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五祀者、何謂也? 謂門、戶、井、竈、中霤也。 所以祭 [之] 何? 人之所 [居] 處、出入，所飲食，故為神而祭之。 何以知五祀謂門、戶、井、竈、中霤也? 《月令》曰: "其祀戶。" 又曰: " 其祀竈。" "其祀中霤。" "其祀鬥。" "其祀井。"
獨大夫已上得祭之何? 士者位卑祿薄，但祭其先祖耳。《禮》曰: "天子祭天地，諸侯祭山川，卿大夫祭五祀，士祭其祖。" 《曲禮》曰: " [天子祭]天地、四時、山川、五祀，歲遍。 諸侯方[伯]祀山川、[祭]五祀，歲遍。 卿大夫祭五祀。士祭其先。[凡祀] : [有廢之莫敢舉也]，[有犖之莫敢廢也]，非所當祭而祭之名曰淫祀。淫祀無福。"
祭五祀所以歲一偏何? 順五行也。 故春即祭戶。戶者、人所出入，亦春萬物始觸戶而出也。 夏祭[竈]。 竈者、火之主，人所以自養也。 夏亦火王，長養萬物。 秋祭門。鬥以閉藏自固也。 秋亦萬物成熟，內備自守也。 冬祭井。 井者、水之生，藏 (任) [在] 地中。 冬亦水王，萬物伏藏。 六月祭中霤。 中霤者、象土在中央也。 六月亦土王也。 故《月令》春言共祀戶，祭先脾； 夏言其祀竈，祭先肺；秋言其祀門，祭先肝; 冬言其祀井，祭先腎。中央言其祀中霤，祭先心。 春祀戶，祭所以 (時) [特]先脾者何? 脾者、土也，春木王煞土，故以所勝祭之也。 是冬腎六月心，非所勝也。 以祭何? 以為土位在中央，至尊，故祭以心。心者、藏之尊者。 水最卑，不得食其所勝。
祭五祀，天子諸侯以牛，卿大夫以羊，因 (曰) [四] 時 [祭] 牲也。 一說戶以羊，竈以雉，中霤以豚，門以犬，井以豕。 或曰: 中霤用牛，(餘) 不得 [用牛者] 用豚。井以魚。
IV. The Five Deities
25---General Remarks. (I A. 18a).
What is meant by the Five Deities 1? They are the outer door, the inner door, the well, the hearth, and the impluvium 2. Why are they worshipped? Because they are the places where men dwell, by which they go in and out, and where they drink and eat. Therefore they are worshipped as spirits. How do we know that the Five Deities are called outer door, inner door, well, hearth, and impluvium? The Yüeh ling says: "[In spring] they sacrifice to the inner door, [in summer] to the hearth, [in the middle of the year] to the impluvium, [in autumn] to the outer door, and [in winter] to the well" 3.
26---Those with the Rank of Great Officer and Higher Have the Right to Sacrifice. (I A. 18a-b).
Why is it that only [those with the rank of] great officer and higher have the right to sacrifice [to the Five Deities]? A common officer has a lowly position and a meagre renumeration, [so] he only sacrifices to his ancestors. The Li says: "The Son of Heaven sacrifices to Heaven and Earth, the Feudal Lords sacrifice to the mountains and rivers, the Ministers and great officers to the Five Deities, the common officers sacrifice to their ancestors" 4. The Ch'ü li hsia chi5 says: "The Son of Heaven sacrifices to Heaven and Earth, to the Four Cardinal Points, to the mountains and rivers, and to the Five Deities, all in the course of the year. The Feudal Lords sacrifice to the spirits of their territory, to the mountains and rivers, and to the Five Deities, all in the course of the year. The Ministers and great officers sacrifice to the Five Deities, the common officers sacrifice to their ancestors. There should be no presuming to resume any sacrifice which has been abolished [by proper authority], nor to abolish any which has been so established. A sacrifice which it is not proper to offer, and which yet is offered, is called a licentious sacrifice. A licentious sacrifice brings no blessing".
27---The Five Deities are in Accordance with the Five Elements. (I A. 18b-19a).
a.Why are the Five Deities successively sacrificed to in the course of the year? They follow [the succession of] the Five Elements. Therefore in spring a sacrifice is offered to the inner door; through the inner door men go in and out, and it is also in spring 6 that the ten thousand things begin to knock against the inner door [of the earth] to get out. In summer a sacrifice is offered to the hearth; the hearth is the origin of fire, and it is there that men [prepare their food to] nourish themselves; in summer also it is fire which governs: it grows and nourishes the ten thousand things. In autumn a sacrifice is offered to the outer door; the outer door, by being closed, conceals and keeps man in safety; it is also in autumn that the ten thousand things develop to maturity while preparing and guarding themselves within [the earth]. In winter a sacrifice is offered to the well; the well is the source of water, which lies hidden beneath the earth; in winter also it is water which governs: in it the ten thousand things lie in concealment. In the sixth month a sacrifice is offered to the impluvium; the impluvium resembles [a heap of] earth in the middle of the house; in the sixth month also it is earth which governs. b.So the Yüeh ling under "Spring" says that a sacrifice is given to the inner door, while the spleen [of the victim] is offered first; under "Summer" it says that a sacrifice is given to the hearth, while the lungs [of the victim] are offered first; under "Autumn" it says that a sacrifice is given to the outer door, while the liver [of the victim] is offered first; under "Winter" it says that a sacrifice is given to the well, while the kidneys [of the victim] are offered first; under "Middle [of the year]" it says that a sacrifice is given to the impluvium, while the heart [of the victim] is offered first. c.Why is it that in spring, at the sacrifice to the inner door, the spleen is especially offered first? The spleen belongs to [the element] earth. In spring wood is 'king', and it 'kills' earth. Therefore that which is conquered is sacrificed 7. d.Why is it that in winter the kidneys are offered and in the sixth month the heart, whereas they do not belong to the [elements which are] conquered? Earth occupies the centre, and represents the most honoured [element], therefore it is offered the heart, which is the principal part of the intestines. Water occupies the lowest [position], and has nothing to conquer for its sacrifice 8.
28---The Victims Used at the Sacrifice. (I A. 19a).
a.At the sacrifice to the Five Deities the Son of Heaven and the Feudal Lords use a bull, the Ministers and great officers use a ram. The offering of the victims [varies] according to the four seasons. b.Another opinion says: a ram is sacrificed to the inner door, a fowl 9 to the hearth, a sucking-pig to the impluvium, a dog to the outer door, a pig to the well. c.Others say that to the impluvium a bull is sacrificed, and if a bull is not available, a sucking-pig; to the well fish is sacrificed.
1. 五 祀 wu-ssŭ.
2. 門 mên,戶 hu, 井 ching, 竈tsao, 中 霤 chung-liu.
3. Li chi chu shu, 14.6b ff.; C. I. 331-354. 372. 373. 391. Instead of 'well' the Yüeh ling has 'lane' 行hsing.
4. Li chi chu shu, Wang chih, 12.18a; C. I. 289.
5. I.e. ch. Ch'ü li, second part, of the Li chi (chu shu, 5.19a-21a; C. I. 99-100; L. I. 116).
6. 春 亦 . In the text the order is reversed.
7. The correspondencies are: spring-wood-liver; middle of the year-earth-spleen; winter-water-kidneys; summer-fire-heart; autumn-metal-lungs. The elements are taken in the order of their conquering each other. In spring (wood) the spleen is offered, which belongs to the element earth, conquered by wood. In summer (fire) the lungs are offered, which belong to the element metal, conquered by fire. In autumn (metal) the liver is offered, which belongs to the element wood, conquered by metal. In the text the passage explaining the sacrifices in summer and in autumn seems to have dropped. For winter and middle of the year see next note.
8. According to the system referred to in the previous note the sacrifice in winter (water) should be the heart, which belongs to the element fire, conquered by water. The sacrifice in the middle of the year (earth) should be the kidneys, which belong to the element water, conquered by earth. However, in these two cases a deviation from the system is made. Earth, being the highest element, is offered the heart, the principal part of the intestines. Water, being the lowest element, is offered the kidneys, belonging to water itself.
9. 雞 chi, which is Lu's correction of the original reading 雉chih 'pheasant'. Hung I-hsüan (Tu shu ts'ung lu, 16.15b) prefers 'pheasant'.
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|Published by The Institute for Advanced Technology in the Humanities, © Copyright 2003 by Anne Kinney and the University of Virginia|