academic problem: suppose the descendant of a vanquished state could restore his Dynasty, should he follow the old institutions of his ancestors or create new ones? The reply is: it is inconceivable that a vanquished Dynasty could be restored, but if it were possible it should restore the old institutions.
28. Cf. Ho Hsiu's comm. in Kung yang chu shu, Huan 11, 5.14a, and the Ch'unch'iu wei yüan ming pao (Yü han, 57.6a).
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