<Previous Section>
<Next Section>


天子之堂高九尺,天子尊,故極陽之數九尺也。堂之為曾明也,所以明禮義也 《禮記》曰:"天子之堂九尺,諸侯七尺,大夫五尺,士三尺。"




闕者何? 闕疑也。

所以設屏何? 屏、所以自障也。示不極臣下之敬也。天子德大,故外屏。諸侯小, 所照見近,故內屏。

囿、天子百里,大國四十里,次國三十里,小國二十里。苑囿所以在東方何? 苑囿、餮萬物者也,東方、物所以生也。《詩》云:"東有圃草。"





諸侯稱負子。大夫稱負薪。士稱犬馬。不豫者、不復豫政也。 子者、諸侯子民今不復子之也。負薪、犬馬,皆謙也。





鳥所以飛何? 鳥者、陽也。飄輕、故飛也。

Miscellany (Lu, 6b-8a; Ch'ên, 12. 22b-26b).

Huang-ti created palaces and houses to escape from cold and heat. Kung 'palace' means chung 'within' 1.

The hall of the Son of Heaven is nine feet high. T'ang 'hall' means ming 'bright' 堂 明 2 (Li chi).

There are four gates opening to the outside (Li san ch'ao chi).

There are 'lobbies' shu by the gate, where the subjects, visiting their Lord, may 'ripely' shu reflect on their tasks 3.

There are 'towers' ch'üeh on the gates, as an adornment and to distinguish between the high and the lowly 4.

Ch'üeh means i 'to be on the alert' 5.

The 'screen-wall' p'ing6 in front of the gate is to shelter oneself. The Son of Heaven has a screen-wall for the outer gate, a Feudal Lord one for the inner gate.

The park of the Son of Heaven is one hundred li square, that of a Lord of a large state forty li, that of a Lord of a smaller state thirty li, that of a Lord of a small state twenty li square. The park is situated in the east (Shih).

The walls of the palace of the Son of Heaven are called ch'ung-ch'êng; ch'ung means kao 'high' 7; those of the Feudal Lords are called kan-ch'êng because they do not 'dare' kan to act of their own accord 8.

The son of Kung-kung was called Hsiu 9; he was fond of roaming about, and went wherever boat or carriage might carry him or his legs lead him; he is worshipped as the 'Spirit of the Roads' tsu-shên10.

'Abstinence' chai11 means the concentration of one's mind to the achievement of clarity.

When the Son of Heaven is ill one speaks of pu-yü, when a Feudal Lord is ill one speaks of fu-tzŭ12.

When a great officer is ill one speaks of fu-hsin, when a common officer is ill one speaks of ch'üan-ma13.

Towards the winter-solstice the Noble Man rests his body, the officials stop their work, and no governmental affairs are attended to.

The Hsia counted the days by tens, and the foot measured ten inches. The Yin had twelve months in a year, and the foot measured twelve inches. The Chou flourished by applying the principle of Earth, which is yin, and modelled themselves on woman, whose hands cover a surface of eight inches; the foot measured eight inches.

A man's 'half-pace' chien14 is three feet.

The Hsia is denoted by the term hou 'lords', the Yin and the Chou are denoted by the term jên 'people' 15.

Birds fly because they belong to the yang.


1. 宮, 中.

2. .

3. 塾, 熟 .

4. This sentence is supplied by Ch'ên.

5. 闕, 疑.

6. 屏.

7. 崇 城, 高 .

8. 干 丨, 敢.

9. 修.

10. 祖 神.

11. 齊.

12. 不 豫, 負 子.

13. 負 薪, 犬 馬,; this sentence is supplied by Ch'ên.

14. 踐 .

15. 后, 人.

<Previous Section>
<Next Section>
IATHPublished by The Institute for Advanced Technology in the Humanities, © Copyright 2003 by Anne Kinney and the University of Virginia