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王者設三教 [者]何? 承寰救弊，欲民反正道也。三正之有失，故(正)[立] 三教以相指受。 夏人之王教以忠，其失野，救野之失莫如敬。殷人之王教以敬，其失 鬼, 救鬼之失莫如文。周人之王教以文，其失薄，救薄之失莫如忠。繼周尚黑，制與夏 同。三者如順連環，周則復始，窮則反本。
《樂稽(熠) [耀]嘉》曰:"顏回問三教變，與夏何如?"曰:"教者、所以追 補敗政，靡弊溷濁，謂之治也。舜之承堯無為易也。" 或曰: 三教改易，夏后氏始。高 宗亦承弊,所以不改教何? 明子無改父之道也。何言知高宗不改之? 以周之教承以文 也。三教所以先忠者，行之本也。三教一體而分，不可單行，顧王者行之有先後。何 以言三教並施?不可單行也? 以忠、敬、文無可去者也。
教所以三何? 法天、地、人。內忠，外敬，文飾之，故三而備也。即法天、地、人 各何施? 忠法人，敬法地，文法天。人道主忠，人以至道教人，忠之至也。人以忠教， 故忠為人教也。地道謙卑，天之所生，地敬養之，以敬為地教也。
教者、何謂也?教者、效也。上為之下效之。民有質朴，不教不成。故《孝經》 曰:"先王見教之可以化民。"《論語》曰:"不教民戰，是謂棄之。"《尚書》曰: "以教祗德。"《詩》云:"爾之教矣，欲民斯效。"
夏后氏用明器，殷人用祭器，周人兼用之。何謂?曰:夏后氏教以忠，故先明器， 以奪孝子之心也。殷人教以敬，故先祭器，敬之至也。周人教以文，故兼用之，周人 意至文也。孔子曰:"之死而致死之，不仁而不可為也。之死而致生之，不知而不可為 也。"故有死道焉，以奪孝子之心也。有生道焉，使人勿倍也。"故竹器不成用，木器 不成斲，瓦器不成沫，琴瑟張而不平，竽笙備而不和，有鍾磬而無龔虞。" 縣示備物而 不可用也。孔子曰:"為明器者善，為俑者不仁。" 塗車 (羞) [芻]靈，自古有之。" 言今古皆然也。
XXVIII. The Three Instructions
183---The Meaning of the Three Instructions Introduced by the Sage-Kings (III B. 4a-b).
a.Why does the King institute the Three Instructions? 1 In order, at the inheritance of a decadent [world], to rescue what has been lost, with the purpose of bringing the people back to the right Way. b.The Three Kings 2 having [each] failed [in their own way], the Three Instructions were set up to correct each other. The Kings of the Hsia people instructed by loyalty 3, and failed by [falling into] vulgarity 4; for the correction of vulgarity there is nothing better than reverence 5. The Kings of the Yin people instructed by reverence, and failed by [falling into] superstition 6; for the correction of superstition there is nothing better than culture 7. The Kings of the Chou people instructed by culture, and failed by [falling into] profligacy 8; for the correction of profligacy there is nothing better than loyalty. The successors of the Chou honoured [the colour] black, and established institutions the same as the Hsia. The Three [Instructions] follow upon each other like an endless circle; when the cycle has run out it commences again, when it has reached its end it returns to its beginning 9.
184---The Three Instructions Began with the Hsia (III B. 4b).
a.The Yüeh chi yao chia10 says: "Yen Hui asked 11 about the Three Instructions: had they been changed by [Shun of] Yü and [Yü of the] Hsia [Dynasty]? [Confucius] said: The Instructions were to retrieve [the effects of] bad government, depravity, and impurity: they are to be called [the ways of] governing. Shun, continuing [the way of] Yao, did so without alteration". b.Another opinion is: The Three Instructions, correcting [each other in succession], began with the Hsia Dynasty. c.Why is it that though Kao-tsung [,Sovereign of the Yin Dynasty,] inherited a decadent [world] he did not change the Instruction [of Yin] 12? To show that a son has no right to change the way of his father. How 13 do we know that Kao-tsung did not change it? Because it was [only] with the Chou that the Instruction became that by culture. d.Of the Three Instructions loyalty comes first because it is the basis of conduct. The Three Instructions, though divided, [came from] one body, and they cannot be applied as if they were things apart; therefore the Kings applied them according to their sequence. Why is it said that the Three Instructions were applied together and not separately? Because neither loyalty nor reverence nor culture can be spared.
185---What the Three Instructions Model Themselves On (III B. 5a).
a.Why are there three Instructions? They model themselves on Heaven, Earth, and Man. Inwardly loyal, outwardly reverent, embellished by culture, [by these] three [things] perfection [is reached]. Modelling themselves on Heaven, Earth, and Man, how does each [Instruction] manifest itself? Loyalty models itself on Man, reverence on Earth, culture on Heaven. b.The way of Man has loyalty as its lead. Man, to make his way perfect, instructs man by utmost loyalty, therefore loyalty is Man's Instruction. c.The way of Earth is modest and lowly. What Heaven begets is reverently nourished by Earth, therefore reverence is Earth's Instruction 14.
186---The Meaning of Instruction (III B. 5a).
What does chiao 'instruction' mean? Chiao means hsiao 'to imitate' 15; what the superior does the inferior imitates. The people [represent] 16 crude material which, left uninstructed, will not be- come accomplished. Therefore the Hsiao ching says: "The Ancient Kings saw how their instruction could transform the people" 17. The Lun yü says: "To lead an uninstructed people to war is to throw them away" 18. The Shang shu says: "Instructing [the Hundred Clans] in the reverence of spiritual power" 19. The Shih says: "Thou shouldst instruct them, that the people may imitate thee" 20.
187---How the Three Instructions Could Fail (III B. 5a-b).
Loyalty shows itself in severe straightforwardness, therefore it [can] degenerate into vulgarity. Reverance shows itself in sacrificial worship, therefore it [can] degenerate into superstitition. Culture shows itself in graceful deportment, therefore it [can] degenerate into profligacy.
188---The Vessels in the Three Dynasties (III B. 5b).
a.Why is it that [at the sacrifice for the dead] the Hsia people used the Spiritual Vessels, the Yin people the Sacrificial Vessels, and the Chou people combined both uses? It is said: The Hsia instructed by loyalty, therefore they preferred the Spiritual Vessels, so as to ensure the heart of the filial son. The Yin instructed by reverence, therefore they preferred the Sacrificial Vessels, so as to express the utmost of reverence. The Chou instructed by culture, therefore they combined both uses, so as to express their idea of the climax of culture 21. b.Confucius said: "To approach the dead and treat them as dead is against consideration for others, and should not be done. To approach the dead and treat them as living is a want of wisdom, and should not be done" 22. Therefore there should be the way of the dead in order to ensure the heart of the filial son, and there should [at the same time] be the way of the living in order that men be not ungrateful. c.Therefore [at the sacrifice] the vessels of bamboo are not fit for actual use, the vessels of wood are not well carved, the vessels of earthenware cannot be used to wash in, the ch'in and the sê [lutes] are strung but not evenly, the pan-pipes are complete but out of tune, the bells and chiming-stones are there but they have no stands 23. It means that the things are [all] complete but not for [ordinary] use. d.Confucius said: "The invention of Spiritual Vessels is good, but the invention of human figures [to accompany the dead] is against consideration for others. The carriages of clay and the figures of straw, they have been since antiquity" 24. It means that they obtain for the present as well as for antiquity.
1. 三 教 san-chiao.
2. 王 instead of 正 (Ch'ên, 8.15a).
3. 忠 chung.
4. 野 yeh.
5. 敬 ching.
6. 鬼 kuei.
7. 文 w ên.
8. 薄 po.
9. The same ideas are to be found in the Shih chi (M.H. II. 404), Tung Chung-shu's Biography (Ch'ien han shu, 56.16b), the Yen t'ieh lun (see Gale, Discourses on Salt and Iron, p. 26), the Shuo yüan, Hsiu wên (19.1b), Ch'un ch'iu wei yüan ming pao (Yü han, 57.6a). Cf. also Woo Kang, Les trois théories politiques du Tch'ouen Ts'ieou, p. 62 and note.
10. An Apocryphal Book of Music.
11. 問 instead of 尚(Lu).
12. Kao-tsung or Wu-ting was the Yin Sovereign who managed to revive his decaying Dynasty, see M.H. I. 197, and Li chi, C. II. 705. Cf. also Vol. I, p. 288, n. 153.
13. 何 以 instead of 丨 言 (Lu).
14. A paragraph dealing with "Heaven's Instruction" seems to have dropped.
15. chiao 教 hsiao 效; ancient pronunciations *kŏg/kau and *g'ŏg/γau (Gr. Ser. nos. 1167h-1 and 1166r).
16. 有 is considered superfluous by Liu (73.6a).
17. Hsiao ching chu shu, San ts'ai, 3.5a; L. 474.
18. Ch. XIII. 30, Lun syü chu shu, 13.13a; L. 275. The Lun yü text begins the statement, here quoted, with . The quotation in the Po hu t'ung, missing this character, may, therefore, be translated: "Not to instruct people in [the affairs of] war means to throw them away [in battle]". The context, however, forbids this rendering, cf. Liu Pao-nan, Lun yü chêng i, 16.104. The same quotation in ch. XV, par 119d, moreover, also has 以.
19. Shang shu chu shu, Lü hsing, 18.25b; L. 596.
20. 爾 之 教 矣 欲 民 斯 效 . Ode 223: Mao shih chu shu, 22.12b; L. 405; K. 16.154. The text in the Book of Odes has a different reading.
21. Cf. Li chi chu shu, T'an kung, 8.10a; C. 1.168. The 'Spiritual Vessels' ming-ch'i 明 器,are there also called kuei 鬼 ch'i, i.e. things that only represent utensils; the 'Sacrificial Vessels' chi-ch'i 祭 器 are also called jênch'i, i.e. the actual vessels also used by man. The Chou, combining both, used ordinary vessels that are unfit for use on the occasion of sacrifice, see infra, under c.
22. Li chi chu shu, T'an kung, 8.6a; C. 1.163.
23. Cf. ibid.
24. Ibid., 9.23a; C.I. 209.
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