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The Ancestral Temple (Lu, 1b-3b; Ch'ên, 12. 5a-13b).

The King erects an 'Ancestral Temple' tsung-miao 宗 廟 1 where he can serve the dead according to the same principle as he served the living; thus his filial piety is expressed and continued.

The tsung-miao 尊 貌 represents the 'venerable appearance' tsun-mao2 of the ancestors.

The temple has 'apartments' shih3.

The sacrifice in the Ancestral Temple consists of the ti and the hsia sacrifices. The ti sacrifice emphasizes the 'ranging' ti of the shrines of fathers and sons 禘, 諦 4; the hsia sacrifice emphasizes the 'collective' ho offering to the ancestral tablets in the general shrine 5 祫, 合.

Every three years there is a ti sacrifice 6.

The Chou had a temple with seven shrines, in which Hou-chi was sacrificed to as the 'First Ancestor' shih-tsu, King Wên as the 'Great Ancestor' t'ai-tsu, King Wu as the 'Great Exemplar' t'ai-tsung7.

In the ti and hsia sacrifices the general shrine is included.

In one year there are four sacrifices to the ancestors: in spring the sacrifice is called tz'ŭ, in summer yüeh, in autumn ch'ang, in winter chêng8.

In spring scallions and eggs are offered, in summer wheat and fish, in autumn millet and pork, in winter rice and goose (Wang chih).

The Feudal Lords announce the first day of the month in the Ancestral Temple.

At the sacrifice there is a tablet to which the filial son can attach his feelings of affection for the deceased.

The Hsia used a tablet of the wood of the 'pine' sung, so as to 'stimulate themselves' sung-tung' 9; the Yin used a tablet of the wood of the 'cypress' po, so as to 'urge themselves' po-ts'u 柏, 迫 促 10; the Chou used a tablet of the wood of the 'chestnut' li, so as to 'inspire themselves with awe' chan-li 栗, 戰 慄 11 (Lun yü).

The tablet is of wood, which resembles man in its growing and decaying, and it is inscribed.

The tablet is one foot square; another opinion says it is one foot two inches long.

At the 虞 sacrifice 12, which takes place after the return from the grave at noon, a tablet of the wood of the mulberry-tree is constructed.

At the lien 練sacrifice 13 a tablet of the wood of the chestnut is used. The tablet with its case is deposited at the western wall.

At the sacrifice there is an 'impersonator' shih14, who is served with food and drink as if he were the living father (Shih).

The King uses a Minister as impersonator, not a Ducal Minister (Tsêng tzŭ).

At the sacrifice to the T'ai-shan the Duke of Chou used the Duke of Shao as impersonator.


1. .

2. .

3. .

4. .

5. .

6. Supplied by Ch'ên, cf. Vol. I, p. 39.

7. 始 祖, 太 祖, 太 宗 .

8. 祠, 禴, 嘗, 烝 .

9. 松, 竦 動 .

10. .

11. .

12. .

13. .

14. 尸.

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IATHPublished by The Institute for Advanced Technology in the Humanities, © Copyright 2003 by Anne Kinney and the University of Virginia