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所以制朝聘之禮何?以尊君父,重孝道也。夫臣之事君,猶子之事父,欲全臣子之恩, 一統尊君,故必朝聘也。

聘者、問也。緣臣子欲知其署父無恙,又當奉土地所生珍物以助祭, 是以皆得行聘問之禮也。

謂之朝何? 朝者、見也。五年一朝,備文德而明禮籤也。因用朝時見, 故謂之朝。言諸侯當時朝于天子。


朝禮奈何?諸侯將至京師,使人通命于天子,天子遭大夫迎之百里之郊,遣世子迎之五十里之郊矣。《覲禮經》曰:"至于郊,王使人皮弁用璧勞。"《尚書大傅》曰: "天子太子年十八曰盂侯,于四方諸侯來朝,迎于郊。"

諸侯來朝,天子親與之合瑞信者何? 正君臣,重法度也。《覲禮經》曰:"侯氏坐取圭,升致命,王受之玉。"《尚書》曰:" 輯五瑞。"

諸侯相朝聘何? 為相尊敬也。故諸侯朝聘,天子無恙,法度得無變更, 所以考禮、正刑、壹德以尊天子也。

公執玉,取其暢達也。卿執羔,取其跪乳有禮也。《書》曰: "五玉三帛,二生一死贄。"至正月朔日,乃執而朝賀其君,朝賀以正月何? 歲首意氣改新,欲長相保,重本正始也。故群臣執繁而朝賀其君。

朝禮奈何?君出居內門之外,天子揖諸侯持揖,卿大夫膝下至地。天子特揖三公· 面揖卿,略揖大夫士。所以不拜何? 為其屈尊也。

Audiences (Lu, 3b-4b; Ch'ên, 12.13b-14b).

The institution of 'audiences' ch'ao-p'ing is to honour the Lord and father and emphasize the filial way.

P'ing means wên 'to inquire' 1; the subject wishes to assure himself that his Lord is in good health.

Ch'ao means hsien 'to appear' 2; in five years there is one ch'ao audience, on which occasion one's spiritual power and ritual behaviour may appear in their fullness.

The ch'ao audience takes place in the first month of summer, the fourth month of the year.

When a Feudal Lord on his ch'ao audience is about to reach the capital he sends an envoy to communicate his mission to the Son of Heaven; the Son of Heaven sends a great officer to welcome him in the suburb, one hundred li from the capital, and the Heir to welcome him in the suburb, fifty li from the capital (Chin li ching; Shang shu ta chuan).

At the ch'ao audience the Son of Heaven personally gives to the Feudal Lords the tally of the Auspicious Token of Good Faith (Chin li ching; Shang shu).

The Feudal Lords pay 'court-visits' ch'ao-p'ing to each other as an expression of mutual esteem.

A Duke gives presents of jade, a Minister a lamb (Shu). It is on the first day of the first month that they go with their presents to congratulate their Lords.

The ritual at a ch'ao audience is that the Lord goes out and installs himself outside the inner gate; the Son of Heaven bows to the Feudal Lords and the Ducal Ministers one by one, to the Ministers collectively, to the great officers and common officers cursorily; the common officers are not saluted with the hands 3.


1. 聘, 問 .

2. 朝, 見.

3. The whole sentence is supplied by Ch'ên.

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IATHPublished by The Institute for Advanced Technology in the Humanities, © Copyright 2003 by Anne Kinney and the University of Virginia