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紼者、何謂也?紼者、蔽也，行以蔽前，紼蔽者小有事。因以別尊卑，彰有德也。天子朱紼, 諸侯赤紼。《詩》云:"朱紼斯皇，室家君王。"又[云]:"赤紼金舄,會同有繹。"又云:" 赤紼在股。" 皆謂諸侯也。《書》曰:"黼##衣黃朱紼。" 亦謂諸侯也。並見衣服之制，故遠別之謂黃朱亦赤矣。大夫蔥衡，別於君矣。天子大夫赤紱蔥衡,士韎韐。朱赤者、或盛色也。是以聖人塗法之用為紼服，為百王不易也。 紼以韋為之者，反古不忘本也。上廣一尺，下廣二尺，[法]天一地二也。長三尺，法 天、地、人也。
所以有[冠者何]? 冠者、蜷也，所以幐持其髮也。人懷五常，莫不貴德，示 成禮有修飾[文章]，[故制冠以飾]首，別成人也。《士冠經》曰:"冠而字之，敬 其名也。"《論語》曰:"冠者五六人，童子六七人。"禮所以十九見正(者)而冠 [者] 何?漸三十之人耳。男子陽也，成於陰，故二十而冠。《曲禮》曰:"二十 弱、冠。" 言見正何?以知不謂正月也。以《禮·士冠經》曰:"夏葛屨。" "冬皮屨。"明非歲之正月也。
麻冕者何?周宗廟之冠也。《禮》曰:"周冕而祭。"又曰:"殷冔、夏收而祭。"此三代宗廟之冠也。十一月之時，陽氣冕仰黃皋之下，萬物被施[如冕]，前冕而後仰，故謂之冕[也]。謂之(詡) [冔]者，十二月之時，施氣受化詡張，而後得牙，故謂之(詡)[尋]。謂之收者，十三月之時，[陽]氣收本，舉生萬物而達出之,故謂之收。冕仰不同，故前後乖也。詡張故萌大，時物亦牙萌大也。收而達，故前蔥，大者在後，時物亦前惹也。挽所以用麻為之者，女功之始，(亦)[示]不忘本也。即不忘本，不用皮[何]?皮乃太古未有禮文之服。故《論語》曰:"麻冕，禮也。"《尚書》[曰]:"王麻冕。"冕所以前後遂延者何?示進賢退不能也。垂旎者，示不(現)[視]邪:纊塞耳，示不聽讒也。故水清無魚，人察無徒，明不尚極知下。故《禮》[曰]:"[天子]玉藻(曰)十有二旒，前後遂延。"《禮器》 曰:"天子麻冕朱綠藻，垂十有二旒者，法四時十二月也。諸侯九旒，大夫七旒，士爵 弁無旒。"
委兒者、何謂也?周朝廷理政事、行道德之冠名。《士冠經》曰:"委兒周道， 章甫殷道，毋追夏后氏之道。"所以謂之委兒何?周統十一月為正，萬物[始]萌小， 故為冠飾最小，故曰委貌委貌者、[言]委曲有貌也。殷統十二月為正，其飾微大， 故日章甫。章甫者、尚未與極其本相當也。夏者統十三月為正，其飾最大，故曰毋追。 毋追者、言其追大也。
爵弁者、[何謂也]?[其色如爵頭]，周人宗廟[士]之冠也。《禮·郊特牲》 曰"周弁"。《士冠經》曰" 周弁，殷厚，夏收。"爵何以知指謂其色?又乍言爵弁， 乍但言弁，周之冠色所以爵何?為周尚赤。所以不純赤，但如爵頭何?以本制冠者法 天，天色玄者不失其質，故周加赤，殷加白，夏之冠色純玄。何以知殷加白也?周加 赤，知殷加白也。夏殷士冠不異何? 古質也。以《士冠禮》知之。
XLI. Knee-Covers and Caps
268---The Knee-Cover (IV B. 1a-b).
a.What does fu 'knee-cover' mean? Fu means pi 'to cover' 1; to cover the front [part of the legs] when walking. It is used on [special] occasions to distinguish between the high and the lowly, and to signal out those who have spiritual power. b.The Son of Heaven wears vermillion knee-covers, the Feudal Lords red ones. The Shih says: "His vermillion knee-covers [will be] brilliant, [he will be] the ruler of a Hereditary House" 2. Further it says: "There are red knee-covers and gold-adorned slippers; the meeting [of the Lords] is grand" 3. Again: "There are red knee-covers over their upper-legs" 4. This was all said of the Feudal Lords. The Shu speaks of "Embroidered clothes and light vermillion knee-covers" 5, which was also said of the Feudal Lords. Altogether they made visible the design of their garments, so that they could be distinguished from a distance. What is called 'light vermillion' is the same as 'red' 6. c.Great officers wear green stone-pendants [with their knee-covers], so that they can be distinguished from the Lords. [Thus] a great officer of the Son of Heaven wears red knee-covers with green stone-pendants 7. Common officers wear leather knee-covers dyed [red] 8. d.Vermillion and red are the fullest colours. Therefore the Sages, patterning themselves on them, used them for the knee-covers in their dress, which was not to be changed in a hundred Dynasties 9. e.The knee-cover is made of hide because [the meaning is] to revert to antiquity, so as not to forget the origin. f.Above it has a width of one foot, below of two feet, modelling. itself on Heaven ['s number, which is] one, and on Earth ['s number, which is] two. Its length is three feet, modelling itself on Heaven, Earth, and Man 10.
269---General Remarks on the Capping Ceremony (IV B. 1b-2a).
a.Why [does a man] wear a 'cap' kuan? Kuan means chüan 'to gather' 11. [With the cap] the hair is gathered and secured. b.Man harbours the Five Constant [Virtues], and there is none who does not esteem spiritual power. It means that for the perfection of his rites there should be ornaments and embellishments. Therefore the cap is instituted to adorn the head, so as to distinguish [the former youth] as an adult man. The Shih kuan ching says: "He receives his cap and style that his personal name [may from now on] be respected" 12. The Lun yü says: "Five or six capped young men, and six or seven youths" 13. c.Why is it that according to the rites [a boy may be] capped when he is nineteen, and when there happens to be an 'auspicious moment' chien-cheng14? He is a man who is nearing his twentieth year 15. d.A male belongs to the yang [,but] completes [his manhood] in [the number of] the yin 16. Therefore he is capped at twenty. The ch'ü li says: "At twenty [a man is called] jo 'young'; he is then capped" 17. e.Since the expression chien-cheng is used, how do we know that cheng-yüeh 'the first month of the year' is not meant? Because the Li shih kuan ching says: "[When the capping ceremony takes place in summer] the boy wears hempen shoes, when in winter [he wears] shoes of leather" 18. It means [that the capping does] not always [take place] in the first month of the seasonal year.
270---The Cap of Deer-Skin (IV B. 2a).
a.What does p'i-pien19 'cap of deer-skin' mean? It is the name of the plainest cap, by means of which one models oneself on antiquity. b.Pien means p'an20 'to secure'. With [the deer-skin cap] the hair is secured. The time of the highest antiquity was primitive, and the skin [of beasts] was at first used as clothes. [For the cap of skin] the deer-skin was used because of its ornamentation 21. The Li says: "All the Three Dynasties [Hsia, Yin, and Chou] used the cap of deer-skin and the 'white silk nether-garments gathered at the waist' su-chi" 22. Su-chi means that the silk is 'gathered' chi to serve as nether-garments, that is, it is gathered at the waist. [It represents] the plainest dress which should never be changed: a reverting to antiquity, so as not to forget the origin. It is worn both at war and during the hunt 23.
271---The Designs of the Caps (IV B. 2b-3a).
a.What is the ma-mien24 'hempen cap'? It is the cap [worn] in the ancestral temple under the Chou. The Li says: "The Chou used the mien [cap] at the sacrifice [in the ancestral temple]" 25. It further says: "The Yin used the hsü [cap], the Hsia the shou [cap] at the sacrifice" 26. These were the caps [worn] in the an- cestral temple during [each of] the Three Dynasties. b.In the eleventh month the yang-fluid inclines and tilts up its head, under the Yellow Sources the ten thousand things are being urged [to unfold, and they are tilted up] like a mien [cap], up in front and down at the back. Therefore [the cap is] called mien27. c.The name hsü28 means that in the twelfth month the yang-fluid 29 takes its turn; it 'expands' hsü-chang30 in order afterwards to attain [its strength to make the ten thousand things] sprout out. Therefore [the cap is] called hsü31. d.The name shou means that in the thirteenth month the yang-fluid 'gathers' shou32 its original [strength], and revivifies the ten thousand things, pushing them out. Therefore [the cap is] called shou33. e.The inclining and the tilting-up [of the yang] are not the same; therefore the front and the back [of the mien cap] form an irregularity; in the period [of the eleventh month] the things also [show irregularities 34; the yang] expands; therefore [the hsü cap] greatly 'sprouts out' mêng 萌 35; in the period [of the twelfth month] the things also obtain large 'sprouts' mêng-ya36. [The yang] gathers and drives out; therefore [the shou cap] gathers together 37 at the front and is large at the back; in the period [of the thirteenth month] the things also first gather together [in order to produce their later fruits] 38. f.The mien [cap] is made of hemp because [hemp] represents the first of woman's handicrafts. It indicates that one should not forget the origin. If this be so, why is not skin used? Skin is the apparel used in the highest antiquity when rites and refinement were still lacking. Therefore the Lun yü says: "[The wearing of] the hempen cap is according to the rites" 39. The Shang shu says: "The King put on his hempen cap" 40. g.Why is it that with the mien [cap] from the front and from the back long pendants are suspended from the rectangular level on top 41? It indicates the promotion of the worthy and the rejection of the unable. The hanging beads mean that [the wearer] closes his eyes to perversities and shuts his ears [to calumnies]; it indicates that he does not listen to vilifications 42. Therefore: if water is [too] clear it will have no fish, if man is [too] critical, he will have no company 43. It means that [the superior] should not value an over-exact knowledge of the inferior. Therefore the Li says: "The Son of Heaven wears twelve long pendants of beads of jade hanging down from the rectangular level on top before and behind" 44. The Li ch'i says: "The Son of Heaven wears a hempen cap with twelve pendants of vermillion and green beads of jade, modelling himself on the four seasons and the twelve months; the Feudal Lords have nine, the great officers seven pendants; the common officers wear a chüeh-pien without pendants" 45.
272---The Wei-Mao, The Mou-Tui, and the Chang-Fu (IV B. 3a-b).
a.What is the wei-mao? It is the name of the cap worn in the Chou court when regulating the affairs of state and putting in practise the spiritual power [which proceeds] from the Way. The Shih kuan ching says: "The wei-mao was in use with the Chou, the chang-fu with the Yin, the mou-tui with the Hsia" 46. b.Why [is the cap of the Chou] called wei-mao? The Chou took for the regulation [of the year] the eleventh month as the beginning. The ten thousand things [then] begin to form small buds. Therefore for the cap-ornament the smallest [shape is taken], which is for that reason called wei-mao. Wei-mao means having the shape of something 'small and petty' wei-ch'ü47. c.The Yin took for the regulation [of the year] the twelfth month as the beginning. The ornament [of the Yin cap] is a little larger; therefore it is called chang-fu. Chang-fu means not yet having fully reached the standard of the origin. d.The Hsia took for the regulation [of the year] the thirteenth month as the beginning. The ornament [of the Hsia cap] is the largest, therefore it is called mou-tui. Mou-tui means that its size is large 48.
273---The Chuen-Pien (IV B. 3b).
a.What does chüeh-pien mean? [It means that] the colour [of the cap] is like that of the head of the [bird] chüeh49. It is the cap worn in the Chou by the common officer [when he assisted] in the ancestral temple. The Li chiao t'ê shêng says: "Under the Chou [the cap was called] pien" 50. The Shih kuan ching says: "Under the Chou [the cap was called] pien; under the Yin hsü; under the Hsia shou" 51. b.How do we know that chüeh denotes the colour? Because sometimes [the cap is] called chüeh-pien, sometimes only pien. Why is the colour of the cap under the Chou [the colour of the bird] chüeh? Because the Chou honoured [the colour] red. Why is it not plain red, but [the colour of] the head of the chüeh [bird]? Because originally the design of the caps modelled itself on Heaven, whose colour is black; [it was desirable that] its substantial nature should not be neglected. Therefore the Chou added red [to the black colour of Heaven], the Yin added white [to it], whereas the colour of the cap under the Hsia was plain black. How do we know that the Yin added white? As the Chou [,honouring the colour red,] had added red so we know that the Yin [,honouring the colour white,] added white 52. c.Why is it that before 53 the Hsia and the Yin the [cotton] caps of the common officer were indifferently [used for all occasions]? It is because [the custom in the highest] antiquity was primitive. We know it from the Shih kuan li54.
1. fu 紼 (also written 市, 芾, 紱, 韍, 茀); pi 蔽.
2. Ode 189: Mao shih chu shu, 18.30a; L. 306; K. 16.233. This quotation must be taken as a proof that the Son of Heaven wears vermillion knee-covers, though it is not so stated in the text. In fact, Sun Hsing-yen, quoting this Po hu t'ung passage in his Shang shu chin ku wên chu shu (25.35), adds after the quotation: "this was said of the Son of Heaven." It refers to the son of King Hsüan of Chou (827-782).
3. Ode 179: ibid., 17.39b; L. 289; K. 16.230.
4. Ode 222: ibid., 22.7a; L. 402; K. 16.252.
5. 黼 韍 衣 黃 朱 紼 . In this form the quotation does not occur in the present Shang shu, but in ch. K'ang wang chih kao of the Book of History (ch. Ku ming in the New Text version) there is the sentence: 皆 布 乘 黃 朱, translated by Legge as: "They then caused their teams of light bay horses, with red manes and tails, to be exhibited" (Shang shu chu shu, 18.1b; L. 562). It appears that the quotation in the Po hu t'ung is the New Text version of the present Shang shu passage, see Shang shu chin ku wên chu shu, 25.35. Karlgren, following the New Text version, therefore translates (K. 21.171): "They all had black-and-white-figured (robes) and knee-covers which were yellow and red" (the translation of huang-chu (see n. 6) by 'yellow and red' does not, however, fit in the Po hu t'ung context; Ch êng Hsüan's comm. on Ode 189 (see n. 2) says that the Son of Heaven wears 純 朱'pure vermillion' knee-covers, the Feudal Lords huang-chu 'yellowish vermillion', i.e. 'light vermillion' ones).
6. 'Light vermillion' 黃 朱 huang-chu; 'red' 赤 ch'ih. The meaning is that the colour for both knee-covers is vermillion, only that of the Feudal Lords' is lighter, 'reddish'. Cf. Cheng Hsüan's comm. on the Ch'ien tso tu,上, 12a (Ku ching chieh hui han ed.).
7. Cf. ch. Yü tsao of the Li chi (C.I. 702).
8. mei-chia, see Vol. I, p. 285, n. 128.
9. An almost similar passage occurs in the Ch'ien tso tu, , 11b.
10. Cf. ch. Yü tsao, I.c. (see n. 7). For the numbers of Heaven and Earth see ch. Hsi tz'u of the I ching (L. 365).
11. 冠,? (此字為 左“巾”右 “卷”)(帣) , (or ).
12. I li chu shu, Shih kuan li, Chi, 1.45a; C. 23.
13. Ch. XI. 25, Lun yü chu shu, 11.13a; L. 248.
14. 見 正 . Chêng here means 善shan (see Chêng Hsüan's comm. in I li chu shu, Shih hun li, 1.40b). Cf. infra, under e.
15. 三 十 should be 二 十(Ch'ên, 10.29b).
16. Cf. Vol. I, p. 245, par. 237a-b.
17. Li chi chu shu, 1.12a; C. I. 8.
18. I li chu shu, Shih kuan li, Chi, 1.46b; C. 23. Cf. n. 14.
19. 皮 弁 .
20. 攀 . Chêng Hsüan's comm. (I li chu shu, 1.46a) explains pien as 槃 p'an, which he again glosses as 大 ta 'large'. Ancient pronunciations *b'ĭbinv;an/b'ĭbinv;an/ pien; *p'wan/p'wan/ p'an; *b'wân/b'uân/p'an (Gr. Ser. nos. 220a, 263d, 182d).
21. I.e. 'spotted', the expression for which is 綦 ch'i (Book of History, Ku ming, L. 556), also written 騏 (Ode 152; L. 223).
22. I li chu shu, Shih kuan li, Chi, 1.46b; C. 23. Cf. Vol. I, p.314, n. 242.
23. Cf. Chou li chu shu, Ssŭ fu, 21.10a; B. II. 7, and Ho Hsiu's comm. on Ch'êng 2 and Chao 25 (Kung yang chu shu, 17.5a; 24.12a). See also ch. X, n. 14.
24. 麻 冕 .
25. Li chi chu shu, Wang chih, 13.23a; C. I. 317.
27. 冕 , which is homophonous with 俛 mien (also pronounced fu) 'to incline the head'. The eleventh month is the first month of the year under the Chou, see ch. XXVII, par. 176d-e.
28. 冔 .
29. Ch'ên's reading (10.31a) instead of 施 in Lu's ed.
30. 詡 張 .
31. 收 The twelfth month is the first month of the year under the Yin.
33. The thirteenth month is the first month of the year under the Hsia.
34. 时 物 亦 … 也 ..., some such Passage should be inserted acc. to Liu (74.4b).
36. 萌 芽 instead of ya-m êng (Liu, ibid.).
37. 總 tsung instead of 蔥 (ibid.).
38. The meaning of this paragraph is not very clear. Acc. to the Tu tuan (下. 12a-b) the cap used by the Chou, which was called chüeh-pien (see infra, par. 273), was black-and-red coloured, small at the front and large at the back; that used by the Yin (the hsü) was black with a little white, large at the front and small at the back; that used by the Hsia (the shou) was black, small at the front and large at the back. Thus we may understand the large front of the hsü as indicating the 'large sprouts', and the small front of the shou as indicating the 'gathering together'.
39. Ch. IX. 3, Lun yü chu shu, 9.2a; L. 217. The meaning probably is that the wearing of the hempen cap was already old in Confucius' days so that he, in the same Lun yü passage, also mentioned the new fashion of wearing silk ones.
40. Shang shu chu shu, Ku ming, 17.29b; L. 557. By the King is meant King K'ang of the Chou (1078-1053).
41. 前 後 邃 延 , see ch. Yü tsao of the Li chi (chu shu, 29.1a; C.I. 677).
42. For a somewhat similar statement see the Li wei han wên chia (Yü han, 54.20a).
43. Cf. Ta tai li chi, Tzŭ chang ju kuan, 8.3b; Chia yü, Ju kuan, 5.18b.
44. See n. 41.
45. The text of the Li chi (chu shu, 23.15b; C. I. 549) is different. For the chüeh-pien see infra, par. 273.
46. I li chu shu, Shih kuan li, Chi, 1.45b; C. 23. Wei-mao 委 貌 , chang-fu 章 甫, mou-tui 毋 追 (in Vol. I, p. 79 and the Table of Contents, p. 214, I wrongly transcribed mou-chui; mou is also written 牟).
47. 委 曲 .
48. 言 其 追 大 也 . My translation is tentative. Tui (in mou-tui) is explained by Chêng Hsüan as 堆 tui 'mass', 'pile' (I li chu shu, 1.45b).
49. 爵 , also written 雀(Book of History, Ku ming; L. 556). Cf. also Legge's note in his translation of the Mêng tzŭ, IVa. 9 (p. 300).
50. Li chi chu shu, 26.17b; C. I. 604.
51. I li chu shu, Shih kuan li, Chi, 1.46a; C. 23.
52. Cf. n. 38. For the colours of the Three Dynasties see ch. XXVII, par 176d-e.
53. Insertion suggested by Ch'ên (10.34a).
54. The meaning of this statement, when we compare it with the commentaries on a passage in the I li (chu shu, Shih kuan li, Chi, 1.44b, corresponding with a passage in ch. Chiao t'e shêng, Li chi chu shu, 26.17a), probably is the following: In the highest antiquity, in the time of Yao and Shun and earlier, the cap used was of white cloth, which was dyed black during a time of fasting and abstinence; there were, however, no different caps for celebrations and mourning. Under the Three Dynasties three caps were given to a youth at the capping ceremony: first a black cap of cloth, then the p'i-pien, lastly the chüeh-pien. The first cap now was 'to honour antiquity', it need not further be worn after the ceremony; during mourning, however, a white cap of cloth was used.
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