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人道所以有嫁娶何?以為情性之大[者]，莫若男女，男女之交，人 (情) [倫]之始，莫若夫婦。《易》曰:"天地氤氳，萬物化淳，男女(稱)[搆]精，萬 物化生。" 人承天地，施陰陽，故設嫁娶之禮者，重人倫，(庶)[廣]繼嗣也。 《禮·保傅記》曰:"謹為子嫁娶，必擇世有仁羲者。"醴男娶女嫁何?陰卑，不得自 專，就陽而成之。故《傳》曰:"陽倡陰和，男行女隨。"
男不自專娶，女不自專嫁，必由父母，須媒妁何? 遠恥防淫決也。《詩》云:" 娶 妻如之何? 必告父母。"又曰:"娶妻如之何? 匪媒不得。"
男三十而娶，女二十而嫁[何]? 陽數奇，陰數偶。男長女幼者[何]? 陽[道] 舒，陰[道]促。男三十筋骨堅強，任為人父;女二十肌膚充盛，任為人母，合為五 十,應大衍之數，生萬物也。故《禮·內則》曰:"男(五)[三]十壯有室，女二十 壯而嫁。"七、歲之陽也，八、歲[之]陰也。七八十五，陰陽之數備，有相偶之志。 故《禮記》曰:"女子十五許嫁，舞而字。" 禮之稱字，陰繫於陽，所以專一之節也。 陽尊，無所繫。二十五繫者，就陰節也。 陽舒而陰促，三十數三終奇,陽節也; 二十數再終偶，陰節也。陽小成於陰，大成於陽，故二十而冠，三十而娶。陰小成於 陽,大成於陰，故十五而舞，二十而嫁也。
一說:《春秋·毅梁傳》曰:"男二十五繫 [心]，女十五許嫁弓感陰陽也。"陽數七，陰數八，男八歲毀齒，女七歲毀齒。陽數 奇,(故)三，三八二十四，加一為[二十]五，而繫心也。陰數偶，[故]再成十 四, (四)加一為[十]五，故十五許嫁也。各加一者，明[其]專一繫心。所以繫心 者何? 防其淫佚也。
贄用雁者，取其隨時[而]南北，不失其節，明不奪女子之時 也。[又是隨陽之鳥]，[妻從夫之義也]。又取飛成行，止成列也。明嫁娶之禮，長 幼有序，不相踰越也。又婚禮贄不用死雉，故用雁也。
納徵玄繃束帛離皮。玄三法 天，纁二法地也。陽奇陰偶，明陽道之大也。離皮者，兩皮也。以為庭實，庭實、偶 也。《禮昏經》曰:"納采、間名、納吉、請期、親迎皆用雁，納徵[用玄繃]、束 帛、離皮。"
納徵辭曰:"吾子有(加)[嘉]命，貺室某也。[某]有先人之禮，雕 皮束帛，使某[也]請納徵。"上某者、(聲)[埔]名也，[下某者、埔父名也], 下次某者、使人名也。女之父曰:"吾子順先典，貺某重禮，慕不敢辭，敢不承命。"
天子下至士，必親迎授綏者何?以陽下陰也。欲得其歡心，示親之心也。夫親 迎，[御]輪三周，下車曲顧者，防淫決也。《詩》云:"文定厥祥，親迥于渭，造舟 為梁，不顯其光。"《禮昏經》曰:"賓升，北面，奠雁。再拜，拜手稽首降出，婦從 房中也，從降自西階，(揖)[壻]御婦車，授綏。"
父母親(男)[戒] 女何? 親親之至也。父曰:"誡之敬之，夙夜無違命。"女必有端繡衣若笄 之，母施襟結帨曰:" 勉之敬之，夙夜無違宮事。"父誡於阼階，母誡於西階，庶母 及門內施鞶，(祭紬)[申之]以[父]母之命，命[之]曰:" 敬恭聽爾父母[之] 書，夙夜無愆，視[諸]衿鞶。"
《禮》曰:""嫁女之家，不絕火三日，(相思)[思相]離也。娶婦之家，三 日不舉樂，思嗣親也。"感親年衰老代至也。《禮》曰:" 婚禮不賀，人之序也。"
授綏, 姆辭曰:" 未教，(未乞)[不足]與為禮也。"
始親迎，於辭曰: " 吾子命某以茲初昏，使某將請承命。"主人曰:"某故敬具以酒。"
父(命)醮子 遣之迎,命曰:" 往迎爾相，承我宗事，[勗]率以敬先妣之嗣，若則有常。"子曰: "諾，唯恐不堪，不敢忘命。"
婦(人) [入]三 月然後祭行，舅姑既沒，亦婦入三月奠采于廟。三月一時，物有成者，人之善惡可得知 也。然後可得事宗廟之禮。曾子曰:"女未廟見而死，歸葬于女氏之黨，示未成婦 也。"
嫁娶必以春者，春、天地交通，萬物始生，陰陽交接之時也。《詩》云:"士如 歸妻，迨冰未泮。"《周官》曰:"仲春之月，(合)[令]會男女，令勇三十娶，女 二十嫁。"《夏小正》曰:"二月，冠子娶婦之時。"
夫有惡行，妻不得去者，地無去天之義也。夫雖有惡，不得去也。故《禮·郊特 牲》曰:"一與之齊，終身不改。"悖逆人倫，殺妻父母，廢絕綱[紀]，亂之大者 [也]。義絕，乃得去也。
天子諸侯一娶九女[者]何?重國廣繼嗣也。適 (也)[九]者何?法地有九州， 承天之施，無所不生也。[一]娶九女，亦足以成君[之]施也。九而無子，百亦無 益也。《王度記》曰:"天子，窘一娶九女。"《春秋·公羊傅》曰:"諸侯娶一國， 則二國往賸之,以姪娣從。[謂]之姪者何?兄之子也。娣者何?女弟也。"
必一娶何? 防淫泆也。為其棄德嗜色，故一 娶而已。人君無再娶之義也。
不娶兩娣何? 傳異氣也。娶三國女何? 廣異類也。恐一國血脈相似，俱 無子也。
姪娣年雖少，猶從適人者，明(人者明)人君無再娶之義也。還待年於父母之 國，未任荅君子也。《詩)云:"姪娣從之，祁祁如雲，韓侯顧之，爛其盈門。"《公 羊傅》曰:"叔姬歸于紀。"明待年也。
可求人為士， 不可求人為妾何? 士即尊之漸，賢不止於士，妾雖賢，不得為適。
娶妻卜之何? 卜女之德，知相宜否。《昏禮經》曰:" 將加諸卜，敢問女為譙氏" 也。
大夫功成[受]封, 得備八妾者，重國廣繼嗣也。不更聘大國者，不忘本適也。 故《禮》曰:"納女於諸侯"，曰"備掃靋"。
天子[之太子]， 諸侯之世子，皆 以諸侯禮娶，與君同，示無再娶之羲也。
王者之娶，必先選于大國之女，禮儀備，所見多。《詩》云:"大邦有子，俔天之 妹,文定厥祥,親迎于渭。" 明王者必娶大國也。
《春秋》曰:"紀侯來朝。"紀子以 嫁女於天子,故增爵稱侯。至數十年之間，紀侯無他功，但以子為天王后，故爵稱侯。 知雖小國者，必封以大國，明其尊所不臣也。
王者娶及庶(人) [邦]者何?開天下之 賢，示不還善也。故《春秋》曰:"紀侯來朝。"(交)[文]加為侯，明封之也。 先封之，明不與(聖人)[庶邦]交禮也。
諸侯所以不得自(趣)[娶] 國中何? 諸侯不得專封，義不可臣其父母。《春秋 傅》曰:"宋三代無大夫，惡其內娶也。"
王者嫁女，必使同姓諸侯主之何? 婚禮貴和，不可相荅，為傷君臣之義，亦欲使女 不以天子[之]尊乘諸侯也。《春秋傳》曰:"天子嫁女于諸侯，必使諸侯同姓者主 之。諸侯嫁女于大夫，使大夫同姓者主之。" [必使同姓者]，以其同宗共祖，可以主 親也。故使攝父事。不使同姓卿主之何? 尊加諸侯，為威厭不得舒也。
不使同姓諸侯就 京師主之何? 諸侯親迎入京師，當朝天子，為禮不兼。《春秋傳》曰:"築(土) [王] 姬觀于外。"明不往京師也。
所以必更築觀者何? 尊之也。不於路寢，路寢本 所以行政處，非婦人之居也。小籐則嫌群公 [子]之舍，則已卑矣。故必改築於城郭之 內。《傳》曰:"築之、禮也，于外、非禮也。"
卿大夫[一]妻二妾者何? 尊賢重繼嗣也。不備姪娣何? 北面之臣賤，不足盡執 人骨肉之親。《禮服經》曰"貴臣賣妾。"明有卑賤妾也。
娉嫡(夫)[未]往而死，賸當往否乎?人君不再娶之義也。天命不可保，故一 娶九女，以《春秋》伯姬卒，時娣李姬更嫁郎，《春秋》譏之。適夫人死後，更立夫人 者，不敢以卑賤承宗廟。自立其娣者，尊大國也。《春秋傳》曰:"叔姬歸于紀。"叔 姬者、伯姬之娣也。伯姬卒，叔姬升于嫡，《經》不譏也。
或曰: 嫡死不復更立，明嫡 無二，防篡煞也。祭宗廟，攝而已。以禮不聘為妾，明不升。
《曾子問》曰:"昏禮，既納幣，有吉日，女之父母死，何如?孔子曰:"壻使人 (吊)[弔]之。如壻之父母死，女亦使人(吊)[弔]之。父喪稱父，母喪稱母，父 母不在，則稱伯父世(尊)[母]。壻已葬，壻之伯父叔父使人致命女氏曰:某子有父 母之喪，不得嗣為兄弟，使(母)[某]致命。女氏許諾，不敢嫁，禮也。壻免喪，女 父使人請，堉不娶而後嫁之，禮也。女之父母死，堉亦如之。"
[與君有緦麻之親者]，[教於公宮三月]，與君無親者，各教於宗廟[宗]婦之室。國君取 大夫之妾、士之妻老無子者而明於婦道又祿之，使教宗室五屬之女。大夫士皆有宗 族，自於宗子之室學事人也。
女必有傅姆何? 尊之也。《春秋傳》曰:" 傅至矣，姆未 至。"
婦人學事舅姑，不學事(必父母)[夫]者，示婦與夫一體也。《禮·內則》曰: "妾事夫人，如事舅姑，尊嫡絕拓嫉之原。"《禮服傳》曰:"妾事女君與事舅姑同" 也。婦事夫，有四禮焉:雞初鳴，咸盥漱，櫛(縱)[縱]笄總而朝，君臣之道也。惻 隱之恩，父子之道也。會計有無，兄弟之道也。閨閫之內，衽席之上，朋友之道也。聞 見異辭，故設此也。
天子[之]妃謂之后何? 后[者]、君也。[天子妃至尊]，天下尊之。故謂之 后[也]。明海內小人之君子也。天下尊之，故繫王言之，[曰王后也]。《春秋 傳》曰:"迎王后于紀。" 國君之妻，稱之曰夫人何?明當扶進(夫)[八]人，謂八 妾也。國人尊之，故稱君夫人也。自稱小童者，謙也。言己智能寡少，如童蒙也。《論 語》曰:"國君之妻，[君]稱之曰夫人，夫人自稱曰小童，國人稱之曰君夫人。稱諸 異邦日寡小君。"謂聘問兄弟之國，及臣[於]他國稱之。謙之辭也。
嫁娶者、何謂也?嫁者、家也。婦人外成，以出適人為嫁。娶者、取也。男女 [者、何] 謂 [也]?
[妃者，匹也]，(配) [妃] 疋者何?謂相與偶也。
婚姻者、何謂也?[婚者]、昏時行禮，故謂之婚 也。[姻者]、婦人因夫而成，故曰姻。《詩》云"不惟舊因"，謂夫也。又曰"燕爾 新婚"，謂婦也。所以昏時行禮何? 示陽下陰也。(婚)[昏]亦陰陽交時也。
男子六十閉房何?所以輔衰也，故重性命也。又曰:父子不同椸，為亂長幼之序 也。《禮·內則》曰:"妾雖老，未滿五十，必預五日之御。"滿五十不御，俱為助 寰也。
235. General Discussion on Marriage. (9.1a-b; 4 .9b; 10.1a-b)
a. Why is it that marriage belongs to the ways of man? It is because of the emotions and instincts there are none so important as [those between] man and woman. In the intercourse between man and woman, as the beginnings of human relationships 1, there is nothing [so important] as the relation between husband and wife. The I says: "When the generating forces of Heaven and Earth intermingle the ten thousend things get their transformation and fertility; when the seeds of male and female are united the ten thousand things are transformed and produced" 2. Man is to assist Heaven and Earth in the keeping in motion of the yin and the yang, therefore the institution of marriage is set up to emphasize human relationships and enlarge his progeny. The Li pao fu chi says: "When one is cautious in arranging a marriage for one's son or daughter one always chooses [a mate in whose family] for generations consideration for others and sense of the right principles have been observed" 3.
b. Why is it that according to the rites the man takes his wife, whereas the woman leaves her house? It is because the yin [to which a woman belongs] is lowly, and should not have the initiative; it proceeds to the yang in order to be completed. Therefore the Chuan says: "The yang leads, the yin conforms; the man goes [ahead], the woman follows" 4.
236. One Does Not Marry on One's Own Initiative. (9.1b; 4 .9b-10a; 10.1b)
Why is it that a man does not marry on his own initiative, and neither does a woman on hers, [but for both] the marriage must proceed from the parents, and be arranged through a go-between? It is to keep shame at a distance and to avoid debauchery. The Shih says: "How should we take a wife? We must first announce it to our parents" 5. Again it says: "How should we take a wife? Without go-between it cannot be done" 6.
237. The Time for Marriage. (9.1b-2b; 4 .10a-10b; 10.2b-4b)
a. Why 7 does the man take a wife at thirty, while the woman marries at twenty? The number of yang is odd, the number of yin is even. Why 8 [does] the man [marry at] an older age than the woman? The way 9 of yang is slow, the way 10 of yin is fast. At thirty a man's sinews and bones have become hard and strong, and he is ready to become the father of his children; at twenty a woman's flesh and muscles are fully developed, and she is ready to become the mother of her children. Combined together they make [the age of] fifty, corresponding to the number of the Great Expansion 11, which begets the ten thousand things. Therefore the Li nei tsê says: "At thirty a man is adult and begins a household; at twenty a woman is adult and is given in marriage" 12. Seven is the yang of the year [cycle], eight is the yin of the year [cycle] 13. Seven and eight make fifteen; the number of the yin and yang [added together] is then complete, and there is the mutual wish to mate. Therefore the Li chi says: "A girl is promised in marriage at fifteen, when she receives a hair-pin and her style" 14. The rites speak of hair-pin 15, [indicating by it that] the yin is bound to the yang, by which [she has reached] the period that she is exclusively [destined for] one [man]. The yang, being higher, need not be bound 16. Yang goes slow, yin goes fast. With thirty the numbering of three terminates, odd is yang's measure; with twenty the numbering of two terminates, even is yin's measure 17. Yang reaches the Small Perfection in yin, the Great Perfection in yang, therefore [the man is] capped at twenty and marries at thirty. Yin reaches the Small Perfection in yang, the Great Perfection in yin, therefore [the woman] receives a hair-pin at fifteen and is married at twenty.
b. Another opinion says: "At twenty-five the man is bound with his heart to a woman, because that is the point at which the yang approaches the yin" 18. The Ch'un ch'iu ku liang chuan says: "At twenty-five the man is bound with his heart [to a woman], at fifteen the woman is promised in marriage. [This is] under the influence of [the alternation of] the yin and yang" 19. The number of yang is seven, the number of yin is eight. At the age of eight the boy sheds his teeth, at the age of seven the girl sheds her teeth 20. [But] the number of yang is odd, therefore 21 it is three. Three times eight make twenty-four plus one make twenty-five 22, [so at twenty-five the man] ties his heart. The number of yin is even, therefore 23 it is two. The woman matures at [the age of] fourteen 24 [twice seven] plus one making fifteen 25; therefore at fifteen she is promised in marriage. In either case one is added, meaning that both 26 have tied their hearts exclusively one [to the other]. Why is there this tying of the heart? It is to avoid debauchery 27.
238. The Presents which are Offered, and the Words which are Used When Concluding the Preliminaries and When Sending the First Present as a Token of the Choice. (9.2b-3a; 4 .10b-11b; 10.4b-6a)
a. [According to] the rites 28 when a girl is fifteen she is promised in marriage. [When the bridegroom's father] sends [the first present to confirm his] choice, when he asks for the [girl's] name, when news is sent of the favourable result of the divination, when he asks for the time [of the wedding-ceremony], and at the meeting [of the bride by the bridegroom] in person, [on these five occa- sion] a goose is used as the present 29. As the present for the completion [of the preliminaries] black and red [silk] is used 30 and not a goose 31.
b. The use of a goose as a present is because it symbolizes [the migration to] the south and [return to] the north, the following of the seasons, and the never missing the right moment; it indicates that the girl is not robbed of her [right] time. The goose is also a bird which follows the yang [sun], as the wife's duty is to follow her husband 32. Then [the goose is used] because they form rows in flying and queues in resting, as the marriage ritual [institution requires that] old and young have their proper places and do not trespass upon each other['s positions]. Since the marriage-rites [demand that] a dead pheasant shall not be used as a present, a [live] goose is offered 33.
c. As the present for the completion [of the preliminaries] a bundle of black and red silk and the li-p'i34 [are sent]; black silk, three [rolls of two pieces], as a symbol of Heaven, red silk, two [rolls of two pieces], as a symbol of Earth, [for the number of] yang is odd [and the number of] yin is even 35: it is to denote that the nature of yang is greater [than that of yin]. The li-p'i are two [deer-]skins, with which to cover the court-hall. The covering of the court-hall is [done with an] even [number of skins]. The Li hun ching says: "At the sending of [the first present to confirm the] choice, when asking for the [girl's] name, when announcing the favourable result of the divination, when asking for the time [of the wedding-ceremony], and at the meeting in person [of the bride, on all these five occasions] a goose is used. As the present for the completion [of the preliminaries] a bundle of [black and red] silk and two [deer-] skins [are used]" 36.
d. The words [used by the messenger] when offering the present for the completion [of the preliminaries] are 37: "His honour [your master] has expressed his distinguished 38 desire to present a wife to [my master's son] So-and-so. [My master] So-and-so 39, in accordance with the custom of the ancients, [sends] two [deer-] skins and a bundle of silk. He has ordered [me,] So-and-so, to invite you to accept these gifts". The first So-and-so [indicates] the name of the bridegroom 壻 40the second So-and-so [indicates] the name of the bridegroom's father 41, the third So-and-so [indicates] the name of the messenger. The father of the girl replies: "His honour [your master], in compliance with the ancient rules, has favoured [me,] So-and-so, with this valuable present, [which I,] So-and-so, do not dare to refuse. Would I dare not to conform to his orders?"
e. The words [spoken by the messenger] when offering [the first present to confirm the] choice are 42: "His honour [your master] is so gracious as to present 43 a wife to [my master's son] So-and-so. [My master,] So-and-so, according to the custom of the ancients, has sent [me,] So-and-so, to invite you to accept these gifts". The reply is: "[My,] So-and-so's daughter is dull and stupid, besides which she is unteachable. [But since] his honour [your master] has ordered it, [I,] So-and-so dare not refuse".
239. The Meeting of the Person of the Bride and the Handing of the Mounting-Cord. (9.3b; .11b-12a; 10.6a-7b)
Why is it that from the Son of Heaven down to the common officer [the bridegroom] must meet [his bride] in person and offer the end of the mounting-cord to her [to get into the carriage? It is here the case of] the yang descending to the yin. [The man] wishes to please the heart [of his bride], it is the token of his affection for her 44. The husband 45 meets her in person, [he drives the carriage for] three revolutions of the wheels, descends, and looks askance at her; this is to avoid [feelings of] uncontrolled passion 46. The Shih says: "[King] Wên fixed on a lucky day and went in person to meet her on the [river] Wei; he arranged boats to form a bridge, amply illustrious was the splendour" 47. The Li hun ching says: "The guest 48 ascends [the steps], faces north, lays down his goose, and salutes twice, knocking his head against the ground 49. [Then] he descends [the steps] and goes out. The bride follows from out of her room 50, descending from the western steps. The bridegroom mounts the bride's carriage, and hands her the mounting-cord" 51.
240. The Giving Away of the Daughter and the Exhortation to Her. (9.3b-4a; 4 .12a; 10.7b-8a)
a. The giving away [in marriage] of the daughter [by the father] takes place before the shrine of his deceased father in the ancesral temple, to honour the remains 52 of the ancestors. [The girl's father] does not dare to act of his own accord, so he announces it [first] to the shrine of his deceased father 53.
b. Why do the parents in person exhort 54 their daughter? It is [the expression of] their extreme love for their child. The father says: "Be careful 55 and reverent. Day and night do not 56 neglect the commands [of thy parents-in-law]" 57. The mother, giving her a sash and a handkerchief 58, says: "Be diligent and reverent. Day and night do not neglect the rules of the household" 59. The father exhorts her at [the head of] the eastern steps, the mother exhorts her at [the head of] the western steps 60. The father's concubine accompanies her to the inner side of the gate and gives her a silk girdle-purse; she impresses her with her parents' commands, and instructs her, saying 61: "Reverently and respect- fully remember 62 the words of thy father and mother. Day and night be without blame. Let thyself be reminded of them by this sash and this girdle-purse" 63.
c. [Thus] leaving [her parents' home] the girl does not bid farewell, neither does she reply to the exhortations, because she feels embarrassed and thinks it hard to go.
241. The Wedding is Not a Case for Congratulations. (9.4a; 4 .12a-b; 10.8a-b)
According to the rites 64 "in the family of the girl who has been given in marriage the fire is not extinguished for three days; [they spend the time waking and] thinking of the [coming] separation. In the family of the man who takes the wife no music is made during three days; they think [of the fact that the son is going to] succeed his father" 65. They feel sad at [the thought that] the father has grown feeble and old in the course of years and that [the time of his] being replaced [by the son] has arrived. The Li says: "The wedding is not [a case] for congratulations; it is [a case of] generations succeeding each other" 66.
242. The Words Spoken at the Handing of the Mounting-Cord and at the Meeting of the Bride. (9.4a; 4 .12b; 10.9a)
a. [When the bridegroom] hands the mounting-cord [to the bride], the duenna declines [on her behalf] saying: "She has not yet been taught, [and has] not [the knowledge] sufficient to exchange ceremonies with thee" 67.
b. When [the bridegroom] first meets [his bride] in person, the usher invites him 68 [to state his business, upon which] he replies 69 "His honour [your master] has instructed [my father] So-and-so, that the wedding will begin this moment. He has ordered [me,] So-and-so, to execute [the rites], and I request [to be allowed] to do as he has commanded". The host says: "[I,] So-and-so, with sincere respect 70 have prepared all that is necessary" 71.
243. What the Father Says When He Pledges His Son. (9.4a-b; 4 .12b; 10.9a)
When the father pledges his son and sends him to meet [his bride] 72, he admonishes him 73 saying: "Go and meet thy helpmeet, that [with her] thou mayst succeed me in the sacrifices to the ancestral temple. With diligence 74 lead her, [but also] with respect, [for she is] the successor of thy mother after her death. In thy [behaviour] there should be constancy" 75. The son says: "Yes, only I fear that I cannot undertake [the task] 76. I shall [,however,] not dare to neglect your command" 77.
244. What is Meant by Not Immediately Presenting the Wife to the Ancestral Temple. (9.4b; 4 .12b; 10.9a)
After the man has married his wife, he does not immediately present her to [his ancestors in] the ancestral temple; this is to indicate that [her place is] not yet definitely fixed 78. It is [also] the reason why, according to the marriage-rites, [when the bridegroom's father] asks for the time of the wedding, [the bride's father] does not dare to be definite 79.
245. The Presenting to the Ancestral Temple. (9.4b; .12b-13a; 10.9b-10a)
After the wife has been in [her husband's home] for three months she takes part in the sacrifices [to the ancestors of her husband] 80. If her parents-in-law are dead the wife, after having been three months in [her husband's home], also offers vegetables [to their shrines] in the ancestral temple 81. Three months [constitute] a season, [in which] the things have their [seasonal] completion, and the good and bad [qualities] of man can be known 82. After this [period of trial] she may participate in the rites of sacrificing in the ancestral temple. Tsêng-tzŭ says: "If a woman dies before she has been presented to [the ancestors of her husband in] the ancestral temple . . . . the body is returned to be interred in [the cemetery of] her kindred, which indicates that she has not yet become his wife in the full sense" 83.
246. The Wedding Takes Place in Spring. (9.4b-5a; 4 .13a; 10.10b-11a)
Why 84 must the wedding take place in spring? Spring 85 is the time when Heaven and Earth communicate, when the ten thousand things begin to live, and when the yin and yang touch each other. The Shih says: "A knight who brings home his wife must do so before the ice melts" 86. The Chou kuan says: "In the second month of spring [the officer in charge of marriages] orders 87 the gathering of the men and women. He orders the men of thirty to take a wife, and the women of twenty to be married" 88. The Hsia hsiao chêng says: "The second month is the time when young men are capped and take a wife" 89.
247. The Wife May Not Leave the Husband. (9.5a; 4 .13a; 10.11a-b)
The reason that, [even] when the husband behaves badly, his wife has no right to leave him lies in the principle that Earth does not separate from Heaven. Though the husband [behaves] badly the wife is not allowed to leave him. Therefore the Li chiao t'ê shêng says: "Once having shared the ceremonial meal with [her husband the wife] shall never change" 90. The violation of human relationships, the killing of the wife's parents, and the abolishment of the principles of social bonds 91 belong to the greater crimes. [Only in the case of] these principles being transgressed is it allowed [to the wife] to leave [her husband].
248. What is Meant by the Son of Heaven and a Feudal Lord Obtaining Concubines Who Accompany the Principal Wife. (9.5a-6a; 4 .13b-14a; 10.11b-13b)
a. Why is it that the Son of Heaven and the Feudal Lords marry nine wives at a time? It is to emphasize the importance of their states and to enlarge their progeny. Why does it happen to be nine 92? It is modelled on Earth with its nine provinces which, responding to Heaven's creative force, leaves nothing without life. To take nine women in one 93 marriage should likewise be sufficient to meet the requirements of the Lord's creative force 94. If with nine women he does not beget children, [then even] one hundred would not produce results. The Wang tu chi says: "The Son of Heaven and the Feudal Lords 95 marry nine women at a time". The Ch'un ch'iu kung yang chuan96 says: "When a Feudal Lord marries a woman from one state, then two other states send each a concubine to accompany her, [in all three cases] with her cousin and sister following" 97. What is meant by cousin? [Her father's] elder brother's daughter. And by sister? The girl's younger sister 98.
b. Some say: "The Son of Heaven marries twelve wives, modelling himself on Heaven with its twelve months, [during which period] the ten thousand things are bound to [complete their cycle of] life" 99.
c. Why must he only marry once? It is to avoid debauchery and to prevent him casting away virtue and indulging in passion. Therefore he only marries once; the Lord of men has no right to marry twice.
d. [The marriage with the principal wife is] completed by a suite of her cousin and her younger sister to ensure that there will be no mutual jealousy. When one woman bears a child three women will share [her joy], as if they had borne it themselves 100.
e. Why does he not take two younger sisters? It is in order to extend [his progeny by] foreign blood. Why does he take women from three [different] states? It is to widen [his progeny by] foreign stock 101; [if he took all nine women from] one state it is feared that, their blood being much alike, no children at all will be produced.
f. The cousin and the younger sister, even though still young, follow the principal wife 102, which indicates that the Lord has no right to marry twice. They are [however,] returned to await [the coming of] their years in the state of their parents, [because] they are not yet prepared to respond to the Lord['s wants] 103. The Shih says: "All the cousins and younger sisters followed her, in great numbers like a cloud. The Lord of Han looked round at them, resplendent, they filled the gate" 104. The Kung yang chuan says: "Shu-chi went to Chi [as concubine]" 105. It is clear that she had been awaiting [the coming of] her years.
g. When two states send concubines to which is [the precedence in] honour given? The greater state takes precedence. If both states are alike 106 [in size] they are judged by their spiritual power; if their spiritual power is alike they are judged by the beauty [of the girls].
h. The adherents of the Principle of Substance model themselves on Heaven, and reverence the left. The adherents of the Principle of Form model themselves on Earth, and reverence the right 107.
i. Why [is a woman] not ceremoniously betrothed to become a concubine? [All] men have the right 108 to want an honourable [place] for their children and grandchildren, and one should not invite a man to [let his daughter] take a lowly [position]. The Ch'un ch'iu chuan says: "Two states came to offer concubines 109. Why is it proper to invite a man to be a common officer, but not to invite a man to [let his daughter] be a concubine? A common officer is honoured at once [in his position], and when gradually his capacities [reveal themselves] he will not remain a common officer. But a concubine, however worthy, will never become a principal wife.
249. The Divination for the Wedding. (9.6a-b; 4 .14a-b; 10.13b)
Why is it that in taking a wife the tortoise-shell is consulted? To divine the girl's spiritual power, in order to know whether [the couple] will suit each other or not. It is stated in the Hun li ching: "[The messenger of the bride-groom's parents says: 'I, So-and-so, have been instructed that my master] is about to consult the tortoise-shell; may I venture to ask 110 to which family the girl belongs'?" 111
250. The Sovereign or the Head of the Major Lineage Marrying by Himself. (9.6b; 4 , 14b; 10.14a-b)
When a Sovereign or the head of the major lineage 112 has no 113 parents he arranges his marriage himself. The lower does not conduct [a ceremony] for the higher, nor the lowly for the honourable, therefore he arranges it himself. The Hun li ching114 says: "When both parents [of the head of the major lineage] are dead he himself 115 gives the orders [for the arrangements of his marriage]". The Shih says: "[King] Wên fixed on a lucky day, and went in person to meet [her, his bride,] on the [river] Wei" 116.
251. A Great Officer Having Received a Fief Cannot Re-Marry . (9.6b; 4 .14b; 10.15a)
A great officer who, having acquired merit, receives 117 a fief, obtains the right to make up [the number] of his concubines to eight, in order to emphasize the importance of his [newly acquired] state and to extend his progeny. He is not [,however, allowed] to enter into a new marriage-alliance with a large state, in order that he may not forget his original principal wife. The Li says: "In sending presents to a daughter [who has been definitely taken as the wife] of a great officer it is said: [That she may now be] prepared for [her task of] sweeping and sprinkling" 118.
252. The Heir and the Lord Must Submit to the Same Rites. (9.6b; 4 .14b; 10.15a)
The eldest son 119 of the Son of Heaven and the Heir of a Feudal Lord both take their wives according to the rites [prescribed] for a Feudal Lord 120. [They are considered] the same as the Lord, which means that they [also] have no right to marry twice.
253. The Son of Heaven Must Take a Wife from a Large State. (9.6b-12a; 4 . 14b-15a; 10.15a-16a). In its paging the Y. ed. skips fol. 7a-11b.
a. When the King takes a wife he must first choose from among the daughters of a large state. The ritual regulations provide many places from which this appears 121. The Shih says: "In a large state there was a young lady, she looked as if she were a younger sister of Heaven. [King] Wên fixed on a lucky day, and went in person to meet [her, his bride,] on the [river] Wei" 489, which proves that the King must take his wife from [among the daughters of] a large state.
b. The Ch'un ch'iu says: "The Marquis of Chi came to court" 122. The Viscount of Chi had married his daughter to the Son of Heaven, therefore his rank was raised and he was called Marquis. In the course of the following decades the Marquis of Chi ac_ quired no other merit than that his daughter had become Queen [by the grace] of Heaven 123. When, therefore, his rank is mentioned as being that of Marquis, we know that although [the Viscount of Chi had only] a small state, [his rank] must [be that of one] enfeoffed with a large state. It means that he had reached [a position of] honour which prevented him being treated as a [mere] subject [by the Son of Heaven].
c. Why does the King extend his [choice of] marriage-alliances [even] to minor states? 124 It is to open the way for the worthy in all under Heaven; it indicates that the capable will not be neglected. Therefore the Ch'un ch'iu says: "The Marquis of Chi came to court". In [this] statement 125 [the word] Marquis is added, indicating that he had been enfeoffed. He had first to be enfeoffed, to indicate that [marriage] ceremonies were not concluded with a minor state 126.
d. What is to be done with the country of a woman [who is the wife of the Son of Heaven], when her conduct proves to be deficient and she is removed? [It is dealt with] on the analogy of [the country of] one who is enfeoffed [with the rank of] a Feudal Lord 127.
254. A Feudal Lord May Not Marry From Within His State. (9.12a-b; 4 .15a; 10.16a-b)
Why is not a Feudal Lord allowed to take his wife 128 from [among the women] within his [own] state? A Feudal Lord has no right to enfeoff on his own initiative, while it would not do to treat the parents [of his wife] as subjects. The Ch'un ch'iu chuan says: "Sung had no great officers for three generations. [The Ch'un ch'iu] condemns [the Lords of Sung for their] taking their wives from [among the great officers' daughters] within [the state]" 129.
255. A Girl of the Same Clan-Name or of the Same Maternal Clan is Not Taken as a Wife. (9.12b; 4 .15b; 10.16b-17b)
a. The reason why a girl of the same clan-name is not taken as a wife is out of respect to the human relationships, to prevent debauchery, and to avoid being [on] the same [level] as the beasts 130. The Lun yü says: "The Lord [of Lu] married a daughter of [the state of] Wu, of the same clan-name as himself, and called her the Elder daughter of Wu" 131. The Ch'ü li says: "In buying a concubine whose clan-name is not known divination is employed" 132.
b. Neither does one take as a wife a girl from among one's mother's relatives [who is related to the degree that for her] the five months' mourning or more [is worn] 133. As it is said in the Ch'un ch'iu chuan: "He was blamed for taking as a wife a girl of his mother's clan" 134.
256. A Feudal Lord of the Same Clan-Name Conducting the Nuptials. (9.12b-13a; 4 .15b-16a; 10.18a-19a)
a. Why is it that when the King marries his daughter [to a Feudal Lord], he must employ a Feudal Lord of the same clan-name [as the King's] to conduct [the ceremonies]? In the marriage-rites it is [the preservation of] harmony that is the precious thing. It would not do [for the King and the Feudal Lord] to converse with one another [on the same level], because that would harm the correct relation between Lord and subject. Moreover [the King], in employing [an intermediary for] his daughter, does not want his majesty as Son of Heaven to overawe the Feudal Lord 135. The Ch'un ch'iu chuan says: "When the Son of Heaven marries his daughter to a Feudal Lord, he must employ another Feudal Lord of the same clan-name to conduct [the ceremonies]. When a Feudal Lord marries his daughter to a great officer, he must 136 employ a great officer of the same clan-name to conduct [the ceremonies]" 137. That [a Feudal Lord or a great officer of] the same clan-name should be employed 138, is because, being of the same clan and having a common ancestor, he is fit to conduct [the nuptials of] his cognates, so that he is employed to substitute in the affairs [appertaining to] a father 139. Why does [the Son of Heaven] not employ a Minister of the same clan-name to conduct [the nuptials of his daughter to a Feudal Lord]? It is because the majesty attached to the exalted position of the Feudal Lord would not [make the Minister] feel at ease.
b. Why does [the Son of Heaven] not employ a Feudal Lord of the same clan-name to conduct [the nuptials of his daughter] in the capital? It is because the Feudal Lord [who is to be married] will have to meet his bride in person; to enter the capital would [for him] mean to go to the Son of Heaven for an audience, and the rites [required for this audience and for the wedding] do not go together. The Ch'un ch'iu chuan says: "A reception-house was built for the King's daughter outside [the city-wall of Lu]" 140. It means that [the Feudal Lord, going to meet his bride, the King's daughter,] did not [have to] enter the [King's] capital.
c. Why must a special reception-house be built? It is to honour [the King's daughter]. She is not lodged in the lu-ch'in141, it being the place for the administration of the government, and not fit for a woman to dwell in. The hsiao-ch'in142 would be too depreciatory, while the room for the Duke's daughters 143 would constitute a slight to her 144. Therefore a special building within the city-walls is erected. The Chuan says: "To build [a reception-house] is according to the rites. [To build it] outside [the city- wall] is not according to the rites" 145.
257. The Rules for a MInister, a Great Officer, and a Common Officer Taking a Wife and Concubines. (9.13a-b; 4 .16a-b; 10.19a-b)
a. Why [is] a Minister or a great officer [entitled to take] one wife 146 and two concubines? It is to honour his worthiness, and to emphasize the importance of his progeny. Why does he not complete [his marriage] by taking [his wife's father's] elder brother's daughter and [his wife's] younger sister? It is because he is a subject who faces north, and his authority is too small 147 and insufficient [to entitle him] to take all the relatives of another house 148. The Li fu ching says: "[The three months' mourning is worn by a Minister or a great officer for] his senior servant or his senior concubine" 149. It means that there is also a lower concubine.
b. Why [is] a common officer [only entitled to] one wife and one concubine 150? [It is because his rank is] below a Minister or a great officer. The Li sang fu hsiao chi151 says: "A common officer wears the three months' mourning for his concubine when she has a child" 152.
258. At the Death of the Principal Wife of the Lord One of the Accompanying Concubines is called to Substitute for Her. (9.13b; 4 .16b; 10.19b-20b)
a. When a woman has been betrothed to be the principal wife, and she dies before she [can] proceed 153 [to her husband], why 154 must [one of] the accompanying concubines go [in her stead]? It is because the Sovereign has no 155 right to marry twice, but as Heaven's [favourable] destiny cannot be secured, he marries nine women at one time. In the Ch'un ch'iu [it is related] that when Po-chi [of Lu] died, her youngest sister [,who should have gone to Chu-lou to take her sister's place as principal wife,] married Chêng instead. The Ch'un ch'iu condemns her 156. When the principal wife dies, [another] principal wife is installed, because it would not do for a [concubine whose position is] lowly to partake [in the sacrifices] in the ancestral temple. The younger sister [of the deceased] is installed [as principal wife] as a matter of course, to honour the great state [from which she has come]. The Ch'un ch'iu chuan157 says: "Shu-chi was married to Chi". Shu-chi was the younger sister of Po-chi. When Po-chi died, Shu-chi was raised to [the position of] principal wife, [which fact was] not condemned by the Classic 158.
b. Another opinion is: "When the principal wife dies, another is not installed, meaning that there may not be two principal wives in order to prevent usurpation and murder. [One of the concubines may] substitute for [the deceased principal wife] in the sacrifices in the ancestral temple, but no more. The rites forbid the betrothal of a woman as concubine. This means that she cannot be raised [to the position of principal wife]" 159.
259. The Marriage-Rites in the Case of a Calamity. (9.14a-b; 4 .16b-17a; 10.21b)
Tsêng-tzŭ asked, saying 160: "If according to the marriage-rites the wedding-presents have been received and a propitious day has been fixed, and the parents of the girl die, what should be done?" 161 Confucius said: "The son-in-law will send someone to condole with her 162, and if it is the parents of the son-in-law who die, the girl 163 will likewise send someone to condole with him 164. If it is the father who dies [the messenger] mentions the [other] father [as having sent him]; if it is the mother who dies [the messenger] mentions the [other] mother [as having sent him]; if both parents are dead then [the messenger] mentions the father's elder brother and his wife 165 [as having sent him]. When the son-in-law has buried [his dead], his father's elder brother or his father's younger brother 166 will send someone to offer a release from the engagement 167 to the girl's family, saying: 'It is the duty of the son of So-and-so 168 to mourn for his parents, and he has no right to continue his relations with your daughter 169. He has sent me, So-and-so 170, to offer the release from the engagement'. It is according to the rites that the girl's family, [though] consenting [to the offer], does not dare to engage her [to another man]. When the son-in-law has ended his mourning, the girl's parents 171 send someone to request [the renewal of the engagement]. It is according to the rites that if the son-in-law does not [wish to] take her as his wife, thereafter she is married [to someone else]. If it is the parents of the girl who die, the son-in-law will act in the same way".
260. The Wife has a Teacher. (9.14b; 4 .17a-b; 10.22a-23a)
a. Why is it that a woman [about to be married] has a teacher? It is in order that she may learn the way of serving others. The Shih says: "I saw my teacher that I might be instructed; he instructed me in the duties of a wife" 172.
b. The Li hun ching173 says: "[When a girl of a Feudal Lord's family has been promised in marriage. . .] she is instructed 174 in [one of the rooms of] the Lord's palace for three months". The woman [about to be married] is instructed for one season, which is sufficient to make her accomplished 175.
c. When a girl is related to the Lord in the degree whereby she must submit to a three months' mourning [or nearer], she receives instruction in [one of the rooms of] the Lord's palace for three months; when she is not related to the Lord, she receives instruction in the rooms of the wife of the head of the major lineage 176. The Lord of the state, in taking one of the concubines of his great officer, or the wife of his common officer, who is aged and has no children, but possesses good knowledge of the duties of a wife, 177 into his service, employs her to teach the girls who are [not] related to him [nearer than] in the fifth degree in the rooms of the head of the major lineage. It is only natural that the great officer or the common officer, in his own group of lineages, [has his female relatives taught also] in the rooms of the head of the major lineage [that they may] learn how to serve others.
d. Why should a woman have a teacher and a duenna? It is to honour her. The Ch'un ch'iu chuan says: "The teacher has come, but not yet the duenna" 178.
261. The Meaning of Serving the Parents-in-Law and the Husband. (9.14b-15a; 4 .17b; 10.23a-b)
a. The wife learns to serve her parents-in-law, and not to serve her husband 179, because wife and husband constitute one body. The Li nei tsê says: "The secondary wife serves the principal wife as [the latter] serves her parents-in-law. It originates from [the wish] to honour the first wife and to avoid jealousy" 180. The Li fu chuan says: "The secondary wife serves the principal wife in the same way as [the latter] serves her parents-in-law" 181.
b. The wife serves her husband according to four principles 182. [Firstly,] on the first crowing of the cock she washes her hands and rinses her mouth, she combs her hair, draws over it a scarf of silk, fixes it with a pin, and fastens it 183, then she meets [her husband]: this is the principle of [the relation of] Lord and subject 184. [Secondly,] she feels affection [for him to such a degree that his loss results in] deep sorrow: that is the principle of [the relation of] father and son 185. [Thirdly,] she keeps account of what there is and of what there is not: this is the principle of [the relation of] elder and younger brother 186. [Fourthly,] within the doors [of the women's apartments] she sits with him on the mat: that is the principle of [the relation of] friends 187. [On each occasion she] hears [him or] sees [him, she uses] different words. Therefore these [rules] have been established.
262. Five Cases of Not Marrying a Girl. (9.15a; 4 .17b; 10.24a)
There are five [cases] in which [a man] does not take a girl as his wife. He does not marry a girl of an unruly family, nor one of a licentious family. He does not marry a girl of a family which has convicts in it, or a girl suffering from an incurable disease, or a grown-up girl who is in mourning for the wife [of her father] 188.
263. The Rites for a Divorced Wife. (9.15a-b; 4 .18a; 10.24a)
When a wife is divorced the proper attitude is to accompany her [or have her accompanied by a messenger to her original home], where she is received with the rites [appropriate] for a guest 189. A Noble Man divorcing [his wife observes rites which are] more than the [blunt] handing over by a common man [of his divorced wife to her parents]. The Shih says: "[Not far, only a little way] did he accompany me to the threshold" 190.
264. The Queen. (9.15b; 4 .18a-b; 10.25a-b)
Why is the spouse of the Son of Heaven called hou? Hou means Lord chün191. The spouse of the Son of Heaven is the most honourable [of women], so that she is called hou 'Lord', meaning that as mate to the most honourable [King] she is the Little Lord within the seas 192. All under Heaven reverence her, and therefore connect [her title] with [the word] wang 'King', calling her wang-hou193. The Ch'un ch'iu chuan says: "[The Duke of Ts'ai came to Lu and immediately] went to meet the wang-hou 'Queen' at Chi" 194. Why is the wife of the Lord of a state called fu-jên [by the Lord]? The meaning is that she is to assist 195 and support eight persons, namely the eight concubines [of the Lord] 196. The people of the state reverence her, and therefore call her the Lord's ju-jên. She calls herself hsiao-t'ung 'Little Lass', out of modesty. It means that her wisdom and capacity are small and tiny like [those of] a stupid child. The Lun yü says: "The wife of the Lord of a state is called fu-jên by the Lord 197, she calls herself hsiao-t'ung 'Little Lass', the people of the state call her 'the Lord's fu-jên', in speaking with other states she is called kua hsiao-chün 'our Little Lord' 198.
[The last term is] an expression of modesty used in referring to her when [the Lord is] visiting a friendly state, and when [one of her] subjects is in 199 another state.
265. Principal Wife and Concubine. (9.15b-16a; 4 .18b; 10.25b)
a. What do [the words] ch'i 'principal wife', and ch'ieh 'concubine' mean? 200Ch'i means 'whole' ch'i201. [The wife forms] one whole body with her husband. From the Son of Heaven down to the common man [the word ch'i is used with] the same meaning.
b. Ch'ieh means 'to connect' chieh202. [The concubine] at regular times meets the man for connection.
266. The Meaning of Chia-Ch'ü , Nan-Nü , Fu-Fu, Hun-Yin. (9.16a-b; 4 .18b-19a; 10.26a-b)
a. What do [the words] chia-ch'ü203 'marriage' mean? Chia means home chia204. The wife comes from outside to another house to make it her home 205. Ch'ü means to take ch'ü206.
b. What do [the words] nan-nü 'man and woman' mean? 207Nan means to be charged with jên208. He is charged with the task of completing an undertaking. Nü means to conform to ju209. She follows and conforms to another. In her home she follows her parents, when married she follows her husband, when her husband is dead she follows her son. The Chuan says: "A woman's duty is to follow [others in] three [cases]" 210.
c. What do [the words] fu-fu211 'husband and wife' mean? [The first] fu means to support fu212. To support with the principles [required] of man. [The second] fu means to submit fu213. To submit to the duties of home, and to serve others.
d. Fei means mate p'i214. What do [the words] fei-p'i215 mean? That they are each other's mates 216.
e. What do [the words] hun-yin mean? Hun means 217 that the rites [of meeting the bride] are performed at dusk hun218. Therefore it is spoken of as hun219. Yin means 220 that the woman becomes his wife by following 221 her husband. Therefore it is spoken of as yin. The Shih says: "Thou hast no regard for the old alliance" 222. This was said with respect [to the alliance of the woman] to the husband. [The Shih says] again: "Thou feastest thy newly-wedded [wife]" 223. This was said with respect [to the alliance of the man] to the wife. Why are the rites performed at dusk? In order to indicate that the yang descends to the yin 224. Dusk 225 is also the time that the yin and the yang intermingle.
267. The Meaning of the Closing and the Opening of the Bed-Chamber. (9.16b; 4 .19a; 10.27a)
a. Why is it that a man at sixty closes the [door of his] bed-chamber? It is that he may take care of his feebleness. He thus pays attention to his life ['s strength] 226. The Li nei tsê says: "A concubine though she is old, if she has not yet reached the age of fifty, must cohabit with 227 [her master] every five days" 228. [When she has reached the] age of fifty she does not visit [her master any more, the abstinence] for both being helpful to [their mutually growing] feebleness.
b. When a man is seventy he has reached the stage of dotage: he cannot relish food without meat, he cannot get warm in bed without a bed-mate 229. Therefore at seventy he opens the (door of his] bed-chamber again [for his bed-mate to enter].
1. 人 倫 之 始 . The Y. ed. has 情 instead of 倫. Corrected by Lu.
2. 天 地 氤 氲 萬 物 化 淳 男 女 構 精 萬 物 化 生 . Book of Change, ch. Hsi tz'ŭ 下 ((Chou i chu shu, 12.17a; L. 393; Wi. 262). The I text has 絪 縕 and 醇, while the Y. ed. wrongly writes 稱 instead of 構.
3. Ta tai li chi, ch. 保 傅 (3.8a; Wi. 224), where the text reads: "When one is cautious in arranging a marriage for one's sons and daughters, and grandsons and granddaughters, one always chooses [a mate who is] filial and fraternal and [in whose family] for generations sense of the right principles has been observed".
4. This is a quotation from the Ch'ien tso tu, an Apocryphal Book of Change where 唱 ch'ang 'to lead' is written in stead of 倡 (下.4b).
5. Ode 101: 南 山 (Mao shih chu shu, 8.18a; L. 156; K. 16.203).
6. Ibid. (chu shu, 8.19a; L. 157; K. ibid.).
7. 何 . Omitted in the Y. ed.
9. 道 . Omitted in the Y. ed.
10. . Omitted in the Y. ed.
11. 應 大 衍 之 數 . Cf. the I ching, ch. Hsi tz'ŭ 下 (Chou i chu shu, 11.24b; L. 365).
12. 男 三 十 (the Y. ed. writes 五 十 ) 壯 有 室 女 二 十 壯 而 嫁. The text of the Nei tsê (Li chi chu shu, 28.23a-24a; C. I. 674-676) has 三 十 而 有 室 … 女 子…二十 而 嫁. The Y. ed. text is probably a contamination of the Nei tsê text and that of the Ch'ü li, where we read: 人 生…三 十 壯 有 室 (Li chi chu shu, 1.12a; C. I. 8).
13. 七 歲 之 陽 也 八 歲 之 陰 也 . The second 之 is missing in the Y. ed.
14. 女 子 十 五 許 嫁 笄 而 字 . Ch. Ch'ü li (Li chi chu shu, 2.20a; C. I. 33), where, however, the text omits 十 五 and thus reads: "When a girl is promised in marriage she receives a hair-pin and her style". In the Nei tsê (l.c.) the text reads: "the girl receives a hair-pin at fifteen". The text of the Y. ed. has apparently contaminated the two passages of the Li chi. The Kuliang chuan, Wên 12, contains the passage 女 子 十 五 而 許 嫁 "at fifteen a girl is promised in marriage" (Ku liang chu shu, 11.6a), which corresponds with the text of the Y. ed. except for the omitted 笄 而 字, and the additional 而. Par. 206g of the Po hu t'ung, quoting the Li ching (= I li), writes: 女 子 十 五 許 嫁 笄 禮 之 稱 字. The I ti (chu shu, 2.33b; ch. Shih hun li, 'Notes'; C. 45) omits 十 五 and writes 醴. The Kung yang chuan, Hsi 9 (Kung yang chu shu, 11.4a) has: 婦 人 許 嫁 字 而 笄 之.
15. The text (Y. ed., Lu, Ch'ên) has 字 style, which is clearly a mistake. Cf. the Ch'ü li (Li chi chu shu, 2.15a; C. I. 30; L. I. 77): 女 子 許 嫁 纓 "When a girl is promised in marriage she wears strings", explained in the Subcomm. as: "not being independent she must have some one to attach herself to and to belong to".
16. Hereafter follows in the Y. ed. and in Lu: 二 十 五 繫 者 就 陰 節 也, which is transferred by Ch'ên to infra (see n. 384).
17. 三 十 數 三 終 奇 陽 節 也 二 十 數 再 終 偶 陰 節 也 ,i.e., starting with three the multiple of three terminates with 10 x 3 = thirty, as the multiple of two, starting with two, terminates with 10 x 2 = twenty, "ten being the perfect number of Heaven and Earth" as Chêng Hsüan says (quoted in the Sub-comm. on ch. Shuo kua of the I ching, Chou i chu shu, 13.2b).
18. This passage has been transferred by Ch'ên from supra (see n. 382). Liu (74.3a) adds 心 after 繫. It probably means that twenty-five is just between twenty (yin) and thirty (yang).
19. 男 二 十 五 繫 心 女 十 五 許 嫁 感 陰 陽 也 . The Y. ed. omits , supplied by Lu. The quotation is not found in the Ku liangchuan.
20. l.e., the conversion of the yang by the yin, and of the yin by the yang. Cf. the Han shih wai chuan, 1.7a: "Yin is changed by yang, and yang is changed by yin, therefore the boy cuts his first teeth when he is eight months, sheds his teeth when he is eight years, while at sixteen he has his first sexual signs. The girl cuts her teeth when she is seven months, sheds her teeth when she is seven years, and has her first sexual signs at fourteen". A somewhat similar passage occurs in the Ta tai li chi, ch. 本 命 (13.3b; Wi .244) and the Chia yü, ch. 本 命 解 (6.11a).
21. 故 , supplied by Lu.
22. The Y. ed. writes 五.
23. 故 , supplied by Lu.
24. The Y. ed. has 十 四 四.
25. The Y. ed. writes 五.
26. 其 , supplied by Lu.
27. Inserting a quotation in the Tai p'ing yü lan Ch'ên continues: "When a man takes a wife at an age younger [than thirty] he must first be capped; a girl marrying at an age younger [than twenty] must first receive a hair-pin. The Li says: When a girl is promised in marriage she receives a hair-pin and her style".
28. 禮 曰 . Probably 曰 is to be dropped.
29. 以 鳥 為 贄 . The Y. ed. omits 為. Supplied by Lu.
30. 用 . The Y. ed. wrongly has 曰.
31. 故 不 用 鳥 . Probably 故 is superfluous. The entire paragraph is a summary of the lengthy passage in ch. Shih hun li of the I li (chu shu, 2.1a ff.; C. 25 ff.; St. I. 18 ff.).
32. 又 昰 隨 陽 之 鳥 妻 從 夫 之 義 也 . Missing in the Y. ed. and supplied by Lu without, however, any source being given.
33. These peculiar propensities of the goose are also mentioned by Chêng Hsüan (Comm. on ch. of the I li; chu shu, 3.7a: "it knows its time and it flies in rows"; Comm. on ch. 士 相 見 禮 Shih hun li of the I li; chu shu, 2.1a: "it follows the yin and the yang in its going and coming back"); by Ho Hsiu (Comm. on Kung yang chuan, Chuang 22; chu shu, 8.8b: "it knows its time"); by Fan Ning (Comm. on Ku liang chuan, Chuang 24; chu shu, 6.10a: "it knows its time and it flies in rows"); and by Chia Kung-yen (Sub-comm. on ch. Shih hun li of the I li; chu shu, 2.1b: "the goose lives in trees, it flies to the south [in winter], and returns to the north when the ice melts. The husband is yang, the wife is yin. The use of a goose now is to symbolize that the wife's duty is to follow her husband"). The I li, ch. Shih hun li,. 'Notes', says that "no dead animals are used as presents" (I li chu shu, 2.33a; C. 45; St. I. 33), by which the pheasant is meant, being the present given by common officers when visiting each other, in winter freshly killed, in summer its dried flesh (ch. Shih hsiang chien li of the I li; chu shu, 3.1a). A great officer of the lower grade uses a goose at these visits, a great officer of the higher grade a lamb (ibid., 3.7a-b). The pheasant is used because it is a proud animal, which mates at the proper time and keeps to the company of its own sex after the matingperiod (ibid.). In marriage, however, a goose is used irrespective of one's position (Sub-comm. I li chu shu, 2.1b).
34. 離 (the I li text has 儷)皮 .
35. The bundle consists of ten pieces-to honour the perfect number-or five liang 兩, the word liang 'two' being used because two pieces are combined in one roll. One liang is eight feet, and all together there are forty feet of silk (Chêng Hsüan's Comm. on ch. Tsa chi of the Li chi; chu shu, 43.19a). The quantity of the presented silk must be denoted by the expression five liang 'five times two', to convey the idea of 'harmonious couple' (ibid. on ch. Shih hun li of the I li; chu shu, 2.8b). Ho Hsiu names the same proportion in the number of black and red silk rolls, using the same words, in his Comm. on Kung yang chuan, Yin 1: "black silk, three [rolls of two pieces], as a symbol of Heaven, red silk, two [rolls of two pieces], as a symbol of Earth" (Kung yang chu shu, 1.18a). In another place (Chuang 22, Kung yang chu shu, 8.8b) he says: "[the use of] black and red silk is to symbolize their conforming to Heaven and Earth".
36. See note 397.
37. Ch. Shih hun li, 'Notes', of the I li (chu shu, 2.40b; C. 51; St. I. 37). The explanation of the meaning of 某 'So-and-so' at the three places does not occur in the I li text.
38. 嘉 . The Y. ed. has 加.
39. 某 , missing in the Y. ed.
40. The Y. ed. has wrongly 聲.
41. 下 某 者 壻 父 名 也 . Missing in the Y. ed. Supplied by Lu.
42. Ch. Shih hun li, 'Notes', of the I li (chu shu, 2.39a-b; C. 49; St. I. 36).
43. 眖 . The Y. ed. writes it doubly.
44. 示 親 之 心 也 . Acc. to Lu and Ch'ên 心 is superfluous.
45. 夫 . Lu and Ch'ên write 必.
46. Cf. the passage in the I li, ch. Shih hun li: "The bridegroom mounts the bride's carriage, and hands her the mounting-cord. The duenna refuses [on her behalf] to accept it, and the bride ascends with the help of a mounting-stool. The duenna throws over her a light dust-cloack. Thereupon [the bridegroom] starts the horses. The driver replaces him, and the bridegroom gets into his [own] carriage to lead [the way]" (I chi; chu shu, 2.18b; C. 33; St. I. 23). And that in the Li chi, ch. Hun i: "Going out and mounting the bride's carriage the bridegroom hands her the mounting-cord. He drives [the carriage] for three revolutions [of the wheels]" (L chi chu shu, 61.4b; C. II. 643; L. II. 429). Neither the I li nor the Li chi speak of 'looks askance at her' 曲 顧. This expression occurs in Mao's Chuan on Ode 261: 韓奕 (Mao shih chu shu, 25.78b; espescially the Sub-comm. on 79b), and in the Lieh nü chuan and Kao Yu's Comm. on the Huai nan tzŭ (cf. Ch'ên Huan in Shih mao shih chuan shu, 6.74).
47. Ode 236: 大 明 (Mao shih chu shu, 23.20b-21a; L. 434-435; K. 17.66, 18.14).
48. I.e. the bridegroom.
49. 再 拜 稽 首 . The Y. ed. superfluously has 拜 手 after 再 拜.
50. 房 中 , not appearing in the I li text. The Y. ed. moreover has redundantly added 也 從 after this. Omitted by Lu.
51. Ch. Shih hun li of the I li (chu shu, 2.18a-b; C. 32-33; St. I. 23), where the last sentence is separated from the previous one by 主 人 不 降 送 "the host does not descend [the steps] to see them off".
52. 遗 (the Y. ed. inserts 支) 體.
53. In the temple a mat is spread for the spirit west of the door where "in the presence of the remains of the ancestors the girl is promised in marriage" (Chêng Hsüan's Comm. in I li chu shu, 2.2a).
54. 戒. The Y. ed. has 男.
55. 戒 之 戒. For the Y. ed. has throughout 誡.
56. 無 . The I li text has 毋; acc. to Chêng Hsüan 無 belongs to the reading of the Old Text.
57. The passage is from ch. Shih hun li 'Notes' 記, of the I li (chu shu, 2. 42b; C. 53; St. I. 39). The Y. ed. hereafter continues; 女 必 有 端 繡 衣 若 笄 之. Lu, who writes 黹 instead of 端, suggests the dropping of the sentence which has no bearing on the preceding one, which suggestion Ch'ên accepts. Liu, however, (74.3a) thinks that it is probably a mistake for 必 有 正 焉 若 衣 若 笄, occurring in the 'Notes' of the I li a few pages back (I li chu shu, 2.36b), and in that case it will have to be translated as: "[Thou, my daughter] must [always] preserve thy integrity, as thou must [always] wear thy clothes and hair-pin". Couvreur (47) and Steele (1.34) translate differently.
58. 衿 (the Y. ed. writes 襟) 結 帨.
59. The passage is from the I li, I.c.
60. In the 'Notes' (I li chu shu, 2.36b; St. 1.34) the sentence runs: "The father faces west in exhorting her . . . . . the mother exhorts standing on the western steps; neither goes down [with the daughter]".
61. 申 之 (the Y. ed. has 祭 紬) 以 父 母( 父 missing in the Y. ed.)之 命 命 之 (last 之 missing in the Y. ed.) 曰.
62. The I li text has 聽 宗 'remember and honour'.
63. 視 諸 衿 鞶 . The Y. ed. has 祭 at the end, and omits 諸, meaning 之 acc. to Chêng Hsüan, who also says that 視 is the correct writing for 示. The passage is from the 'Notes' of the Li chi (chu shu, 2.43a; C.54; St. I.39).
64. The Y. ed. has 禮 曰, so Lu and Ch'ên. But 曰 should better be dropped.
65. A quotation from ch. Tsêng tzŭ wên of the I li; (chu shu, 18.18b; C. I. 429), where instead of 不 絕 火 三 日 of the Y. ed. 三 夜 不 息 燭 "the lights are not put out for three nights" is given, 思 相 離 instead of 相 思 離, and 取 instead 娶.
66. Ch. Chiao t'ê shêng of the I li; (chu shu, 26.22b; C. I. 611).
67. This passage is from the 'Notes' on ch. Shih hun li of the I li (chu shu, 2.43b; C. 54; St. I. 39). Instead of 不 足 'not sufficient' of the I li text the Y. ed. has 未 乞'not yet reaching'.
68. 檳 者 請 , for which the Y. ed. faultily has 於.
69. 對 . The Y. ed. has 辭.
70. 固 (Y. ed. 故 )敬.
71. 具 以 須 . Instead of 須 the Y. ed. writes 酒. The passage is from the 'Notes' on ch. Shih hun li of the I li (chu shu, 2.42b; C. 53; St. I. 39).
72. 父 (the Y. ed. superfluously inserts 命) 醮 子 遺 之 迎 . The last three characters are not found in the I li text.
73. 命 之 . The Y. ed. omits .
74. 勖 hsü (勉), left out in the Y. ed.
75. 若 則 有 常 . Chêng Hsüan explains 若 by 女 (=汝), and paraphrases the passage as 女 之 行 則 當 有 常. Steele's and Couvreur's translations do not take this Comm. into account.
76. 唯 恐 不 (the I li text has 弗) 堪.
77. The whole passage occurs in the 'Notes' on ch. Shih hun li of the I li (chu shu, 2.42a; C. 53; St. I. 38-39).
78. 娶 妻 不 先 告 廟 (the Y. ed. superfluously has 到 after 廟) 者 示 不 必 安 也.
79. 婚 禮 請 期 不 敢 必 也 . According to the I li, ch. Shih hun li, when the messenger of the bridegroom's father comes to ask for the time of the wedding, the bride's father refuses, leaving it to the bridegroom's father to decide. This is, so the Comm. says, because yang being superior to yin, the fixing of the day should proceed from the bridegroom's family (I li chu shu, 2.9a; C. 29).
80. 婦 入 (the Y. ed. has wrongly 人) 三 月 然 後 祭 行 . This is a passage from the I li, ch. Shih hun li 'Notes' (I li chu shu, 2.38b; C. 48).
81. 舅 姑 既 沒 亦 婦 入 三 月 奠 菜 (the Y. ed. writes 采) 于 廟. The I li ch. Shih hun li (I li chu shu, 2.30b; C. 43) has: 若 舅 姑 既 沒 婦 入 三 月 乃 奠 菜.
82. Ho Hsiu in his Comm. on Kung yang chuan, Ch'êng 9, says: "It must be three months, because [not less than] one season would be sufficient to distinguish [her having or not having] chastity and integrity. If her chastity and integrity are proven, then [she participates in] the ceremony [which entitles her to be] wife in the full sense" (Kung yang chu shu, 17.23b). Chia Kung-yen in his Sub-comm. on the I li, ch. Shih hun li (I li chu shu, 2.30b) says: "It must be three months, because three months constitutes a season, [after which] Heaven's humour changes, [and after which] the wife's 'way' (道) can fully [show itself]". Probably the idea of pregnancy is behind all these explanations.
83. Ch. Tsêng tzŭ wên of the Li chi (chu shu, 18.19b; C. I. 430).
84. 何 . The Y. ed. has 者.
85. 春 者 . The Y. ed. omits 者.
86. Ode 34: 匏 有 苦 葉 (Mao shih chu shu, 3.30a; L. 54; K. 16.182). I have used Waley's translation (Wa. 54).
87. 令 . The Y. ed. has 合.
88. Chou li, ch. 媒 氏 (Chou li chu shu, 14.14a and 15b; B. I. 307). In the Chou li text the order of the two sentences is reversed.
89. Ch. 夏 小 正 of the Ta tai li chi, 2.7b (Wi. 236).
90. --. 一 (the Li chi text has 壹) 與 之 齊 終 身 不 改 (Li chi chu shu, 26.21a; C. I. 607). Instead of 齊 -- acc. to Chêng Hsüan's Comm. meaning 共 牢 而 食 'to eat together the flesh of the same animal', which expression occurs in ch. Hun i of the Li chi (chu shu, 61.4b; C. II.643)--sometimes 醮 is written.
91. 廢 絕 綱 紀 (the last word is omitted in the Y. ed.). Kang-chi is elliptical for san-kang liu-chi 'the Three Major and the Six Minor Relationships', for which see ch. XXIX of the Po hu t'ung.
92. 適 九 者 何 . The Y. ed. wrongly has 也 inst. of 九.
93. --. Omitted in the Y. ed.
94. 承 君 之 施 . The Y. ed. has 成 君 施.
95. 諸 侯 , left out in the Y. ed. The 王 度 記 belongs to the lost chapters of the essays on rites.
96. Chuang 19 (Kung yang chu shu, 8.2a-b).
97. 從 The Y. ed. adds 之.
98. 女 弟 . The Kung-yang text omits 女. There are thus nine women in all: the principal wife with her cousin and younger sister, the first accompanying concubine with her cousin and younger sister, and the second accompanying concubine with her cousin and younger sister.
99. That "only the Son of Heaven can take twelve women" 唯 天 子 取 十 二 女 is also recorded by Ho Hsiu in his Comm. on the Kung yang chuan, Ch'êng 10 (Kung yang chu shu, 17.26a). The Sub-comm. ascribes the statement to the Pao ch'ien t'u 保 乾 圖, an Apocryphal Book on the Ch'un ch'iu.
100. The Ku liang chuan, Wên 18, says: "The meaning of taking the cousin and the younger sister [together with the principal wife] is that the child may not be left without a mother ( 孤 = orphan); when one woman bears a child three women will rejoice (緩 帶 = loosen the girdle; Ku liang chu shu, 11.18a). Ho Hsiu's Comm. on the Kung yang chuan, Chuang 19, (l.c.) explains: "That the cousin and the younger sister must follow [the principal wife] is to insure that when one woman bears a child two [other] women may rejoice".
101. 不 娶 兩 娣 何 博 (the Y. ed. has 傳)異 氣 也 娶 三 國 女 何 廣 異 類 也. Acc. to the Tso chuan, Ch'êng 8, the accompanying concubines should be of the same surname as the principal wife, 'to soothe sexual conflicts' 所 以 息 陰 讼 as Tu Yü explains (Tso chuan chu shu, 26.27b; cf. Granet, La polygynie sororale, p. 13). In the Sub-comm. a statement is quoted from Ho Hsiu's [Tso shih] kao huang [左 氏]膏 盲 (for which see Franke, Studien zur Geschichte des konfuzianischen Dogmas, p. 35. n.) which says that it is not necessary to have concubines of the same surname, 'in order to extend [the progeny by] foreign blood' 所 以 博 異 氣 , which opinion is again denied by Chêng Hsüian. Ch'ên, siding with Ho Hsiu, thinks that the passage in the Po hu t'ung may be taken as a further proof for the correctness of Ho Hsiu's idea. Liu, however, (74.3b) asserts that the Po hu t'ung statement does not deny the necessity of having concubines of the same surname; it probably refers to the desirability of taking concubines from different lineages of the same clan, bearing the same surname.
102. The Y. ed. hereafter has the superfluous words 明 人 者 .
103. Cf. what is said by Ho Hsiu in his Commentary on the Kung yang chuan, Yin 7: "[A concubine who is still young] waits for [the coming of] her years in the state of her parents; at the age of eight a woman [may be made to] complete the number [of accompanying concubines], at fifteen she follows the principal wife, at twenty she aids her in serving the Lord" (Kung yang chu shu, 3.11a). Hsü Shên;, quoted in Fan Ning's Comm. on the Ku liang chuan, Yin 7, says: "When the cousin and the younger sister [of the principal wife] are fifteen years and older they are able to serve the Lord, and may go [with her]; when they are twenty they cohabit [with him]" (Ku liang chu shu, 2.8b).
104. Ode 261: 韓 奕 (Mao shih chu shu, 25.78a-b; L. 549; K. 17.84).
105. 叔 姬 歸 于 紀 (the Y. ed. has wrongly 絕). This is an entry of the Ch'un ch'iu, Yin 7, not of the Kung yang chuan. Shu-chi was a younger sister and an accompanying concubine of Po-chi, the eldest daughter of Lu, who had been married to Chi in Yin 2 y. As she was still young she did not go earlier than Yin 7 y.
106. 等 . Ch'ên has 同.
107. 質 家 法 天 尊 左 文 家 法 地 尊 右 . Ho Hsiu's Comm. on the Kung yang chuan, Yin 1 (to the entry: "When the Heir is to be nominated [the choice is made, from among] the sons of the principal wife, according to age and not to worth; [from among] the sons [of the acompanying concubines], according to position and not to age") says: "According to the rites, if the principal wife has no son [a son of] the accompanying concubine to the right is nominated; if she has no son [a son of] the accompanying concubine to the left is nominated; if she has no son [a son of] the cousin or the younger sister of the principal wife is nominated; if she has no son [a son of] the cousin or the younger sister of the accompanying concubine to the right is nominated; if she has no son [a son of] the cousin or the younger sister of the accompanying concubine to the left is nominated. The adherents of the Principle of Substance [have as principle] 'to love the nearest relation', they first nominate [a son of] the younger sister; the adherents of the principle of Form [have as principle] 'to honour the honourable', they first nominate [a son of] the cousin. If the son of the principal wife, having a son, dies, the adherents of the Principle of Substance [according to the principle] 'to love the nearest relation' first nominate his younger brother; the adherents of the Principle of Form [according to the principle] 'to honour the honourable' first nominate the grandson. If twins are born the adherents of the Principle of Substance follow [the principle of] vision and nominate the first born; the adherents of the Principle of Form follow the idea of origin and nominate the last born" (Kung yang chu shu, 1.9b-10a). Right is thus given precedence to left, and as the Ch'un ch'iu according to Kungyang adheres to the Principle of Substance ( 春 秋 質 也 ; Ho Hsiu in hi Comm. on Chuang 22, Kung yang chu shu, 8.8b), the passage in the Po hu t'ung should be read: "The adherents of the Principle of Substance reverence the right, the adherents of the Principle of Form reverence the left. Granet, Polygynie, pp. 10 and 41, unwarrantedly translates 質 家 by 'les families de gens simples, rustiques' (= 庶 人, la plèbe), and 文 家 by 'les families distinguées'. It is improbable that among the common people the institution of accompanying concubines was to be found (see also Woo Kang, o.c., p. 141. n.3).
108. 義 , omitted by Lu and Ch'ên.
109. Kung yang chuan, Ch'ëng 10, where, however, the text reads: "Three states came to offer concubines" (Kung yang chu shu, 17.26a), viz. the states of Wei 衞, Chin 晉, and Ch'i 齊. The meaning of the quotation is to prove that concubines are offered, not asked for. The Kung yang chuan remarks that the sending of concubines by three states is not according to the rites; it happened because the three states were anxious that their daughters should follow Po-chi, eldest daughter of Lu, who was to be married to Sung and was famous for her virtue. The Ch'un ch'iu does not as a rule record the sending of concubines by the use of the word 媵, but in these three cases it deviates from the rule in order to emphasize Po-chi's excellent qualities.
110. 問 . The I li text reads 請.
111. Ch. Shih hun li of the I li (chu shu, 2.39b; C. 49). The quotation is from the 'Notes' not from the text proper.
112. tsung-tzŭ 宗 子 see ch. XXXII of the Po hu t'ung.
113. 無 , omitted in the Y. ed.
114. Ch. Shih hun li of the I li, the 'Notes' not the text proper (I li chu shu, 2.43b; C. 54; St. 1. 39).
115. 己 躳 . The Y. ed. has 巳 聘.
116. Ode 236: 大 明(Mao shih chu shu, 23.20b-21a; L. 434; K. 17.66). Legge's translation would not fit in the context. Chêng Hsüan's Comm. is followed in the translation.
117. 受 , omitted in the Y. ed.
118. 納 女 於 大 夫 (Y. ed. wrongly 諸 侯)曰 備 掃 灑; ch. Ch'ü li of the Li chi (chu shu, 5.30a). 納 女 is explained in Chêng Hsüan's Comm. as 致 女, which expression occurs in the Ch'un ch'iu, Ch'êng 9, meaning the sending by the parents of a messenger to inquire after their daughter when she has been presented, three months after her marriage, to her husband's ancestors, by which ceremonial she reaches the real status of principal wife (K'ung Ying-ta's Sub-comm. in Li chi chu shu, 5.30b; Ho Hsiu's Comm. on the Kung yang chuan, Ch'êng 9, Kung yang chu shu, 17.23b; cf. L.'s transl. of the Ch'un ch'iu, p. 371, note to par. 6). Legge and Couvreur in their Li chi translations (C. I. 106; L. I. 119) render 納 女 ,by 'to present a daughter for the harem', which would not fit in the context. The meaning of the quotation is that a principal wife, having been presented to the ancestors of her husband, cannot be rejected without reason.
119. 天 子 之 太 子 . The Y. ed. has only 天 子. Lu's emendation.
120. Ch'ên suggests the reading: "according to the rites [prescribed] for the Son of Heaven or a Feudal Lord".
121. 禮 儀 備 所 見 多 . The translation is given tentatively.
122. 大 明 Huan 2 and 6. The Tso chuan uses 杞 for Chi instead of 紀, which is used in the Kung yang chuan and the Ku liang chuan. Chi was originally a viscountcy (Yin 2), after Huan 2 it is referred to as a marquisate (Huan 6, 12, 13, 17; Kung yang chu shu, 4.11a).
123. 天 王 后 . She went to the capital in the spring of Huan 9 y.
124. 庶 人 . Lu and Ch'ên write 庶 邦 . See note 494.
125. 文 . The Y. ed. wrongly has 交.
126. 庶 人 . The Y. ed. has 聖 人, Lu and Ch'ên. 庶 邦, followed in the translation. In Ho Hsiu's. Comm. (Kung yang chu shu, 4.11a) it is, however, said: "The Son of Heaven has the right to take as his wife the daughter of a commoner 庶 人, because he has the right to give fiefs independently". By commoner is of course not meant a man of the common people but a man of the lower nobility. It seems that the quotation from the Ch'un ch'iu is used to prove two things: 1. that the King must always maintain the fiction of only marrying the daughter of a large state; 2. though in fact he is allowed to marry the daughter of a 'commoner'.
127. 以 封 為 諸 侯 比 例 矣 . There are seven causes for divorcing a wife, among which is that of her having no son, but the Son of Heaven never divorces his wife even though she fails to beget a son. In the other cases, which are those of misbehaviour, he only goes so far as to remove her from his vicinity (Chêng Hsüan, quoted in the Sub-comm. on ch. Shih hun li of the I li (chu shu, 2.16b). Lu remarks on the statement: "there is no [underlying] idea of condemning and degrading".
128. 娶 . The Y. ed. has 趣.
129. Kung yang chuan, Hsi, 25, where 三 世 內 娶 is written instead of 惡 其 內 娶 in the Y. ed. (Kung yang chu shu, 12.6a). The meaning being that he is not allowed to treat his parents-in-law as his subjects. Should the Feudal Lord want to marry a daughter of one of his subjects (and every one within his state is his subject), he must enfeoff him first, and this he cannot do on his own initiative. The Lords of Sung married the daughters of their great officers. The latter thus cannot be said to be great officers (i.e. subjects of the Lord) any more.
130. Almost the same words are used by Ho Hsiu in his Comm. on the Kung yang chuan, Ai 12 (Kung yang chu shu, 28.3a): To marry a girl belonging to the same clan and having a common forefather would disturb the human relationships and efface the distinction between man and beast.
131. Ch. 述 而 (Lun yü chu shu, 7.12a). Legge. p. 205 translates "the Elder Tsze of Wu"; see however Lun yü chêng i, 7.52. The affair is amply discussed in Tso chuan and Kung yang chuan, Ai 12 (Tso chuan chu shu, 59.2a (L. 827); Kung yang chu shu, 28.2b), and in the Li chi, ch. Fang chi (Li chi chu shu, 51.29a; C. II. 424). The Lords of Lu and Wu bore the same clan-name Chi 姬. In order to conceal this she was called by the name of the state she came from.
132. Li chi chu shu, 2.16a; C. I. 31.
133. 外 屬 小 功 已 上 亦 不 得 娶 也 . Generally one wears the three months' mourning ssŭ-ma for maternal relatives, so for children of one's mother's sister, and those of one's mother's brother; only in the case of one's mother's parents and one's mother's sister the five months' mourning hsiao-kung is worn (I li, ch. 喪 服; C. 424-430). Marriage is allowed with those for whom one wears the three months' mourning. But, as the mourning for maternal relatives does not exceed five months, why is the statement 已 上 'and more' added? K'ung Kuang-shen 孔 廣 森, quoted by Ch'ên, thinks that 上 should be replaced by 下. Liu Shih-p'ei, however, repudiates this opinion, and offers the theory that, sometimes, the nine months' mourning ta-kung is worn for the mother's parents, so that the statement 小 功 已 上 may refer to this custom (Liu, 74.3b-4a). I think that the passage should be read: 'the three months' mourning and more'.
134. 議 娶 母 黨 也 . The quotation does not occur in any of the three Commentaries. According to Liu (l.c.) it only refers to those maternal relatives for whom the five months' mourning is worn.
135. Ho Hsiu in his Comm. on the Kung yang chuan, Chuang 1 (Kung yang chu shu, 6.5a) says about the same: "because they differ in their positions the execution of the marriage-rites [, which should be carried on by the two parties on the same standing,] would harm the correct relation between Lord and subject; the execution of the rites required for a meeting between Lord and subject would disturb the affectionate atmosphere of the wedding".
136. 必 , occurring in the text of the Kung yang chuan, is omitted in the Y. ed.
137. Kung yang chuan, Chuang 1 (Kung yang chu shu, 6.4b).
138. 必 使 同 姓 . This is omitted in the Y. ed. Supplied by Lu.
139. 攝 父 事 . Ho Hsiu's Comm. 1.c. has 宜 為 父 道 "he is fit to act as father".
140. 築 王 姬 之 館 于 外 . This is an entry of the Ch'un ch'iu, Chuang 1, Autumn, not of any of the three Commentaries. The Y. ed. omits 之 , writes 土 instead of 王, and 觀 instead of 館. It was the task of the Duke of Lu to supervise the wedding of the King's daughter. He built a reception-house outside the walls of the capital of Lu, where she was lodged in order to be met by her husband.
141. For the lu-ch'in and the hsiao-ch'in see Ho Hsiu's explanation in his Comm. on the Kung yang chuan, Chuang 32 (Kung yang chu shu, 9.13a). Cf. also n. 114.
142. For the lu-ch'in 路 寢 and the hsiao-ch'in 小 寢 see Ho Hsiu's explanation in his Comm. on the Kung yang chuan, Chuang 32 (Kung yang chu shu, 9.13a). Cf. also n. 114.
143. 帬 公 子 之 舍 . The Y. ed. omits 子. This is the 公 宮 referred to in par. 260c. Cf. n. 543.
144. 則 已 卑 矣 . The text of the Kung yang chuan reads 以 for 已 (Kung yang chu shu, 6.6a). In the Sub-comm. the lu-ch'in is explained as being not fitting, because by using it no distinction would be made between outside (state affairs) and inside (household affairs), while the use of the hsiao-ch'in would mean contempt 褻 瀆 for the King's daughter.
145. The quotation occurs in the Kung yang chuan (chu shu, 6.5b) and the Ku liang chuan (chu shu, 5.3a), Chuang 1. In both the building outside the city-wall is considered to be contrary to the rites. The Tso chuan, however, deems it right, at least in this case (L.72).
146. 一 妻 -- . The Y. ed. omits -- .
147. 賤 勢 . The Y. ed. omits 勢.
148. 不 足 盡 人 骨 肉 之 親 . The Y. ed. superfluously has 執 before 人 .
149. I.e. ch. Sang fu of the I li (I li chu shu, 11.76a; C. 429). By 'senior servant' 貴 人 is meant an old officer of the house, by 'senior concubine'貴 妾 the wife's father's elder brother's daughter or the wife's younger sister (Chêng Hsüan's Comm. on the passage, 1.c.).
150. 一 妻 一 妾 -- -- . The Y. ed. omits -- .
151. 禮 喪 服 小 記 . Lu and Ch'ên write 也 after 禮. Liu (74.4a) remarks that should end the previous sentence (omitted in the Y. ed.).
152. Ch. Sang fu hsiao chi of the Li chi (Li chi chu shu, 32.16a; C. I. 752). The Li chi continues "when she has no child no mourning is worn".
153. 未 往 而 死 . The Y. ed. has 夫 instead of 未.
154. The Y. ed. has 當 往 否 乎 "must go or not?" Ch'ên assumes that 否 乎 should be read 何.
155. 不 in the Y. ed. should, acc. to Lu, be 無.
156. The eldest daughter Po-chi 伯 姬 of Lu died in the ninth year of Duke Hsi. Her youngest sister Chi-chi 季 姬 married Chêng (此字为 “曾”加 “耳”旁) in the fourteenth year, though she was meant for Chu-lou 邾 婁(Ho Hsiu's Comm. on the Kung yang chuan, Hsi 19, chu shu, 11.24a), as it seems in the capacity of younger sister-concubine to Po-chi, who had been promised to Chu-lou.
157. This is an entry of the Ch'un ch'iu, Yin 7 (716 B.C.), not of any of the three Commentaries.
158. Po-chi, the eldest daughter of Duke Yin, who had been married to Chi 紀 in Yin 2 y. (721 B.C.), died in Chuang 4 y. (690 B.C.), when she was followed as principal wife by Shu-chi, the younger sister. The Ch'un ch'iu enters her going to Chi in 716 B.C. to honour her, because later, having become principal wife, she proved to be a virtuous woman to the end (Kung yang chu shu, 3.11a).
159. This seems to be based on the Tso chuan, where under Yin 1, Tu Yü's Comm. says: ". . . when the principal wife dies, the secondary wife assists in the management of the household affairs, but she has no right to be called fu-jên [as the principal wife had] (Tso chuan chu shu, 1.2b).
160. Li chi chu shu, 18.15b-16a. The translation given here differs in many respects from Couvreur's (I. 426) and Legge's (I. 320). A lengthy discussion of the passage is to be found in Mao Ch'i-ling's 曾 子 問 講 錄 Tséng tzŭ wen chiang lu, ch. 3.1a-18b (in the 重 輯 曾 子 遺 書 Ch'ung chi tsêng tzŭ i shu).
161. 何 如 . The Li chi text has 則 如 之 何.
162. The Li chi text omits 之.
163. The Li chi text has 則 女 之 家 "then the family of the girl . .".
164. The Li chi text omits 之.
165. 伯 父 世 母 . The Y. ed. has 尊 instead of 母.
166. 伯 父 . The Li chi text omits 叔 父, and also 使 人 "will send some one . . .". The younger brother is used, for the condolence, when the father's elder brother has died (K'ung Ying-ta's Sub-comm. 1.c.).
167. 致 命 . Because one does not want to bind the other for the duration of the mourning, and so cause the loss of the opportunity of an alliance with somebody else (ibid.).
168. 某 之 子 . With So-and-so the deceased father's name and position are indicated (K'ung Ying-ta's Sub-comm. 1.c.). The Y. ed. omits .
169. 不 得 嗣 为 兄 弟 . K'ung Ying-ta explains the use of the expression 兄 弟 thus: husband and wife have the relation of an elder and a younger brother; or perhaps, the husband wears the three months' mourning for his wife's parents.
170. With So-and-so the name of the messenger is indicated. The Y. ed. erroneously writes 母 for 某.
171. 女 之 父 母 . The Y. ed. omits 之 and 母 .
172. Ode 2: 葛 覃. In the translation I have followed Mao's and Chêng Hsüan's Comm. (Mao shih chu shu, 1.30a), which fit better into the context (cf. Shih mao shih chuan shu, 1.8) than the existing translations (L. 7; K. 14.88, 16.173; Wa. 106).
173. The quotation is from the 'Notes' on the text proper of ch. Shih hun li of the I li (chu shu, 2.33b; C. 45; St. 1.33).
174. 教 . The Y. ed. wrongly has 告.
175. I.e. for her task as a wife. But a girl receives instruction from her youth up (K'ung Ying-ta's Sub-comm. in Mao shih chu shu, 1.31b).
176. The first part of this passage 與 君 有 緦 麻 之 親 者 教 於 公 宮 三 月 (missing in the Y. ed.) is supplied by Lu and Ch'ên from a passage in Chêng Hsüan's Comm. in ch. Shih hun li of the I li: 以 有 緦 麻 之 親 就 尊 者 之 宮 (I li chu shu, 2.34a). In the Sub-comm. it is said that the girls related to the Lord in the fourth to the first degree are meant, i.e., those having a common great-great-grandfather, a common great-grandfather, a common grandfather, and a common father. The second part 與 君 無 親 者 各 教 於 宗 廟 宗 婦 之 室 (in the Y. ed. 宗is omitted before 婦) is a paraphrase of the I li text 若 祖 廟 已 毀 則 教 于 宗 室, explained in K'ung Ying-ta's Sub-comm. as 與 君 絕 服 者 則 皆 以 大 宗 之 家 教 之 "those who do not any longer wear mourning for the Lord are all instructed in the rooms of the head of the major lineage" (I li chu shu, 2.33b-34a). The 宗 廟 in the Y. ed. is probably superfluous, and left out in the translation. The 公 宮 or the 尊 者 之 宮 is what is referred to in Kung yang chuan, Chuang 1, as 帬 公 子 之 舍, see note 510.
177. 老 無 子 而 明 於 婦 道 者 . The Y. ed. has 者 after 子 and 又 instead of the last 者.
178. Kung yang chuan, Hsiang 30 (Kung yang chu shu, 21.19a). It relates the story of the eldest daughter of Sung who refused to leave the palace when a fire broke out, perishing in the flames, only because her duenna was not there to accompany her.
179. 不 學 事 夫 者 . The Y. ed. wrongly has 不 學 事 必 父 母 者. Corrected by Lu.
180. 妾 事 夫 人 如 事 舅 姑 尊 嫡 絕 妬 嫉 之 原 . This quotation does not occur in the present Nei tsê text.
181. 妾 事 女 君 與 事 舅 姑 同 也 . Ch. Sang fu of the I li (chu shu, 11.40b; C. 403), however, reads: 妾 之 事 女 君 與 婦 之 事 舅 姑 等.
182. This statement is contrary to what has been said above under a.
183. This description occurs, in different contexts, several times in the Nei tsê.
184. Ho Hsiu's Comm. on the Kung yang chuan, Chuang 24 (Kung yang chu shu, 8.13a) also mentions four principles according to which the wife serves her husband. The first is: "At cock's crow she draws a scarf of silk over her hair, fastens it with a pin, and meets [her husband]: these are the rites [to be observed] in the relation of Lord and subject".
185. 恻 隱 之 恩 父 子 之 道 也 . . Ho Hsiu says: "[At the loss of her husband the wife is] afflicted with deep sorrow for three years: that is the affection between father and son" 三 年 恻 隱 父 子 之 恩 也.
186. Ho Hsiu: "She reflects on what will be safe or dangerous, on what is feasible or not: that is the duty between elder and younger brother".
187. 閨 閫 之 內 衽 席 之 上 朋 友 之 道 也 . Ho Hsiu has: 樞 機 for 閨 閫 and 寢 for 衽. 樞 機 ch'ou-chi is only another name for k'uei-k'un, also named yeh or k'un or chüeh-chi, meaning 'threshold'. In the Shih ching it is called 畿 ch'i (Ch'ên Huan in Shih mao shih chuan shu, 1.70).
188. The Ta tai li chi, ch. 本 命 (13.6a; Wi. 247-248), Ho Hsiu's Comm. on the Kung yang chuan, Chuang 27 (Kung yang chu shu, 8.23b), and the Chiayü, ch. 本 命 解(6.12b) give the same enumeration, together with a statement of the reasons why in these cases marriage is not advisable. The Chia yü has for 喪 婦 長 子 "a grown-up girl who is in mourning for the wife [of her father]" 喪 父 長 子 "a grown-up girl who is in mourning for her father".
189. See ch. Tsa chi of the Li chi for the ceremonial words spoken by the messenger of the man and the father of the woman (Li chi chu shu, 43.18a; C. II. 198; L. II. 171 gives an inadequate translation).
190. Ode 35 谷 風 (Mao shih chu shu, 3.33a; L. 55; K. 16.182). The husband does not quite behave according to the rites, such is Mao's opinion. The quotation seems, however, to be used in the text in a contrary sense (see also Shih mao shih chuan shu, 1.70).
191. 后 者 君 也 . The Y. ed. omits 者.
192. 天 子 妃 至 尊 故 謂 后 也 明 配 至 尊 為 海 內 小 君 . This does not occur in the Y. ed., which has instead: 天 下 尊 之 故 謂 之 后 明 海 內 小 人 之 君 子 也. Lu's correction.
193. 日 王 后 也 , missing in the Y. ed. and supplied by Lu.
194. 逆 王 后 于 紀 . This is an entry of the Ch'un ch'iu, Huan 8, not of any of the three Commentaries. The Y. ed. has 迎 instead of 逆.
195. 扶 .
196. The text of the Y. ed. reads 明 當 扶 進 夫 人 謂 八 妾 也. Lu thinks 夫 to be superfluous, and writes 非 in stead of 八, thus understanding the sentence as: "it indicates that she should assist and support men, meaning that she is not a concubine". Ch'ên reads 八 人 instead of 夫 人. and understands the passage as in the translation.
197. 君 稱 之 . The Y. ed. omits 君.
198. Ch. 季 氏 (Lun yu chu shu, 16.12a; L. 316). Instead of 國 the Lunyü text writes 邦.
199. 臣 於 他 國 . The Y. ed. omits 於, supplied by Lu.
200. 妻 妾 者 何 謂 也 . The Y. ed. omits 妾 and 也. Supplied by Lu.
201. 齊 .
202. 接 .
203. 嫁 娶 .
204. 家 .
205. 家 . The Y. ed. wrongly has 嫁.
206. 取 .
207. 男 女 者 何 謂 也 . In the Y. ed. the words 者, 何, and 也 are missing.
208. 任 .
209. 如 .
210. I.e. the Chuan of ch. Sang fu of the I li (chu shu, 11.36b; C. 400).
211. 夫 婦 .
212. 扶 .
213. 服 .
214. 妃 者 匹 也 , missing in the Y. ed. and supplied by Lu.
215. 妃 匹 . The Y. ed. writes 配 疋, correction by Lu.
216. 相 與 為 偶 也 . The Y. ed. omits 為.
217. 婚 者 , omitted in the Y. ed.
218. 昏 .
219. 曰 . The Y. ed. has 謂 之.
220. 姻 者 , omitted in the Y. ed.
221. yin 因.
222. 不 惟 舊 因 . Ode 188 我 行 其 野(Mao shih chu shu, 18.20a; L. 303; K. 16.232; see also Shih mao shih chuan shu, 4.70). Mao's text reads: 不 思 舊 姻. The Sub-comm. in Mao shih chu shu, 18.20b says that hun is used with respect to the man, and yin with respect to the woman 男 婚 女 姻
223. 燕 爾 新 婚 . Ode 35: 谷 風 (Mao shih chu shu, 3.33a, L. 56; K. 16.182). Mao's text reads: 宴 爾 新 昏.
224. Chêng Hsüan in his 原 目.of ch. Shih hun li of the I li says: "The rites [of meeting the bride] must take place at dusk to symbolize that the yang goes and the yin comes" 必 以 昏 者 取 其 陽 往 而 陰 來 . It must only be dusk when the bridegroom meets his bride. For the other five occasions, when a messenger is sent with presents to the house of the bride (see par. 238a), the time is dawn (ch. Shih hun li, 'Notes', of the I li (chu shu, 2.32b-33a; C. 44; St. 1.33)).
225. 昏 . The Y. ed. wrongly writes 婚.
226. Hereafter in the Y. ed. follows 又 曰 父 子 不 同 椸 為 亂 長 幼 之 序 也 "it also says: Father and son do not share a mat; that would harm the distinction between old and young". The passage has no bearing upon the subject and should be dropped (cf. Liu, 74.4a). The statement that a man at sixty closes the door of his bed-chamber also occurs in Ho Hsiu's Comm.on the Kung yang chuan, Yin 1 (Kung yang chu shu, 1.8b).
227. 與 . The Y. ed. has 預.
228. Ch. Neitsê of the Li chi (chu shu, 28.1la; C. I. 661).
229. In the Li chi it is said that at fifty a man begins to become feeble, at sixty he does not relish food without meat, at seventy he does not get warm without silk, at eighty he does not get warm without a bedmate (ch. Nei tsé, Li chi chu shu, 28.6a; C. I. 650).
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