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Appendix B: Table of Contents of the Po Hu T'ung


1. a. Son of Heaven t'ien-tzŭ is a rank.
b. Why the Kings were all called Son of Heaven,.
c. And the Emperors,
d. And the August Ones.

2. a. The ranks are in five or in three grades.
b. The meaning of kung, hou, po, tzŭ, nan.
c. Sub-fiefs.
d. Why the kung and the hou have fiefs of 100 li, the po of 70 li, the tzŭ and the nan of 50 li.
e. The Yin united tzŭ and nan into po.
f. Why the 'gradations' of land are not changed.
g. Why under the Yin the kung had a fief of 100 li, the hou of 70 li.
h. The reason for a hou not having more than 70 li.

3. a. The meaning of kung, ch'ing, ta-ju.
b. The common officer shih.
c. Ch'ing and kung are ranks.
d. Why the interior ranks are in three grades.
e. The Feudal Lords have no kung.
f. Why the ta-fu are distinguished by higher and lower, the shih by first, second, third.
g. Why only ta-fu consists of two words.
h. Why the common officers of the Son of Heaven are called yüan-shih.

4. Why the Feudal Lords are not designated by the term wang-hou.

5. Why the King's Heir is a common officer.

6. a. Why the wife has no rank.
b. Fu-jên is not a rank.

7. The common man is called p'i-fu.

8. a. Administrative ranks are conferred at court.
b. Feudal Lords are enfeoffed in the ancestral temple.

9. A great officer is not to receive a rank posthumously.

10. a. Why the Heir of the Son of Heaven or of a Feudal Lord is called Generation-son shih-tzŭ, when his father is alive.
b. When his father has died, he is called Child So-and-so; when his father has been buried, he is called Child; one year after his father's death he is called kung.
c. The meaning of shih-tzŭ.
d. The son of the Son of Heaven is called shih-tzŭ.
e. Another opinion: he is called Eldest Son t'ai-tzŭ.
f. Why the Heir of a Feudal Lord must go to court to receive his rank from the Son of Heaven after his three years' mourning

11. a. After the Greater Dressing the Heir of the Son of Heaven is called King.
b. There should be no two rulers in one and the same year.
c. It is not proper that there should be no ruler for one whole year.
d. The beginning of a new chronology
e. After three years the King assumes full kingship.
f. Why during his mourning the orders proceed from the Grand Administrator chung-tsai.
g. About the chung-tsai.


12. a. Ti and wang are appellations.
b. When a man is called Emperor ti or King wang
c. About the August Ones huang.
d. The meaning of ti.
e. The meaning of wang.

13. a. Why the sovereign is sometimes called Son of Heaven, sometimes Emperor or King.
b. Sometimes he calls himself The One Man.
c. Why he calls himself chên 'We'.

14. Why he is called chün-tzŭ 'the Noble Man'.

15. a. The Three August Ones:
b. Fu-hsi;
c. Shên-nung;
d. Sui-jên;
e. Chu-jung.
f. The Five Emperors:
g. Huang-ti;
h. Chuan-hsü;
i. Ti-k'u;
j. Yao;
k. Shun.
l. The Three Kings.
m. Why the clan-name is not taken as an appellation.
n. The meaning of Hsia, Yin, and Chou.
o. After having assumed his reign the King establishes a new appellation.
p. Why the Five Emperors had no appellations.
q. Another opinion: the Five Emperors had appellations.
r. The Five Hegemons: K'un-wu, Ta-p'êng, Shih-wei, Huan, Wên;
s. Or: Huan, Wên, Mu, Chuang, Ho-lü;
t. Or: Huan, Wên, Mu, Hsiang, Chuang.

16. Earls, Viscounts, and Barons are called Dukes kung in their own states.


17. a. The meaning of 'posthumous name' shih.
b. Why the shih is given after death,
c. Just before the funeral,
d. When the coffin has been placed on the hearse.

18 a. Huang-ti.
b. Why a posthumous name consists of one or two words.
c. Why the posthumous names are distinguished with respect to Substance and Form, but the appellations are not.
d. Ti is an appellation; Yao is a posthumous name, as are also Shun, Wên, Wu.

19. Why the Son of Heaven receives his posthumous name in the southern suburb.

20. Why the Feudal Lords receive their posthumous names from the Son of Heaven.

21. Why a Minister and a great officer receive posthumous names.

22. a. Does the wife receive a posthumous name?
b. Why the principal wife of a great officer ming-fu does not receive a posthumous name,
c. Neither the Eight Concubines of the Feudal Lord,
d. Nor the wife of the Heir of the Son of Heaven,
e. Nor the holders of a sub-fief.

23. The principal wife of the Son of Heaven receives her posthumous name in the Hall of Audience.

24. The appellation models itself on Heaven and the sun; the posthumous name models itself on Earth and the moon.


25. They are: the outer door, the inner door, the well, the hearth, the impluvium.

26. Why only those with the rank of great officer and higher have the right to sacrifice to the Five Deities.

27. a. The sacrifices to the Five Deities follow the succession of the Five Elements.
b. From the Yüeh ling.
c. Why in spring the spleen is sacrificed to the inner door.
d. Why in winter the kidneys are offered, in the sixth month the heart.

28. a. The Son of Heaven and the Feudal Lords use an ox, the Ministers and great officers a sheep.
b. Another opinion on the use of victims.
c. Yet another opinion.


29. The meaning of their worship.

30. Why there are two sacrifices in a year.

31. a. Why three victims are used by the Son of Heaven.
b. Why the Feudal Lords offer only the smaller sacrifice.

32. Why the Son of Heaven and the Feudal Lords have two Altars of the God of the Earth.

33. a. Why they must also have a Warning God of the Earth,
b. The upper part of which is covered.
c. It stands east of the second outer gate of the palace.
d. Another opinion: it should be in the vicinity of the sovereign.

34. Explanation of its situation.

35. Great officers have an Altar.

36. a. Why the Altar of the God of the Earth is not called t'u, but shê.
b. The God of the Millet is called chi.
c. Shê-chi may not be changed into chi-shê.
d. Why a sacrifice is not offered to the God of the Millet in the first month of the year.

37. a. Why the Altar of the God of the Earth has no roof.
b. Why there is a tree planted on it
c. Different trees on different Al- tars.

38. Why the King sacrifices in person.

39. a. The size of the Altar.
b. Its colour.
c. The procedure of investment.

40. Music is used at the sacrifice

41. The sacrifice by a Feudal Lord is discontinued at the news of the death of the Son of Heaven.


42. a. The meaning of the words li 'rites', and yüeh 'music'.
b. Rites and Music are for the manifestation of joy and anger.
c. What rites and music can bring about.
d. The relation of the notes and human feelings.
e. Why humbling oneself and yielding precedence to others belong to the rites.
f. Why music is always accompanied by singing.
g. Why in rites emphasis is laid upon equilibrium.
h. The ya- and the chêng-melodies.

43. a. Why rites and music are newly fashioned and created by a new Dynasty.
b. Why music is created tso, and rites are fashioned chih.

44. a. The King of a new Dynasty at first employs the rites and music of the previous Dynasty.
b. Sometimes he employs those of the next-previous Dynasty.
c. But it is necessary to fashion and create new rites and music, after general peace has been restored.
d. The meaning of the music of Huang-ti: Hsien-shih;
e. That of Chuan-hsü: Liu-hêng;
f. That of Ti-k'u: Wu-ying;
g. That of Yao: Ta-chang;
h. That of Shun: Hsiao-shao;
i. That of Yü: Ta-hsia;
j. That of T'ang: Ta-hu;
k. That of Chou-kung: Cho;
l. That of Wu-wang: Hsiang;
m. That of Chou: Ta-wu.

45. a. The Son of Heaven has eight rows of dancers pa-i, the Feudal Lords have four.
b. The meaning of pa-i.
c. Great officers and common officers have only the right to use the ch'in- and -lutes.

46. The King performs the Six Musics of the previous Dynasties.

47. a. Why he also performs the music of the Four Barbarian Tribes.
b. The names of this music are: chao-li, nan, wei, chin.
c. Their musicians are seated at the right outside the gate.
d. The peaceful and the military part in the performance of the King's music.
e. Description of the music of the Four Barbarian Tribes.
f. Their music was instituted by the ancient Sage-kings.
g. The meaning of the names chao-li, nan, wei, chin.
h. A different description of the music of the Barbarians.
i. Why the King fashions their music, but not their rites.
j. The dances are performed by men of the Middle State.
k. Why the music of the barbarians is performed outside.
l. The meaning of the expression 'music of the Four Barbarian Tribes'.
m. The names of the barbarian tribes.
n. The east has nine barbarian tribes.
o. The King does not devise names for the barbarians.
p. Another opinion: He does devise names for them; the meaning of the names i, man, jung, ti.

48. Why the singers are on the platform, the dancers below it.

49. a. Why the music for 'inviting down' the spirits is placed upon the platform.
b. Chiming-stone and pu-fu.

50. a. Why music is played at the meals of the Son of Heaven.
b. Why he takes four complete meals:
c. At dawn, at noon, in the afternoon, in the evening.
d. The Feudal Lords take three complete meals, the Ministers and great officers two.
e. The common man is not limited in the number of his meals.

51. a. The meaning of shêng and yin.
b. The Five Notes wu-shêng.
c. The meaning of chüeh, chih, shang, yü, kung.
d. The Eight Kinds of Instrumental Music pa-yin.
e. Why they are used by the Son of Heaven.
f. Description of the pa-yin.
g. The meaning of hsün 'occarina'.
h. The meaning of p'ao 'gourd'.
i. The meaning of shêng 'pan-pipes'.
j. The meaning of ka 'drum'.
k. The meaning of t'ao 'handdrum'.
l. The meaning of hsiao 'bamboo-flute".
m. The meaning of 'lute'.
n. The meaning of ch'in 'lute'.
o. The meaning of ch'ing 'chiming-stone'.
p. The meaning of chung 'bell'.
q. The meaning of po 'large bell'.
r. The meaning of chu and .
s. Another opinion: Regional cor- respondences of the musical instruments.
t. The Five Notes originate from the Five Elements, the Eight Kinds of Instrumental Music represent the Eight Winds.

52. (Contains irrelevant miscellanea).


53. a. Why the King has three Ducal Ministers, nine Ministers, twenty-seven great officers, eighty-one common officers.
b. The functions of the ssŭ-ma, ssŭ-t'u, ssŭ-k'ung.
c. The importance of the number three.
d. The King's one hundred and twenty officials correspond with the Twelve Earthly Stems.
e. The functions of the ssŭ-ma, ssŭ-t'u, ssŭ-k'ung.
f. Why the ssŭ-ma supervises the army.
g. The word ma is used instead of ping.
h. The word t'u is used instead of jên
i. The word k'ung is used instead of t'u.

54. a. The necessity of enfeoffing Lords:
b. That they may imitate the King.

55. a. The chou-po.
b. He was also called Shepherd mu.
c. In the time of Yao there were twelve provinces.
d. The two Regional Chiefs.
e. Why there was no division into north and south.

56. The number of Ministers of the Feudal Lords.

57. a. A fief does not exceed 100 li.
b. The division of the country.
c. Why the land is parcelled out in three grades.

58 a. The meaning of enfeoffment.
b. Why the King does not give a fief to himself.
c. The paternal uncles and brothers are enfeoffed.
d. Another opinion: the paternal uncles are not enfeoffed.
e. The King does not enfeoff his son.

59. Why the enfeoffment takes place in summer.

60. a. Why the Feudal Lords have a hereditary position.
b. Why the great officers have no hereditary position.
c. Another explanation.
d. The Feudal Lord represents the unbroken yang, the great officer the broken yin.

61. a. The Heir is appointed during the life of the ruler.
b. The appointment of the Heir, when the ruler dies, and his principal wife has no sons, but is pregnant.
c. Priority of age or of rank.

62. a. Why a brother may not succeed,
b. Except in the case of a Feudal Lord who has succeeded to his fief.

63. a. The Major Lineage must be con- tinued.
b. The adopted one is made son.

64. a. The restoration of extinct fa- milies.
b. The son of an executed Lord is not installed again.
c. Why the son of a murdered Lord may succeed him.

65. The enfeoffment of the son of a great officer.

66. Chou-kung.


67. The selection of the capital.

68. a. The capitals of Chou.
b. A Feudal Lord is not allowed to move his capital.

69. The meaning of ching-shih.

70. Another opinion on the names for capital under the Three Dynasties.

71. The meaning of revenues lu.

72. The apanages of Feudal Lords serving in the King's domain.

73. The apanage of the King's Heir.

74. The apanage of the Ministers.


75 a. The meaning of wu-hsing
b. The meaning of water shui.
c. The meaning of wood mu.
d. The meaning of fire huo.
e. The meaning of metal chin.
f. The meaning of earth t'u.
g. The east represents growth.
h. Earth is not attached to the name of a season.

76. a. Difference of status of the Elements.
b. Two yang- and three yin-elements

77. a. Why water is salty.
b. Why wood is sour.
c. Why fire is bitter.
d. Why metal is acrid.
e. Why earth is sweet.
f. The north (water) has the smell of decay.
g. The east (wood) smells rank.
h. The south (fire) has the smell of burning.
i. The west (metal) smells frowsy.
j. The centre (earth) has a fragrant smell.
k. The meaning of the names of the Four Quarters.

78. a. Ascendency and decline of the younger yang;
b. Of the elder yang;
c. Of the younger yin;
d. Of the elder yin.
e. The element earth.

79. a. Why the musical pitch-pipe for the 11th month is called huang-chung;
b. That for the 12th month: ta-lü;
c. That for the 1st month: t'ai-ts'ou;
d. That for the 2nd month: chieh-chung;
e. That for the 3rd month: ku-hsi;
f. That for the 4th month: chung-lü;
g. That for the 5th month: shêng-p'in;
h. That for the 6th month: lin-chung;
i. That for the 7th month: i-tsê;
j. That for the 8th month: nan-lu;
k. That for the 9th month: wu-i;
l. That for the 10th month: ying chung.

80. a. The Five Elements engender each other.
b. The principle of the succession of the Elements.
c. The Five Elements destroy each other.
d. Why fire is destroyed by water.
e. Why fire destroys wood.
f. Each of the four Elements is king for 72 days.
g. Earth is king during the four last months of the seasons.
h. The Elements engender each other according to their positions.
i. There can be no life in fire.
j. Water and fire represent one species, metal and wood represent many species.
k. Why water and wood can be consumed, but metal, fire, and earth cannot.
l. Why fire and water kill.
m. Why they cannot be of use by the application of man's skill.
n. Why there is hot water, but not cold fire.
o. Why fire can suddenly disappear.
p. Why wood floats, but metal sinks

81. a. Why Heaven is light within, dark without, and man is light without, dark within.
b. Why there are five elements, but four seasons.
c. The child does not yield.
d. The son succeeds his father.
e. The younger brother continues his elder brother.
f. The treating of the capable with goodness is extended to the sons and grandsons.
g. The treating of the bad with badness is limited to the person himself.
h. The Minister assists the young ruler.
i. The son revenges his father.
j. The son obeys his father.
k. The son does not leave his parents.
l. The daughter leaves her parents.
m. The man meets his bride in person.
n. The Lord yields to his Minister.
o. The good is ascribed to the Lord, the faults are to oneself.
p. The Minister ascribes his merits to his Lord.
q. The Minister admonishes his Lord.
r. The son admonishes his father.
s. The Minister leaves, when he is not listened to.
t. The Noble Man withdraws from his son, but approaches his grandson.
u. Relatives do not leave each other.
v. The father screens his son
w. The son screens his father.
x. The Lord has multitudes of people.
y. The King bestows his favours first on his relatives.
z. There is discrimination between old and young
aa. The relation between friends.
bb. The parents give life to their child.
cc. The son nourishes his parents.
dd. The son does not neglect his grandfather's command on behalf of his father.
ee. The yang goes leisurely, the yin goes hurriedly.
ff. There is division of land, but not of people.
gg. The Lord takes nine wives.
hh. A man does not marry a woman of the same clan-name.
ii. The son wears mourning for his parents.
jj. The mourning lasts three years
kk. The father wears mourning for his son, the husband for his wife.
ll. At sixty a man closes his door to his wife.
mm. The Five Storehouses and the Six Mansions.
nn. The eye of man.
oo. The sun shines at day, the moon at night.
pp. The King oversees the descendants of the two previous Dynasties.
qq. The King first gives rewards, then punishments.


82. a. The task of the Three Hosts.
b. They model themselves on Heaven, Earth, and Man.
c. The army-units: wu, liang, tsu, lü, shih, chün.
d. 12.000 men are necessary to keep order in the state.
e. The Son of Heaven has an army of six hosts, a Feudal Lord an army of one host.

83. The dress on a war-expedition.

84. a. Before starting out the King takes leave of his ancestors.
b. Why he must also announce his departure to Heaven.

85. Must the founder of a new Dynasty first begin his own chronology, or must he first slay the King of the Dynasty which is to be overthrown?

86. The King goes in person on a punitive expedition; in less important cases he sends one of the Regional Chiefs.

87. The army is not directed by the court.

88. The charge of an expedition is received in the ancestral temple.

89. a. Why a man takes up arms at thirty.
b. Why he leaves the army at sixty.

90. An expedition is not permitted to exceed one season.

91. Even during his period of mourning the King must go on a punitive expedition.


92. Why relatives are not exempt from punishments.

93. Why a feudal Lord who is wearing mourning is not subject to punishment.

94. a. Only with the permission of the Son of Heaven may a Feudal Lord start a punitive expedition.
b. Cases where this rule need not be observed.
c. Parricide is to be punished.

95. A Lord who has attained his position by regicide is to be punished, and his son is not to become his successor.

96. Infanticide is to be punished.

97. Why sycophants are to be executed.

98. a. A son has the right to avenge his father,
b. But not, if the father has been righteously executed.

99. a. The meaning of chu 'to execute'.
b. The meaning of t'ao 'to punish'.
c. The meaning of fa 'to attack'.
d. The meaning of chêng 'to chastise'.
e. The meaning of chan.
f. The meaning of shih 'to murder a superior'.
g. The meaning of ch'uan 'to usurp'.
h. The meaning of hsi 'to surprise'.
i. To lend a road does not mean to sell it.
j. The rule of borrowing a road avoids encroachments.

100. Why on the days of the solstices the weapons are rested.


101. a. The duty for a Minister to admonish.
b. The tso-fu, the yu-pi, the ch'ien-i, the hou-ch'êng.
c. Their different tasks
d. Why the Son of Heaven has seven Counsellors.

102. a. Why the Minister, if not listened to, has the right to leave.
b. How he should resign.
c. How his ruler should reply.
d. Why the Minister must have warned thrice.
e. If not called back he must wait three years before entering another service.
f. He is said to be dismissed.
g. In what case the Minister should not wait to be stopped from leaving.
h. During the time of waiting the Minister's allowance is not cut off.
i. The meaning of being given a huan-ring or a chüeh-ring.
j. Another opinion: the Minister may not be said to be dismissed.
k. A relative may not leave after a fruitless admonition.

103. A common officer has no right to admonish.

104. A wife has the right to admonish her husband, but not the right to leave.

105 a. A son may not leave his father after a fruitless admonition.
b. The admonishing son is like fire making wood pliable, the admonishing Minister is like metal straightening wood.

106. a. The meaning of chien 'to admonish'.
b. The Five Kinds of Admonitions.
c. Their description.
d. Confucius followed the Allusive Admonition.
e. Its qualities.
f. Songs to censure a bad ruler.

107 a. The task of the Warners is to correct the King.
b. He has a Recorder to register his faults, and a Steward to diminish his dishes.
c. Why the Recorder is called shih.
d. Why the Steward is called tsai
e. The meaning of the diminishment of the King's dishes.
f. The meaning of recording the King's faults.

108. a. Why the Minister screens his Lord.
b. Why the Lord does not screen the Minister.
c. The Minister of a Feudal Lord screens him before the Son of Heaven.
d. Why the father screens his son.
e. Brothers screen each other.
f. So do friends.
g. The four expressions of friendship.
h. Husband and wife screen each other.


109. Why the Son of Heaven practises archery in person.

110. a. The different targets.
b. Why the target of the Son of Heaven has the picture of a bear;
c. That of a Feudal Lord the picture of a stag;
d. That of a great officer the picture of a tiger and a leopard;
e. That of a common officer the picture of a deer and a boar.
f. Each takes from his target the spiritual power to subdue evil.
g. Why the great officer and the common officer use a target with the picture of two animals.
h. Another explanation.
i. Why the target is of cloth.
j. Why it is called hou.
k. Why the real body is not shot at.

111. a. The rules to be observed in order to hit the mark.
b. The value of contest.
c. Choice of the worthy through ar- chery.
d. Danger can be averted by means of archery.
e. The correct use of rites and music can be practised by means of archery.
f. Why archery takes place on a platform.
g. The difference of the distances at which to shoot.

112. Why the district feasting takes place in the tenth month.

113. a. The san-lao and the wu-kêng.
b. Their treatment by the Son of Heaven.
c. Why they are not simply called 'father' and 'elder brother'.
d. The meaning of the use of san in san-lao, and of wu in wu-kêng.
e. They each represent one man.


114. a. Seventy is the time for a Minister to retire.
b. What retiring means.
c. When he remains in office, he is granted a stool and a stick.
d. When he retires, he is given one third of his revenue.
e. He calls himself lao-fu.
f. The stool and the stick serve to support the weak.
g. When a ruler has some question to ask of a Minister who has retired and is ninety years of age, he goes to his home.
h. A retired great officer is buried with the rites pertaining to his former position.


115. a. Why a youth enters the Grand College at fifteen.
b. The meaning of hsüeh 'to study'.
c. Every man must have a teacher.
d. The teachers of the ancient Emperors and Kings.
e. The Heir goes out to his teacher.
f. What the Junior School and the Grand College are.

116. Why a father does not teach his son.

117. Three kinds of relationship between teacher and pupil.

118. a. What is the pi-yung?
b. The meaning of the name.
c. Another explanation.
d. Pi-yung and p'an-kung.
e. Why the pi-yung is round outside, and square inside.
f. Why it is not called yüan-yung.
g. The meaning of p'an-kung.
h. Why it is not called p'an-yung.

119. a. The meaning of hsiang and hsü as names for schools.
b. The teachers in a hamlet are called yu-shih and tso-shih.
c. The elders in a hamlet see to it that the men do their work regularly
d. When the crop has been reaped, all the younger men enter school.

120. a. The ling-t'ai.
b. The ming-t'ang.
c. Description of the ming-t'ang.
d. The meaning of its construction.


121. Why Heaven sends down calamities.

122. a. The meaning of tsai-i 'calamities and miracles'.
b. Why a calamity is a case for wailing.
c. The meaning of pien 'extraordinary event'.
d. The meaning of yao 'magic'.
e. The meaning of yeh 'freak'.
f. The flood under Yao and the drought under T'ang were caused by destiny.
g. Each strange phenomenon has its particular meaning.

123. a. The meaning of shuang 'frost',
b. The meaning of pao 'hail'.

124. a. Why the sun must be rescued, when it is eclipsed.
b. A drum is then beaten and victims sacrificed to the God of the Earth.
c. Why victims must be used.
d. The rain-sacrifice.
e. How the moon is rescued, when it is eclipsed.


125. a. The King in person inaugurates the ploughing, and the Queen in person inaugurates the picking of mulberry-leaves.
b. Why the King does so.
c. Why the Queen does so.
d. The number of furrows to be drawn by the King and his officials.
e. Why the ploughing takes place in the eastern suburb.
f. The picking of mulberry-leaves takes place in the western suburb.
g. It takes place in the southern suburb.
h. The ruler must have his own mulberry-trees and silk-worms' houses.


126. a. Why the King of a new Dynasty must perform the fêng- and shan-sacrifice.
b. Why the sacrifice is performed on Mount T'ai.
c. Why the fêng-sacrifice takes place on the top of the mountain; the shan-sacrifice at the base of it.
d. At the fêng-sacrifice a gold stamp is used with silver bindings. Or: a stone stamp with gold bindings, sealed with a seal.
e. Those who climbed Mount T'ai for the sacrifice numbered more than seventy.
f. The meaning of the words fêng and shan. The peaks of Liang-fu, I-i, T'ing-t'ing.
g. The meaning of Mount Tai-tsung.
h. The burnt offering, and the wang-sacrifice.

127. a. Why lucky omens appear.
b. The Sweet Dew.
c. The Auspicious, Grain, the ming-chieh, the chü-ch'ang, the hua-p'ing.
d. The Luminous Star, the Five Planets.
e. The Vermilion Grass.
f. The fêng-huang, the tüan-bird, the ch'i-lin, the White Tiger, the Nine-tailed Fox, the White Pheasant, the White Deer, the White Crow.
g. The Luminous Cloud, the chih-plant, the sha-fu, the Natural Carriage, the Spiritual Vase.
h. The Yellow Dragon, the Source of Fragrant Wine, the Dragon Chart, the Turtle Book, the Great Shell, the Brilliant Pearl.
i. The Auspicious Wind, the Yüeh-shang.
j. Description of the sha-fu.
k. Description of the pin-lien.
l. Description of the ming-chieh.
m. Description of the p'ing-lu.
n. Description of the Nine-tailed Fox.
o. Description of the Luminous Star.
p. Description of the Sweet Dew.
q. Description of the Vermilion Grass.
t. Description of the Fragrant Wine.
s. Description of the Auspicious Grain.
t. Description of the fêng-huang.


128. a. The meaning of hsün and shou.
b. The King must go in person on the Tour of Inspection.
c. What he does on this Tour.
d. The examination of the observance of rites.

129. a. Why the Tours are held in each of the four seasons:
b. In the second, fifth, eighth, eleventh months.

130. a. Why they are not held yearly,
b. But every five years.
c. Every three years the Regional Chiefs go out on their inspection.

131. a. Why a sacrifice to Heaven is performed before a Tour of Inspection.
b. Why the Tour is also announced to the ancestors.
c. The meaning of the announcement to Heaven.
d. The lei-sacrifice.
e. The ts'ao-sacrifice.
f. The announcement to the ancestors has the meaning of a leave-taking.
g. Why the ancestral tablet which has been latest removed from its shrine accompanies a Tour.
h. What to do if there is no such tablet.
i. Why it must be that tablet.

132. Why the Feudal Lords wait at the boundaries of their states for the King on his Tour

133. Why on his Tour the King is lodged in the ancestral temple of the Feudal Lord whom he visits.

134. One of the Ducal Ministers remains in the capital, two accompany the King on his Tour.

135. a. Why his corpse is returned to the capital, when the King dies on his way.
b. Why Shun was buried at Ts'ang-wu, and Yü at Kuei-chi.

136. Why it is only after general peace has been restored that the King makes a Tour.

137. a. The meaning of yo 'peak'.
b. The meaning of the names Tai-tsung, Ho-shan, Hua-shan, Hêng-shan, Sung-kao.
c. The meaning of tu 'stream'.


138. Why the Feudal Lords are regularly examined.

139. a. The names of the Nine Distinc- tions.
b. Who are to be granted the Distinctions.
c. There is no overlapping in the order of the Distinctions.
d. Who are to be granted Carriage and Horses;
e. Robes and Garments;
f. Musical Instruments;
g. The Vermilion Door;
h. Inside Staircases;
i. Gentlemen as Rapid as Tigers;
j. Ceremonial- and Battle-axes;
k. Bows and Arrows;
l. The Black Millet Herb-flavoured Liquor.
m. The meaning of the Jade Libation-cup.
n. Description of the Carriage.
o. Another opinion on who are to be granted the Nine Distinctions.
p. The ch'ang, the hsün, the lan-chih, the hsiao, the ai.
q. Which Distinctions are conferred with the objects.
r. The bestowal of Carriage and Garments.
s. The bestowal of Musical Instruments.
t. Which Distinctions are conferred without the objects.
u. Description of the Black Millet Herb-flavoured Liquor.
v. Description of the Jade Libation-cup.

140. a. Why there is an examination every three years.
b. At the first examination minor degradations are dealt out.
c. Promotion and degradation of small states.
d. Distinction in the promotion of holders of small and large fiefs.
e. Another opinion.
f. The enfeoffment of those who have helped the King to establish his Dynasty.
g. A common officer may be enfeoffed.
h. A yüan-shih, when enfeoffed, has his position made hereditary.
i. The fiefs of great officers, Min- isters, and Ducal Ministers.
j. The promotion of the several officials.
k. Ranks are given for spiritual power displayed, fiefs are given for merits achieved.
l. Why the Nine Distinctions are not hereditary.
m. Another opinion: they are hereditary, but with certain conditions.
n. The son of the Ducal Minister may receive a subfief.
o. The degradation of a Marquis;
p. That of an Earl;
q. That of a Viscount;
r. That of a Baron.
s. Why with the third degradation the extreme measure is taken.
t. Why first the land is reduced, then the rank.
u. Another explanation.
v. Rank and fief are connected with each other in the case of one who is enfeoffed as the first of his line.

141. a. Why a young and weak ruler is not subject to degradation.
b. Why the descendants of the Kings of the two previous Dynasties are not deprived of their ranks.
c. Cases when they should be cut off.
d. What happens to the parents and the brothers of a Lord who has been punished.
e. Why a Feudal Lord is not deposed, even if he is an invalid.
f. Why the Heir is excluded from succession in the case of a loathsome disease.


142. a. The three classes of persons not considered subjects by the King.
b. Why the descendants of the Kings of the two previous Dynasties are not considered his subjects;
c. Neither the parents of his wife;
d. Nor the barbarian tribes.

143. a. The five classes of persons not considered subjects by the King temporarily, viz.:
b. The impersonator of his dead father, and his teacher,
c. The general in the field,
d. The san-lao and the wu-kêng.

144. Why the Feudal Lords are not ordinary subjects of the King.

145. Why one who has been enfeoffed as the first of his line does not treat his paternal uncles and his brothers as his subjects.

146. a. A son may act as a Minister to his father.
b. Another opinion: he may not.

147. a. A Minister of the King may not be employed as a Minister by a Feudal Lord.
b. Another opinion: He may in certain cases.

148. a. The five classes of persons not to be addressed by their personal name by the King, viz.:
b. The old Ministers of the previous Kings,
c. Great officers of the first rank,
d. Common officers possessing abundant spiritual power,
e. Paternal uncles, and elder brothers.
f. The effects of the different ways of treating a Minister.


149. Divination is prescribed in all important matters.

150. The size of the milfoil-stalk and the tortoise-shell.

151. a. Why before resorting to divination the Ministers must first be consulted.
b. Why even a Sage must resort to divination.
c. Another explanation.

152. a. Why only the milfoil and the tortoise-shell are used.
b. The meaning of kuei 'tortoise-shell', and shih 'milfoil'.
c. Why the divination by the tortoise-shell is called pu, that by the milfoil is called shih.

153. Why the divination takes place in the ancestral temple.

154. The direction at the divination.

155. The clothes worn.

156. The number of the divining officers.

157. Why divination by the tortoise-shell comes after that by the milfoil.

158. a. Why the shell is scorched with a heated rod.
b. Why the milfoil is not moved into action by means of water.

159. Why the shell and the stalks are buried after they have been used up.

160. a. First the milfoil, then the tor- toise-shell is consulted.
b. The different ways of judging the results of the divination with the shell.
c. The height of the shell is exam- ined.
d. When the tortoise-shells are prepared.


161. a. The meaning of shêng 'Sage'.
b. Description of a Sage.
c. The mao, the hsüan, the tsun, the ying, the hsien, the chieh, the shêng.

162. A Sage can be recognized during his life.

163. a. The ancient Emperors and Kings were Sages.
b. Yü and T'ang were Sages.
c. So were King Wên, Wu, the Duke of Chou,
d. And Kao-yao.

164. a. Different expressions of sageness.
b. The marks of sageness of Fu-hsi, Huang-ti, Chuan-hsü, Ti-k'u, Yao, Shun;
c. Of Yü, Kao-yao, T'ang, King Wên, King Wu, the Duke of Chou, Confucius.
d. Why Sages alone can look into the future.


165. a. The meaning of fêng 'wind'.
b. The wind changes every forty-five days.
c. The names of the Eight Winds, and their meaning.
d. The effects of the Eight Winds.
e. How the King conforms his actions to them.


166. a. The meaning of shang.
b. The meaning of ku.
c. Interpretation of a passage from the Book of History.


167. Why the Feudal Lords present themselves to the new King.

168. a. The Five Auspicious Jade Tablets.
b. The kuei, the chang, the pi, the huang, the tsung.
c. The qualities of jade.
d. The tablets of the Son of Heaven and the Feudal Lords.
e. The use of the Five Jade Tablets.
f. The use of the kuei; description of it.
g. The use of the pi; description of it.
h. The use of the huang; description of it.
i. The use of the chang; description of it.
j. The use of the tsung; description of it.
k. The uses of the Jade Tablets are very numerous.

169. a. The testing of the credentials of the Feudal Lords.
b. When the Tablets are returned to the Feudal Lords, or detained by the King.
c. Why the kuei is returned.
d. The material of the kuei.

170. a. The meaning of chih 'offering of presents'.
b. The presents of the Dukes and Marquises;
c. Those of the Ministers;
d. Those of the great officers;
e. Those of the common officers.
f. Everybody has the duty to give presents.
g. The meaning of p'i.
h. The presents of the Ministers and the great officer at present are different from those in antiquity.
i. Why there is no such difference in the presents of the Feudal Lords and the common officers.

171. Why at private visits presents are given.

172. The presents of women.

173. Why a son, visiting his father, does not give presents.


174. a. Why the King of a new Dynasty must rectify the first month of the year.
b. The King changes the institutions of the previous Dynasty only after he has obtained Heaven's response.

175. Why the adherents of the Principle of Form begin with the rectification of the first month, and those of the Principle of Substance begin with the attack on the reigning Dynasty.

176. a. The Three Reigns and the Three Diminutive Months.
b. The meaning of shuo 'first month'.
c. The three alternating first months.
d. The meaning of san-wei 'the Three Diminutive Months'.
e. The first months of the Hsia, the Yin, and the Chou.
f. Confucius followed the first month of the Hsia.

177. Why the change of the first month proceeds backwards.

178. The correction is called 'to correct the moon-month', and not 'to correct the sun-day'.

179. The rectification does not follow the Principles of Substance and Form.

180. What is not changed by the new King.

181. a. Why the descendants of the two previous Dynasties are preserved.
b. Should they follow their ancestor's institutions?

182. a. Why the succession of the Principles of Substance and Form must be observed.
b. Substance is put before Form.


183. a. Why the King institutes the Three Instructions.
b. The Hsia instructed by loyalty, the Yin by reverence, the Chou by culture.

184. a. Did Shun and Yü change the succession of the Three Instructions?
b. Another opinion: The Three Instructions began with the Hsia.
c. Why Kao-tsung did not change the Instruction of the Yin.
d. The Three Instructions are not applied separately

185. a. They model themselves on Heaven, Earth, and Man.
b. Loyalty is Man's Instruction.
c. Reverence is Earth's Instruction.

186. The meaning of chiao 'instruction'.

187. How the Three Instructions could fail.

188. a. The Spiritual Vessel, and the Sacrificial Vessel.
b. How to approach the dead.
c. The vessels at the sacrifice are complete, but not for ordinary use.
d. Confucius condemned the invention of human figures to accompany the dead.


189. a. What the Three Major Relationships san-kang, and the Six Minor Relationships liu-chi are.
b. The meaning of kang 'Major Relationship', and chi 'Minor Relationship'.
c. The Five Constant Virtues are developed by the rules for the Major and the Minor Relationships.

190. Why there are three Major Relationships.

191. a. They model themselves on Heaven, Earth, and Man.
b. The relation between Lord and subject models itself on Heaven;
c. That between father and son on Earth;
d. That between husband and wife on Man.

192. a. The liu-chi form the counter-part of the san-kang.
b. The counterpart of the relation between Lord and subject;
c. That of the relation between father and son;
d. That of the relation between husband and wife

193. a. The meaning of chün 'Lord', and ch'ên 'subject'.
b. The meaning of fu 'father', and tzŭ 'son'.
c. The meaning of fu 'husband', and fu 'wife'.
d. The meaning of p'êng-yu 'friends'.
e. The way of friendship.
f. What to do with a friend in distress.
g. Why there is distinction between 'brothers' and 'sisters'.
h. Why there is no generic name for father's brothers.
i. Why sisters are distinguished by the words tzŭ and mei.
j. Why parents-in-law are called chiu-ku.
k. Why sisters are called tzŭ-mei.
l. Why brothers are called hsiung-ti.
m. Why the husband's parents are called chiu-ku.


194. The meaning of hsing 'instinct', and ch'ing 'emotion'.

195. a. The Five Instincts: jên, i, li, chih, hsin.
b. Their meaning.
c. How they are formed.
d. The Six Emotions: joy, anger, grief, happiness, love, hate.

196. a. The Instincts and Emotions are directed by the Five Reservoirs wu-tsang and the Six Store- houses liu-fu.
b. The Five Reservoirs: liver, heart, lungs, kidneys, spleen.
c. The meaning of their names.
d. What they represent.
e. Liver - jên - wood - east - eyes.
f. Lungs - i - metal - west - nose.
g. Heart - li - fire - south - ears.
h. Kidneys - chih - water - north - secret orifices.
i. Spleen - hsin - earth - centre - mouth.
j. Another opinion: heart-mouth; kidneys-ears.
k. Another opinion: liver-eyes; lungs-nose; heart-mouth; spleen-tongue; kidneys-ears.
l. The Six Storehouses: large intestines, small intestines, stomach, bladder, gullet, gall.
m. Stomach-spleen; bladder-kidneys; gall-liver; large and small intestines-heart and lungs.

197. The correspondences between the Storehouses and the Points of the Compass.

198. a. The meaning of hun.
b. The meaning of p'o.
c. Another explanation.

199. Sperm ching and Vital Force shên.


200. a. The meaning of ming 'destiny'.
b. Three kinds of destiny.
c. The Old-age Destiny.
d. The Merit Destiny.
e. The Accident Destiny.
f. Story about Confucius.


201. a. The meaning of tsung 'head of a lineage'.
b. Why there must be a tsung.
c. The Major lineage ta-tsung.
d. The Great-great-grandfather lineage.
e. The Great-grandfather lineage; the Grandfather lineage; the Father lineage.
f. These lineages form together the hsiao-tsung.
g. One who is instituted as a Feudal Lord disconnects himself from the authority of the head of his Major Lineage.

202. a. The meaning of tsu 'kindred',
b. Why there are Nine Classes of Kindred.
c. What they constitute, viz.:
d. The four classes through the father;
e. The three classes through the mother;
f. The two classes through the wife.
g. Explanation of a passage from the Rites and the Book of His- tory.
h. Another opinion: In the time of Yao there were three classes of each group.
i. Difference between the classes and the groups.


203. a. Why there are clan-names hsing
b. The meaning of hsing.
c. Why there are one hundred clan-names.

204. a. What the surnames shih are for.
b. Why the 'style' tzŭ is sometimes used as a surname.
c. The descendants of the two previous Dynasties are called King's Sons wang-tzŭ.
d. Another opinion: They are called King's Grandsons wang-sun.
e. Kao-yao had no clan-name.
f. The clan-names of Yü, T'ang, and King Wên.

205. a. Why man must have a personal name ming.
b. Why a child is given its name three months after its birth, in the ancestral temple.
c. Another opinion: It is given in the Small Apartment.
d. The name is announced to the Four Frontiers.
e. Explanation of it.
f. Why, at the birth of a son, six arrows of the wood of the wild rubus are shot from a bow of the wood of the mulberry-tree.
g. Why the Yin Sovereigns used the day of birth to name the child.
h. Their subjects were allowed to do the same.
i. But some Feudal Lords avoided it.
j. What was the name of T'ang?
k. Why the cyclical signs tzŭ-ch'ou etc. were not used for personal names.
l. Why the personal names are sometimes double, sometimes single.
m. The name is given according to the circumstances of birth, or according to the appearance of the child.
n. Sometimes there is a relation between personal name and 'style'.
o. Why the Ch'un ch'iu condemns the use of a double personal name.
p. The personal name is not formed according to the names of things of general use.
q. When the personal name need not be tabooed.
r Why in the earliest antiquity there was no rule of tabooing names.
s. Why man is born ten months after conception.
t. Why a child cries when it is born.
u. Why one in saluting mentions one's personal name.
v. Why people salute each other.
w. Why salute twice.
x. Why first salute with the hands, then incline the head.

206. a. Why a man must have a 'style'.
b. At fifty a man is called po or chung.
c. Why there are the four discriminating appellations po, chung, shu, and chi.
d. Their meaning.
e. The appellations po and mêng for eldest sons.
f. Sons and daughters have the distinguishing names of po, chung, etc.
g. Why a woman is already called po or chung at fifteen.
h. Why the clan-name of a woman is a correlate of her 'style'.
i. Why with the adherents of the Principle of Substance the younger sons are all gathered together in the appellation chung, with the adherents of the Principle of Form in the appellation shu.
j. About the names of the sons of King Wên.


207. a. The meaning of t'ien 'Heaven',
b. The meaning of ti 'Earth'.

208. a. The Great Origin t'ai-ch'u, the Great Beginning t'ai-shih, the Great Simplicity t'ai-su.
b. They are the beginnings of the primeval fluid, of form, and matter.

209. Why Heaven revolves to the left, and Earth to the right.

210. Why Heaven and Earth have no generic names.

211. Why Heaven, being the superior, constantly works.


212. Why Heaven revolves to the left, and sun, moon, and the five planets revolve to the right.

213. a. Why the sun goes slowly, and the moon quickly.
b. Why sun and moon are suspended in the sky day and night.

214. a. The meaning of jih 'sun'.
b. The meaning of yüeh 'moon'.
c. The meaning of hsing 'planet'.
d. The revolving Heaven covers 3651/4 degrees.

215. a. Why there are day and night.
b. Why days are long and short.

216. Why the moon-month is now short, now long.

217. The intercalary months.


218. The meaning of sui 'seasonal year'.

219. a. The Four Seasons; the meaning of shih 'season'.
b. Why Heaven is named differently in each of the Four Seasons.
c. Why the Four Seasons do not follow the change of the first month of the year.

220. a. Sui 'seasonal year'; nien 'calendrical year'; tsai 'full year'.
b. The Five Emperors spoke of tsai, the Three Kings of nien.

221. Yeh 'night'; chao 'morning'; hui 'last day of the moon'; shuo 'first day of the moon'.


222. a. Why the Sages instituted the wearing of clothes.
b. The meaning of i-shang 'robes'.
c. I 'upper garments'; shang 'lower garments'.

223. a. What ch'iu 'fur' is.
b. What kind of fur was worn anciently.
c. Why only the fur of fox and lamb was used.

224. a. Why a sash shên-tai must be worn.
b. The leather girdle p'an-tai.

225. a. The pendants p'ei.
b. The several kinds of pendants.
c. Women also wear pendants.


226. a. Why there must be a system of punishments.
b. The punishments at the time of the ancient Sovereigns.
c. Why there are Five Punishments.
d. The punishments by effigy of the Five Emperors.
e. The number of articles of the Criminal Code.
f. Cutting off the nose and branding are applied as minor punishments.
g. Description of the Five Punishments.

227. a. The punishments are not applied to the great officers.
b. Another opinion: Only flogging is not applied to the great officers.


228. a. Why Confucius fixed the Five Canons wu-ching.
b. What the condition was before.

229. Why the Hsiao ching and the Lun yü came to be written.

230. Why King Wên extended the meaning of the I.

231. Why Fu-hsi made the Eight Trigrams.

232. Correspondence between the Five Canons and the Five Constant Virtues.

233. What the Canons teach.

234. a. The Ch'un ch'iu gives rules.
b. What this means.


235. a. Why marriage belongs to the ways of man.
b. Why the man takes his wife, and the woman leaves her house.

236. Why neither man nor woman marry on their own initiative.

237. a. Why a man marries at thirty, and a woman at twenty.
b. Another opinion: At twenty-five the man is bound with his heart to a woman.

238. a. At fifteen a girl is promised in marriage.
b. The meaning of the goose-present.
c. The present for the completion of the preliminaries.
d. The words spoken when offering this present.
e. The words spoken when offering the first present.

239. Why, from the Son of Heaven to the common officer, the bridegroom must meet his bride in person.

240. a. The place where the girl is given away in marriage.
b. Why the parents in person exhort their daughter.
c. The girl does not bid farewell, neither does she reply.

241. The wedding is not a case for congratulation.

242. a. The words spoken at the handing of the mounting-cord.
b. The words spoken at the meeting of the bride.

243. What the father says when he pledges his son.

244. The wife is not immediately presented to the ancestral temple.

245. This takes place three months after the wedding.

246. Why the wedding takes place in spring.

247. Only in very special cases may the wife leave her husband.

248. a. Why the Son of Heaven and the Feudal Lords marry nine wives at a time.
b. Another opinion: the Son of Heaven marries twelve wives.
c. Why he must only marry once.
d. The principal wife is followed by her father's elder brother's daughter and her younger sister.
e. Why he does not take two younger sisters.
f. The father's elder brother's daughter and the younger sister, even though still young, follow the principal wife, but are returned to await the coming of their years
g. The sending of concubines by two states.
h. The difference between right and left.
i. Why a woman may not be asked to be a concubine.

249. Why in taking a wife the tortoise-shell is consulted.

250. When one arranges one's marriage oneself.

251. A great officer who is enfeoffed has the right to have eight concubines.

252. The Heir observes the same rites as the Feudal Lord.

253. a. The King takes his wife from a large state.
b. If he takes the daughter of a small Lord as his wife, this Lord must be raised in rank.
c. Why the King extends his choice of marriage-alliances even to small states.
d. What to be done with the state of the Son of Heaven's wife, when she is removed.

254. Why a Feudal Lord may not marry within his state.

255. a. One does not marry a woman of the same surname,
b. Neither certain women of one's mother's clan.

256. a. Why for the wedding of the King's daughter a Feudal Lord of the same surname must conduct the nuptials.
b. Why he does not employ a Feudal Lord of the same surname to conduct the nuptials in the capital.
c. Why a special reception-house is built for the King's daughter.

257. a. Why a Minister and a great officer are entitled to take one wife and two concubines.
b. Why a common officer can only take one wife and one concubine.

258. a. Why one of the accompanying concubines must take the place of the woman destined to be the principal wife, when the latter dies.
b. Another opinion: no other principal wife is installed.

259. The marriage-rites in the case of the death of the parents.

260. a. Why a woman to be married has a teacher.
b. She is instructed for three months.
c. Where she receives instruction.
d. Why she must have a teacher and a duenna.

261 a. The wife learns to serve her parents-in-law, not her husband.
b. She serves her husband according to four principles.

262. Five cases of not marrying a girl.

263. The rites for a divorced wife.

264. Why the Queen is called hou, and the wife of a Feudal Lord fu-jên.

265. a. The meaning of ch'i 'principal wife'.
b. The meaning of ch'ieh 'concubine'.

266. a. The meaning of chia-ch'ü 'marriage'.
b. The meaning of nan 'man', and 'woman'.
c. The meaning of fu 'husband', and fu 'wife'.
d. The meaning of fei-p'i 'mates'.
e. The meaning of hun-yin 'wedding'.

267. a. Why a man closes the door of his bed-chamber at sixty.
b. Why he opens it again at seventy.


268. a. The meaning of fu'knee-cover',
b. The knee-covers of the Son of Heaven and the Feudal Lords;
c. Those of the great officer,
d. Vermilion and red must be the colour of the knee-covers.
e. They are of hide,
f. Their size.

269. a. The meaning of kuan 'cap',
b. The cap as an adornment and distinction,
c. Why a youth may be capped at nineteen.
d. He is usually capped at twenty,
e. The capping need not take place in the first month of the year.

270. a. The meaning of p'i-pien 'cap of deerskin',
b. The meaning of p'i 'skin'.

271. a. The ma-mien 'hempen cap',
b. Its meaning,
c. The hsü-cap.
d. The shou-cap.
e. The difference between the three caps.
f. Why the cap is made of hemp.
g. Why pendants are suspended from the cap.

272. a. The wei-mao.
b. Why it is so called.
c. The chang-fu.
d. The mou-chui.

273. a. The chüeh-pien.
b. Chüeh denotes the colour.
c. Why before the Hsia and the Yin the white cotton caps of the common officer were indifferently used for all occasions.


274. a. Why the Feudal Lords wear the Three Years' Deep Mourning for the Son of Heaven.
b. (unintelligble).
c. he married daughters are considered as removed from their kindred.

275. a. Why the common people only mourn for three months at the death of the King.
b. They begin to wear sackcloth three months before the funeral.
c. Why mourning-clothes are devised for the common people.

276. The order of putting on mourning- garments.

277. a. Why the Three Years' Mourning lasts twenty-five months.
b. Why the intercalary month is not counted.
c. It is counted in the mourning-period of nine months.

278. a. Why sackcloth is prescribed.
b. The articles of mourning-apparel are all indications of the return to the origin.
c. Why the waist-fillet is tied in a knot.

279. a. Why the chief-mourner carries a staff.
b. It is not necessary for a young mourner.
c. Why the staff is made of bamboo.
d. Why bamboo is used for the father, t'ung-wood for the motther.

280. a. Why the mourner lives in the mourning-shed.
b. The wife does not live in the mourning-shed.
c. When the mourning-garments are assumed.
d. The mourning-shed is inside the outer gate, below the eastern wall.

281 a. Why the mourner does not speak during his mourning.
b. What it actually means.

282. a. Why the mourner is allowed to take meat and wine, when he is ill.
b. What to avoid when one's parents are ill.
c. The avoidance of company during the mourning-period.
d. A mourner may pay a visit of condolence.
e. One wearing the Five Months' Mourning is allowed to participate in sacrifices to the deceased.
f. Military service after the period of mourning.

283. A woman does not cross the boundaries of her state for a visit of condolence.

284. a. When condolence is not required.
b. The meaning of wei 'death through a riot'.
c. When a man is excluded from service, company, sacrifices to the ancestors, etc.

285. a. A disciple wears mourning for his teacher.
b. Confucius' mourning for Yen Hui.

286. a. What to do if the ruler has died, and one is informed of the death of one's parents.
b. Why a Feudal Lord, being in mourning, attends the funeral rites of the Son of Heaven.
c. A great officer on a mission, being informed of the death of his parents, only returns at the order of his Lord.
d. Why a Feudal Lord, paying a court-visit, is allowed to return, when he is informed of the death of his own parent.
e. When a subject is wearing deep mourning, his Lord should not summon him.

287. a. Why one wails before beginning the journey home, when one is informed of the death of one's parents.
b. Why one weeps at the grave, when the dead has already been buried.

288. a. The wailing should not be in the lane.
b. Different places for the wailing.

289. The Duke of Chou was buried with the royal rites.


290. a. The meaning of pêng 'death of the King'.
b. The meaning of hung 'death of a Feudal Lord'.
c. The meaning of tsu 'death of a great officer'.
d. The meaning of pu-lu 'death of a common officer'.
e. The meaning of ssŭ 'death of a common man'.
f. Why the death of the King and of a Feudal Lord is recorded in the Annals.

291. a. The meaning of sang 'to pass away'.
b. Sang also means 'grief,
c. Why sang is used for everybody.

292. Why the death of the Son of Heaven is announced to the Feudal Lords.

293. a. Why at the news of the death of the King the Feudal Lords hasten to the place of mourning.
b. They divide themselves into three groups.
c. All subjects are in duty bound to mourn for the Son of Heaven.
d. At the funeral there is a gathering of Feudal Lords.
e. Why a Feudal Lord who is still a youth, has only the duty to attend the funeral.

294. Why the death of a subject is announced to his Lord.

295. Why the death of a Feudal Lord is announced to the neighbour states.

296. The death of the spouse of a Feudal Lord is announced to the Son of Heaven.

297. Why, at the death of a Feudal Lord, his Minister is sent to return the Auspicious Jade Tablet to the Son of Heaven.

298. Why the Son of Heaven mourns for a Feudal Lord.

299. a. Why the Lord pays a visit of condolence at the death of his Minister.
b. Another opinion.
c. The Lord abstains from meat and music on the day of burial.
d. On a visit of condolence a black cap should not be worn.

300. a. Why the Smaller Dressing takes place three days after the death.
b. Why the corpse is washed under the impluvium.
c. Why the mouth is filled.
d. Why pearls and precious things are used to fill the mouth.

301. a. The meaning of tsêng-sui 'presents of clothes'.
b. The meaning of fu-fêng 'presents of carriage and horses'.

302. The Son of Heaven is encoffined seven days after his death, a Feudal Lord five days.

303. Why there is a difference in the rites of encoffining of the Three Dynasties.

304. The boat-carriage catafalque of the Son of Heaven.

305. Why the sacrifice of departure takes place in the courtyard.

306. a. Why an inner and an outer coffin are used.
b. The meaning of kuan 'inner coffin'.
c. The meaning of kuo 'outer coffin'.
d. The coffin of the Son of Heaven.
e. Why for the coffin anciently earthenware was used, and now wood.
f. The dead is served according to his status when alive.
g. The evolution in the ways of burial.
h. The meaning of the words for corpse: shih and chiu.

308. a. Why the word for burial tsang is applied to all.
b. Why one is buried in the earth.

309. The Son of Heaven is buried seven months after his death, a Feudal Lord five months.

310. Why husband and wife are buried together.

311. a. Why one is buried outside the city-walls,
b. North of the city, the head turned to the north.

312. a. The tumulus, and the trees on the grave.
b. The different sizes of the graves.

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IATHPublished by The Institute for Advanced Technology in the Humanities, © Copyright 2003 by Anne Kinney and the University of Virginia