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情性者、何謂也?性者、陽之施，情者、陰之化也。人稟陰陽氣而生，故內懷五性 六情。情者、靜也,性者、生也。此人所稟六氣以生者也。故《鉤命決》曰:"情生於 陰，欲以時念也: 性生於陽，以理也。陽氣者仁，陰氣者貪，故情有利欲，性有仁 也。"
仁者、不忍也，施生愛人也。義者、宜 也, 斷決得中也。禮者、履也，履道成文也。智者、知也，獨見前聞，不惑於事，見微 [知] (者) [著]也。信者、誠也，專一不移也。
故人生而應八卦之體, 得五氣以為 常,伍義禮智價是也。
六情者，何謂也? 喜、怒、裒、樂、愛、惡謂六情，所以扶成五 性。
性所以五,情所以六者何?人本含六律五行 [之] 氣而生，故內有五藏六府，此情 性之所由出入也。《樂動聲儀》曰:"官有六府，人有五藏。"
肝之為言干也，肺之為言費也，情動得 序。心之為言任也，任於恩也。腎之為嘗寫也，以竅寫也。脾之為言辨也，所以積精 稟氣也。
肝所以仁者何? 肝、木之精也。 仁者好生，東方者、陽也，萬物始生，故肝象木，色青而有枝葉。目為之候何? 目能出 淚，而不能內物;木亦能出枝葉，不能有所內也。
肺所以義者何? 肺者、金之精，羲者 斷決,西方亦金,[殺]成萬物也。故肺象金，色白也。鼻為之候何? 鼻出入氣，高而 有竅。山亦有金石累積，亦有孔穴，出雲布雨，以潤天下，雨則雲消。鼻能出納氣也?
心所以(為)禮何? 心、火之精也。南方尊陽在上，卑陰在下，禮有尊卑，故心象 火,色赤而銳也。人有道尊天，本在上，故心下銳也。耳為之候何? 耳能遍內外，別 音語,火照有似於禮, 上下分明。
腎所以智何? 腎者、水之精'智者進而[不]止， 無所疑惑。水亦進而不惑。北方水，故腎色黑，水陰，故腎雙。竅為之候何? 竅能瀉 水，亦能流濡。
脾所以信何? 脾者、土之精也。土尚任養，萬物為之象，生物無所私， 信之至也。故脾象土,色黃也。口為之候何?口能啖嘗，舌能知味，亦能出音聲，吐滋 液。故《元命苞》曰:"目者、肝之使，肝者、木之精，蒼龍之位也。鼻者、肺之使， 肺者、金之精，制割立斷。耳者、心之候，心者、火之精，上為張星。陰者、腎之寫， 腎者、水之精,上為虛危。口者、脾之門戶，睥者、土之精，上為北斗。主變化者 也。"
六府者、何謂也? 謂大腸、小腸、胃、睹胱、三焦、膽也。 府者、為[五]藏宮府也。故《禮運記》曰:"六情、所以扶成五性也。"
胃者、脾之府也。脾主稟氣。胃者、穀之委也，故脾稟氣也。膀胱者、腎之府也。腎者主瀉，膀胱 常能有熱,故先決難也。三焦者、包絡府也。水穀之道路，氣之所終始也。故上焦若 竅,中焦若編，下焦若瀆。膽者、肝之府也，肝者、木之精也。主仁叫二者不忍，故 以膽斷也。是以(肝膽)(二)[仁]者必有勇也。肝腑異趣，何以知相為府也?肝 者、木之精也，木之為言牧也，人怒無不色青目(脤)[眼]張者，是其效也。小腸 大腸、心肺[之]府也。主禮羲，禮義者、有分理，腸之大小相承受也。腸為心肺 主，心為(皮)[支]體主，故為兩府也。目為心視，口為心談，耳為心聽，鼻為心 嗅，是其支體主也。
喜在西方，怒在東方，好在北方，惡在南方。哀在下，樂在上何? 以西方萬物之 成,故喜; 東方萬物之生，故怒。北方陽氣始施，故好；南方陰氣始起，故惡。上多 樂，下多哀也。
魄者、[猶]迫然著人[也]。[此少陰之 氣], [象金石著人不移]，主於性也。
精神者、何謂也? 精者、靜也，太陰施化之氣也。象(火)[水]之化，[須待] 任生也。 神者恍惚，太(陰)[陽]之氣也，[出入無]間。(棇)[總]云支體萬化 之本也。
XXX. Instinct and Emotion
194---General Remarks (III B. 8b).
What do [the words] ch'ing and hsing mean? 1Hsing 'instinct' is the dispensation of the yang; ch'ing 'emotion' is the working of the yin. Man is born through the reception of the yinand the yang-fluids, therefore he harbours the Five Instincts and the Six Emotions. Ch'ing [also] means ching 'quiescence'; hsing [also] means shêng 'life' 2; it is through the reception of these six fluids that man gets his life 3. Therefore the Kou ming chüeh4 says: "Emotion arises from the yin, it is desire [based] on momentary reflection 5; instinct arises from the yang, it is [always] attached to reason. The yang-fluid [stands for] consideration for others, the yin-fluid [stands for] selfishness. Therefore emotions have desire of gain [as their origin], instinct has consideration for others [as its base]".
195---The Five Instincts and the Six Emotions (III B. 9a).
a. What are the Five Instincts? They are 'consideration for others' jên, 'sense of the correct principles' i, 'ceremonial behaviour' li, 'wisdom' chih, 'trustworthiness' hsin6.
b. Jên 'consideration for others' means pu-jên7 'unable to endure'; [he who has consideration for others] dispenses life and loves men. I 'sense of the correct principles' means i8 'proper'; [he who has sense of the correct principles] in his decisions achieves justness. Li 'ceremonial behaviour' means li9 'to tread'; [he who observes ceremonial behaviour] treads the way which leads to accomplished refinement. Chih 'wisdom' means chih10 'to know'; [he who has wisdom] sees for himself and learns before-hand, he is not deceived by events, he sees what is [still] minute, and knows what will arise out of it. Hsin 'trustworthiness' means chêng 誠 11 'sincerity'; [he who is trustworthy] devotes himself unswervingly to one end.
c. Therefore man lives in conformity with the bodily [parts] of the Eight Trigrams 12; he obtains the five fluids 13 to form the [Five] Constant [Virtues], which are: consideration for others, sense of the correct principles, ceremonial behaviour, wisdom, and trustworthiness.
d. What are the Six Emotions? They are: 'joy' hsi, 'anger' nu, 'grief' ai, 'happiness' lo, 'love' ai, and 'hate' wu14. They are called the Six Emotions to serve as a complement for the Five Instincts.
196---The Five Reservoirs and theSix Storehouses Direct the instincts and Emotions (III B. 9a-11b).
a. Why are there five Instincts and six Emotions? Man by nature lives by containing the fluids of the Six Pitch-pipes and the Five Elements. Therefore he has in [his body] the Five Reservoirs 15 and the Six Storehouses 16, through which the Instincts and Emo- tions go in and out. The Yüeh tung shêng i17 says: "A government's office has six storehouses, man has five reservoirs".
b. What are the Five Reservoirs? They are the liver, the heart, the lungs, the kidneys, and the spleen.
c. Kan 'liver' means kan 'to attend to' 18; deliberations and preparations proceed therefrom 19. Fei 'lungs' means fei 'to spend' 20; the emotions move and attain their sequence. Hsin 'heart' means jên 'to consider' 21; it has reflection 22 as its task. Shên 'kidneys' means hsieh 'to drain' 23; to drain through orifices. Pi 'spleen' means ping 'to unite' 24; it accumulates the germs and provides the fluid.
d. Of the Five Reservoirs the liver [represents] consideration for others, the lungs [represent] sense of the correct principles, the heart [represents] ceremonial behaviour, the kidneys [represent] wisdom, the spleen [represents] trustworthiness.
e. Why [does] the liver [represent] consideration for others? The liver is the essence of wood; consideration for others [expresses] love for the living. The east [represents] the yang, [there] the ten thousand things begin their lives. Therefore the liver resembles a tree, green-coloured, with branches and leaves. Why are the eyes its watch? The eyes can shed tears, but admit no objects. Likewise the tree shoots out branches and leaves, but nothing can enter it.
f. Why [do] the lungs [represent] sense of the correct principles? The lungs are the essence of metal. [Out of a] sense of the correct principles decisions are taken. The west also [represents] metal, [there] the ten thousand things die in maturity. Therefore the lungs resemble metal and are white-coloured. Why is the nose their watch? The nose exhales and inhales air, it is high and has openings. The mountains contain metals and minerals in layers as well as holes and crevices; they produce clouds and spread out rains which moisten all under Heaven. When it rains the clouds disperse, [it is like] the nose blowing out the inner breath.
g. Why [does] the heart [represent] 25 ceremonial behaviour? The heart is the essence of fire. In the south the superior yang is ascendant while the inferior yin lies prone. Ceremonial behaviour [observes the difference between] superior and inferior; therefore the heart resembles fire, is red-coloured and pointed. Man, being in the possession of the Way, reveres Heaven, whose position is by nature high. Therefore the heart is pointed downwards. Why are the ears its watch? The ears can discern 26 between inside and outside, and distinguish sound from speech. The glow of fire resembles ceremonial behaviour in that above and below are clearly divided by it.
h. Why [do] the kidneys [represent] wisdom? The kidneys are the essence of water. Wisdom advances without stopping 27; it neither hesitates nor doubts, [it is like] water, which also advances without uncertainty. The north [represents] water; therefore the kidneys are black-coloured. Water [belongs to] the yin, therefore the kidneys form a pair. Why are the [secret] orifices their watch? The [secret] orifices can drain off, as water also can drain off.
i. Why [does] the spleen [represent] trustworthiness? The spleen is the essence of earth. Earth has as its highest charge the nourishment of the ten thousand things; it is for them the symbol of the begetter of things, requiring nothing for itself, [the embodiment of] the utmost trustworthiness. Therefore the spleen resembles earth and is yellow-coloured. Why is the mouth its watch? The mouth can swallow, its tongue can taste, it can also produce sounds and emit saliva. Therefore the Yüan ming pao says: "The eye is the envoy of the liver; the liver is the essence of wood, the seat of the Green Dragon. The nose is the envoy of the lungs; the lungs are the essence of metal, cleaving and cutting. The ears are the watch of the heart; the heart is the essence of fire, above it corresponds with [the constellations] chang and hsing. The genitals are the drainage for the kidneys; the kidneys are the essence of water, above they correspond with [the constel- lations] hsü and wei. The mouth is the gate of the spleen; the spleen is the essence of earth, above it corresponds with [the constellation] Ursa Major; it directs the tranformations" 28.
j. One opinion is: The mouth is the watch of the heart, the ears are the watch of the kidneys.
k. Another opinion is: The liver is connected with the eyes, the lungs with the nose, the heart with the mouth, the spleen with the tongue, the kidneys with the ears.
l. What are the Six Storehouses? They are: the large intestines, the small intestines, the stomach, the bladder, the gullet, and the gall. The Storehouses serve as the depositories of the Five Reservoirs. Therefore the Li yün chi says: "The Six Emotions serve as a complement for the Five Instincts" 29.
m. The stomach 30 is the storehouse of the spleen; the spleen directs the spending of the fluid; the stomach is the accumulation-place for the food, therefore the spleen provides it with fluid. The bladder 31 is the storehouse of the kidneys; the kidneys direct the drainage; as the bladder can always develop heat it forestalls difficulty 32. The gullet 33 is a storehouse which is wrapped up, it is the canal for food and drink, [the place] where the breath stops and begins; therefore the upper part is like an orifice, the middle part is twisted, and the lower part is like a drain. The gall 34 is the storehouse of the liver; the liver is the essence of wood, it directs [the feeling of] consideration for others; consideration for others means to be unable to endure, therefore it decides by 'courage' 35; for this reason consideration for others requires the possession of bravery. How do we know that though the liver and the gall have different tendencies the one is the storehouse of the other? The liver is the essence of wood; 'wood' mu means mu 'to shepherd' 36; when a man becomes angry he always assumes a green colour while his eyes dilate 37; this is the working [of the liver]. The small intes- tines 38 and the large intestines 39 are the storehouses of the heart and the lungs, and direct the sense of ceremonial behaviour; sense of ceremonial behaviour has discrimination as its principle; likewise the large and the small intestines receive from each other; the intestines are the directors of the heart and the lungs; the heart is the director of its dependencies, therefore there are two storehouses. The eyes see for the heart, the mouth talks for it, the ears hear for it, the nose smells for it: such is its direction of its dependencies.
197---The Correspondencies Between the Storeshouses and the Points of the Compass (III B. 11b).
Why is it that joy resides in the west, anger in the east, love in the north, hate in the south, grief in the lower, and happiness in the upper [regions]? In the west the ten thousand things mature, therefore there is joy; in the east they are born, therefore there is anger 40, in the north the yang-fluid begins to work, therefore there s love; in the south the yin-fluid begins to rise, therefore there is hate; in the upper [regions] there is much happiness as there is much grief in the lower.
198---The Hun and the P'o (III B. 11b-12a).
a. What do [the words] hun and p'o mean? Hun expresses the idea of soaring away, of going without rest; it is the fluid of the younger yang, therefore it moves without stopping; with respect to man it is external and directs the instincts 41.
b. P'o expresses the idea of a pressing urge on man; it is the fluid of the younger yin; it resembles [precious] metal and stone, which urge man without distraction and directs the emotions 42.
c. Hun means yün43 'to weed'; with the instincts 44 the ill-weed is removed. P'o means po45 'to clear up'; with the emotions 46 the inner movements are governed.
199---Receptive Power and Vital Force (III B. 12a).
What do the words ching and shên mean? Ching 'receptive power' means ching 'repose' 47; it is the fluid of the dispensing and transforming [power] of the elder yin; it resembles the transforming [power] of water, which must wait for its task of giving life. Shên 'vital force' means huang-hu 'flux' 48; it is the fluid of the elder yang, which is in motion without interruption. In general it may be said [that vital force is] the origin of [the process of] branching off [into various organs], and of the ten thousand transformations.
1. 情, 性 .
2. ching 靜, shêng 生.
3. The whole passage seems to be irrelevant and to interrupt the paragraph. By the 'six fluids' probably the 'fluids of the Six Pitch-pipes' is meant, cf. infra, par. 196a.
4. An Apocryphal Book of Filial Piety.
5. 欲 以 时 念 . Ma Kuo-han's ed. of the Kou ming chüeh (Yü han, 58. 33b) writes 待 instead of 时, thus: "it is desire which waits on reflection".
6. jên 仁, i 義, li禮 , chih 智, hsin信.
7. 不 忍 .
8. 宜 . Cf. ch. Chi i of the Li chi (C. II. 302).
9. 履 , cf. ch. VI, n. 1.
10. 知 .
12. 八 卦 之 體 . They are referred to as pa-so in the Kuo-yü, Chêng yü, 16.5b. In his comm. Wei Chao (197-278) enumerates: the ch'ien trigram represents the head, the k'un the belly, the chên the feet, the sun the legs, the li the eyes, the tui the mouth, the k'an the ears, the kên the hands.
13. I.e. the Five Elements.
14. 喜, 怒, 哀, 樂, 愛, 惡 .
15. 五 藏 wu-tsang.
16. 六 府 liu-fu.
17. An Apocryphal Book of Music.
18. 肝, 干 .
19. 謀 慮 出 焉 , supplied by Liu (73.6a).
20. 肺, 費 .
21. 心, 恁 , (instead of 任, acc. to Liu, l.c.).
22. 思 instead of 恩(ibid.).
23. 腎, 寫 .
24. 脾, 併 .
25. 為 is redundant (Sun I-jang, Cha i, 10.4b).
26. 徧 = 辨 (Lu).
27. 進 而 不 止 (Sun I-jang, l.c.).
28. This quotation from the Ch'un ch'iu wei yüan ming pao seems to be rather corrupt. It concerns here the correspondences with the constellations of the four heavenly quarters, comprising the twenty-eight zodiacal mansions. The liver, according to this system, corresponds with wood (east, spring) and the constellation 'Green Dragon' ts'ang-lung 蒼 龍 (especially the mansions fang 房 and hsin 心= spring equinox); the lungs correspond with metal (west, autumn) and the constellation 'White Tiger' po-hu 白 虎 (especially the mansions mao 昴 and pi 畢= autumn equinox); the heart corresponds with fire (south, summer) and the constellation 'Vermillion Bird' chu-niao 朱 鳥 (especially the mansions hsing 星 and chang 張 = summer solstice); the kidneys correspond with water (north, winter) and the constellation 'Dark Warrior' hsŭan-wu 玄 武 (especially the mansions hsü 虛 and wei 危 = winter solstice); the spleen corresponds with earth (centre) and the constellation Ursa Major pei-tou 北 斗. Cf. also ch. IX, par. 78a-d. The 'Dark Warrior' is there translated as 'Black Tortoise'. For their association see M.H. 1.47 and de Saussure, Les origines de l'astronomie chinoise, p. 161, n. 1.
29. Not in the present Li chi.
30. 胃 wei.
31. 膀 胱 p'ang-kuang. Instead of this sentence Lu (Pu i, 8b) suggests the reading: "The bladder is the storehouse of the lungs; the lungs settle and decide; as the bladder, etc."
32. Probably the meaning is that the bladder gives the warning that the time for 'drainage' has come.
33. 三 焦 san-chiao. Cf. Hübotter, Die Chinesische Medizin, p. 55. Instead of this sentence Lu (l.c.) suggests the reading: "The gullet is the storehouse of the kidneys; the kidneys direct the drainage; thus it is that the gullet also ejects the collected fluid; the upper part, etc."
34. 膽 tan.
35. 膽 tan.
36. 木,牧 .
37. 眽 is superfluous (Liu, 73.6b).
38. 小 腸 hsiao-ch'ang.
39. 大 腸 ta-ch'ang. Instead of this sentence Lu (l.c.) suggests the reading: "The large intestines and the small intestines are the storehouses of the heart; the heart directs ceremonial behaviour; ceremonial behaviour has discrimination as its principle; the intestines are large and small because they receive from each other; the intestines ..... (corrupt and incomprehensible); the heart is the director of its dependencies, therefore there are two storehouses." Lu further supplies (from the T'ai p'ing yü lan): "Fire develops in the fifth [month?], therefore the human heart is five inches long".
40. 怒 nu, perhaps to be taken in the meaning of 'excitement'?
41. 性 instead of 情 (Ch'ên, 8.29a).
42. 情 instead of 性(ibid.).
43. 芸 .
44. see n. 41.
45. 白 .
46. See n. 42.
47. 精, 靜 .
48. 神, 恍 惚 .
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