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王者所以有社稷何? 為天下求福報功。 人非土不立，非穀不食，土地廣博，不可偏敬也。 五穀眾多，不可一一而祭也。 故封土立社，示有土尊、五穀之長，故封稷而祭之也。《尚書》日: " 乃社于新邑。"《孝經》曰: "保其社稷而和其民人。 蓋諸侯之孝也。" 稷者、得陰陽中和之氣，而用尤多，故為長也。
歲再祭 [之] 何? 春求(穀) [秋] [報] 之義也。 故《月令》“仲春之月，擇元日，命人社。" 《援神契》曰:" 仲 (春) [秋] 獲禾，報社祭稷。"
[祭社稷] 以三牲何? 重功故也。《尚書》曰:" 乃社于新邑，羊一，牛一，豕一。"《(工)[王] 制》曰:" 天子社種皆大牢，諸侯社稷皆韁少牢。" 宗廟俱大牢，社稷獨少牢何? 宗廟大牢、所以廣孝遵也。 社稷為報功，諸侯一國所報者少故也。 [《孝經》曰]:"[保其社稷而和其民人]。[蓋諸侯之孝也]。"
王者諸侯 [所以]俱兩社何? 俱有(上) [土]之君[也]。[故]《禮記三正》曰:" 王者二社。 為天下立(禮) [社]曰太社，自為立社曰王社; 諸侯為百姓立社曰國社，自為立社曰侯社。" 大社為天下報功，王祉為京師報功[也]。太社尊於王社，土地久，故而報之"。
王者諸侯必有誠社何? 示有存亡也。明為善者得之，[為]惡者失之。 故《春秋 ( 公羊傳》曰:" 亡國之社，奄其上，柴其下。"《郊特牲 [記] 》曰:" 喪國之社屋之。" (自) (言) [示] 與天地絕也。 在門東，明 (自下)[示斥]之無事處也。或曰: 皆當著明誡，當近君，置宗廟之牆南。《禮》曰:" 亡國之祉稷，必以為宗廟之屏。" 示賤之也。
社稷在中門之外，外門之內何? 尊而親之，與先祖同也。 不置中門內何? 敬之，示不褻瀆也。《論語》曰:" 譬諸宮牆，不得其門而入。不見宗廟之美、百官之富。" 《祭義》曰:" 右社稷，左宗廟。"
大夫有民，其有社稷者，亦為報功池。《禮 · 祭法》曰:" 大夫[以下] 成群立社曰置 (在) [社]。"《月令》曰: " 擇元日，命人社。"《論語》曰: " "季路使子羔為費宰。" 曰:" 有民人焉，有社稷焉。" "
不謂之土何? 封土為社，故變名謂之社，別於眾土也。 為(社) [稷]立祀， (治)[即] 謂之稷，語(亦) [不] (自)變，[示]有內外. 或曰: (至) [社] 稷，不以 (稷為) [為稷] 社。 故不變其名，事 (自) [示]可知也。 不正月祭稷何? 禮不常存，養人為用，故立其神。
社無屋何? 達天地氣。 故《郊特牲》曰:" [天子]太社(稷)，必受霜露風雨，以達天地之氣。" 社稷所以有樹何? 尊而識之。 使民人望見 (師) [即] 敬之，又所以表功也。 故《周官》曰:" 司 [徒班] 社而樹之，各以土地所生。" 《尚書》亡篇曰:" 太社唯松，東社唯柏，南社唯梓，西社唯粟，北社唯槐。"
其壇大 (何如) [如何]?《春秋文義》曰:" 天子之社稷廣五丈，諸侯半之。" 其色如何? 《春秋傳》曰:" 天子有太社焉，東方青色，南方赤色，西方白色, 北方黑色，上冒以黃土。 故將封來方諸侯，[取]青土，苴以白茅。[各取某面以為封社]，[明土]謹敬潔清也。"
祭社[稷]有樂[乎]? 《樂記》曰:" 樂之施於金石絲竹，越於聲音，用之於宗廟社稷。"
《曾子問》曰:" 諸侯之祭社稷，俎豆既陳，聞天子崩，如之何? 孔子曰: " 廢。"" 臣子哀痛之，不敢終於禮也。
V. The Gods of the Earth and of the Millet
29---General Remarks. (I A. 19b).
Why is it that the King has a God of the Earth and of the Millet 1? [They are the gods whom he can ask] for prosperity for the benefit of all under Heaven, and whom he can thank for their works. Without land man would not [be able to] sustain himself, without grain he would not [be able to] eat. Land [,however,] is wide and extensive, and cannot be worshipped everywhere. The species of grain are too numerous, and cannot be sacrificed to one by one. Therefore a tumulus of earth is erected for an altar of the God of the Earth in order to make manifest the holder of the earth 2. Millet is the most important of the species of grain. Therefore an altar of the God of the Millet is erected, to which sacrifices are made. The use of millet is most general because it has absorbed the equi-balanced and harmonious influences of the yin and the yang 3. Therefore it is considered the principal [of the species of grain].
30---The Sacrifice Takes Place Twice a Year. (I A. 19b-20a).
Why are there two sacrifices [to the Gods of the Earth and of the Millet] in a year? In spring [the sacrifice] means a request [for prosperity], in autumn it means a thanksgiving [for the received boon]. Therefore the Yüeh ling says: "In the middle month of spring [the Son of Heaven] chooses a favourable day, and orders the people to sacrifice to the God of the Earth. In the middle month of autumn he chooses a favourable day, and orders the people to sacrifice to the God of the Earth" 4. The Yüan shên ch'i says: "In the middle month of spring prayers are presented for the crops, in the middle month of autumn the corn is harvested. Thanks are rendered to the God of the Earth, and a sacrifice is offered to the God of the Millet" 5.
31---The Victims Used at the Sacrifice. (I A. 20a-b).
a.Why is it that at the sacrifice to the Gods of the Earth and of the Millet three victims are used? To emphasize [the gods'] merits. The Shang shu says: "[The Duke of Chou] thereupon sacrificed a bull, a ram, and a pig to the Gods of the Earth and of the Millet in the new city" 6. The Wang chih says: "To the Gods of the Earth and of the Millet the Son of Heaven offers the 'great sacrifice' t'ai-lao, the Feudal Lords offer the 'smaller sacrifice' shao-lao" 7. b.Why [is it that the Feudal Lords] offer the great sacrifice [to the ancestors] in the ancestral temple, and only the smaller sacrifice to the Gods of the Earth and of the Millet? In the ancestral temple the great sacrifice is offered to extend the feelings of filial piety; to the Gods of the Earth and of the Millet thanks are rendered for their works. But the things for which a Feudal Lord in his one state renders thanks are not numerous. That is the reason [why only the smaller sacrifice is given]. The Hsiao ching says: "To preserve the Gods of the Earth and of the Millet and to secure the harmony of their people, this is the filial piety of the Feudal Lords" 8.
32---The Son of Heaven and the Feudal Lords Have Two Altars. (I A. 20b).
Why is it that the King and the Feudal Lords each have two altars of the God of the Earth? Both are Lords holding land. Therefore the Li san chêng chi says: "The King has two altars of the God of the Earth; he erects one altar for all under Heaven, called the 'Great Altar of the God of the Earth' t'ai-shê, and another for himself, called the 'King's Altar of the God of the Earth' wang-shê. The Feudal Lords erect for their Hundred Clans one altar, called the 'State's Altar of the God of the Earth' kuo-shê, and another for themselves, called the 'Feudal Lord's Altar of the God of the Earth 'hou-shê" 9. To the Great Altar thanks are offered for its works on behalf of all under Heaven. To the King's Altar thanks are offered for its works on behalf of the capital. The Great Altar is more honourable than the King's Altar 10. The earth [,constituting all under Heaven,] is extensive, therefore it is thanked [for its merits] at two [altars] 11.
33---The Warning God of the Earth. (I A. 20b-21a).
a.Why must the King and the Feudal Lords have a Warning God of the Earth? 12 To remind that there is preservation and loss, and to indicate that those who do well will succeed and those who do evil will fail. b.Therefore the Ch'un ch'iu kung yang chuan says: "Of the God of the Earth of a vanquished state the upper part is covered, and round the lower part a pallissade is built" 13. The Chiao t'ê shêng chi says: "The God of the Earth of a vanquished state is roofed in" 14. It indicates that it is separated from [the influences of] Heaven and Earth. c.[The Warning God is placed] east of the [second outer] gate [of the palace] 15, to indicate 16 clearly that it has been lowered to a place where it has no [further] function [to perform]. d.Another opinion is: it serves as a clear warning 17, and should be in the vicinity of the Sovereign; it is placed south of the en- closure of the ancestral temple. The Li says: "The Gods of the Earth and of the Millet of a vanquished state must be used as a screen for the ancestral temple" 18. It means that they are treated contemptuously.
34---The Situation of the Altar. (I A. 21a).
Why is the altar of the Gods of the Earth and of the Millet outside the middle and inside the outer gate [of the palace] 19? To honour [the gods] and yet to be near to them. They are [treated in] the same [way] as the ancestors. Why [is the altar] not placed inside the middle gate? To respect it, and to indicate that one should not be too intimate with it. The Lun yü says: "Taking as an illustration a palace with its enclosures: if one cannot enter through the gates, one does not see the beauties of the ancestral temple and the wealth of all the offices" 20. The Chi i says: "To the right there is the altar of the Gods of the Earth and of the Millet, to the left there is the ancestral temple" 21.
35---The Great Officers Have an Altar. (I A. 21 a-b).
A great officer who has people [to govern] has an altar of the Gods of the Earth and of the Millet that he also may thank them for their works [on behalf of his people]. The Li chi fa says: "A great officer, in association with the people who are under him, erects an altar of the Gods of the Earth and of the Millet, which is called the Official God of the Earth" 22. The Lun yü says: "Chi-lu caused Tzŭ-kao to be appointed governor of Pi, saying: He will have people there [to govern], he will have an altar of the Gods of the Earth and of the Millet there [to sacrifice to]" 23.
36---The Meaning of the Name Shê-Chi (I A. 21b).
a. Why [is the altar of the God of the Earth] not called t'u 土 24 'Earth'? A tumulus is made of earth to serve as [the altar of] the God of the Earth. Therefore the name is [then] changed into shê, to distinguish it from earth in general. b. [After the altar of the God of the Earth is erected] an altar for sacrifices to the millet is made, which is then called chi25. The expression is not changed, signifying that there is an inside and an outside 26. c.Another opinion is: the shê-chi is not to be [called] chi-shê. Therefore, the name not being changed, their functions may be known by themselves 27. d. Why is it that a sacrifice is not offered to the God of the Millet in the first month [of the year]? The reason for erecting an altar for its spirit is because the millet is constantly available [throughout the year] to serve as food for man 28.
37---The Altar of the God of the Earth Has a Tree but no Roof. (I A. 21b-22a).
a.Why is it that the altar of the God of the Earth has no roof? To keep it in contact with the fluids of Heaven and Earth. Therefore the Chiao t'ê shêng says: "The Great Altar of the Son of Heaven must [be open to] receive the hoarfrost, the dew, the wind, and the rain, so that it can be in contact with the fluids of Heaven and Earth" 29. b.Why is there a tree on the altar of the Gods of the Earth and of the Millet? That it may [thereby] be honoured and recognized. [Thus] the people may see it from afar and worship it. [The tree is] also the expression of [the god's beneficent] capacities 30. Therefore the Chou kuan says: "The ssŭ-t'u builds the altar for the God of the Earth and plants a tree on it. For each [God of the Earth he uses a tree which] suits the soil" 31. c.The Shang shu i p'ien says: "For the Great Altar of the God of the Earth [the tree] is a pine-tree, for the altars of the God of the Earth in the east it is a cypress, for those of the God of the Earth in the south it is a catalpa, for those of the God of the Earth in the west it is a chestnut, and for those of the God of the Earth in the north it is an acacia" 32.
38---The King Sacrifices in Person (I A. 22a).
Why does the King sacrifice in person to the Gods of the Earth and of the Millet? The God of the Earth is the spirit of the earth. The earth produces the ten thousand things, and is the host of all under Heaven. Out of reverence for it [the King] therefore sacrifices in person.
39---The Altar of the Gods. (I A. 22a-b).
a.What is the size of the altar? The Ch'un ch'iu wên i says: "The altar of the Gods of the Earth and of the Millet of the Son of Heaven is fifty feet wide [on each side], that of the Feudal Lords is one half thereof" 33. b.What is its colour? The Ch'un ch'iu chuan says: "The Son of Heaven has a Great Altar; it is green on the east, red on the south, white on the west, black on the north. The top is covered with yellow earth" 34. c.Thus, when [the Son of Heaven is] going to enfeoff a Feudal Lord [with a territory] in the east, he takes [a clod of] green earth [from his altar], wraps it in a white mao 茅 35 [leaf, and gives it to him]. For each [Feudal Lord receiving a fief the Son of Heaven] takes [earth] from the [corresponding] side [of his altar], with which [the Feudal Lord] constructs the mound for his [own altar of the] God of the Earth. It signifies that [that clod of] earth is to be revered for its purity.
40---The Sacrifice is Accompanied by Music. (I A. 22b).
Is music used at the sacrifice to the Gods of the Earth and of the Millet? The Yüeh chi says: "Music [the instruments of which are] executed in metal and stone, finding its expression in tunes and notes, and used in the ancestral temple and at the altar of the Gods of the Earth and of the Millet" 36.
41---The Discontinuation of the Sacrifice. (I A. 22b).
The Tsêng tzŭ wên says: "If a Feudal Lord is sacrificing to the Gods of the Earth and of the Millet, for which the stands and vessels have already been arranged, and news arrives of the death of the Son of Heaven, what is to be done? Confucius says: [The sacrifice should be] discontinued" 37. When a subject is afflicted with sorrow he dares not continue the rites [of sacrifice] to the end.
1. 社 稷 sh ê-chi.
2. 示 有 士 也 Lu's correction of 土t'u into 尊tsun seems un- necessary.
3. Ts'ai Yung's Yüeh ling chang chü says: "Millet is sowed in autumn, it ripens in summer, it traverses the four seasons and completely [absorbs the influences of] the yin and the yang; it is the most valuable [of the species of] grain" (Huangshih i shu k'ao, 36b). Cf. Vol. I, p. 49.
4. Li chi chu shu, 15.3a; C. I. 341. The Li chi as well as the Yüan ed. of the Po hu t'ung lack the second passage on autumn, which is supplied by Lu following a quotation from the Yüeh ling in the T'ai p'ing yü lan (ch. 532). See further next note.
5. Sun I-jang (Tsa i, 10.1b-2a) agrees with Ch'ên Shou-ch'i's opinion that this quotation should read: "In the middle month of autumn the corn is harvested; thanks are rendered to the God of the Earth, and a sacrifice is offered to the God of the Millet". Further that the second passage on autumn in the Yüen ling quotation (see previous note) should be dropped. I.e., the proof for there being two sacrifices a year is furnished by the Yüeh ling (for spring) and the Yüan sh ên ch'i (for autumn) together. The 'God of the Millet' chi was always associated with the 'God of the Earth' shê, but not the reverse. They were sacrificed to at one altar. Chêng Hsüan says that the chi is a 'detail' of the shê (cf. Waley, The Analects, 246, n. 1). Under Wang Mang a separate cult for the chi was established, and Kuang-wu-ti had a shê without chi. From that time on the shê- and chi-altars were separated (Liu Pao-nan, Lun yü Chêng i, 14.43).
6. Shang shu chu shu, Shao kao, 14.4a; L. 423.
7. Li chi chu shu, 12.23b; C. I. 291. The 太 牢t'ai-lao consists of a bull, a ram, and a pig (suovetaurilia); the少 牢 shao-lao consists of a ram and a pig. To the God of the Earth the raw flesh is offered, called shên 脤because it is put in the shell of oysters shên 蜃(cf. Chavannes, Le dieu du sol dans la Chine antique, in Le T'ai chan, 517, n. 2).
8. Hsiao ching chu shu, Chu hou, 2.1a; L. 468.
9. The quotation is from an untransmitted chapter of the collection of rites. A somewhat similar statement occurs in ch. Chi fa of the Li chi (C. II. 265).
10. It was the King's God of the Earth which was taken on military expeditions; it was never accompanied by the God of the Millet (Chavannes, o.c. 448).
11. Ch'ên (3.3a): 土 地 大 (inst. of 久) 故 兩(inst. of而 )報 之 .
12. 誡 社 chieh-shê. The cult of this vanquished god formed part of the official rites. It was the 'funeral-priest' sang-chu 喪 祝who was charged with it (Chavannes, o.c. 461).
13. Kung yang chu shu, Ai 4, 27.11 a.
14. Li chi chu shu, 25.22b; C. I. 586. The Li chi text continues: "[so that] it does not receive the brightness and warmth of Heaven".
15. The gate here referred to is the k'u-mên (cf. n. 19) and gives entrance to the second court from outside (not the third as Chavannes, o.c. 447, n. 1, remarks). The god of the ruling Sovereign stands west of the gate, i.e. on the right of it (see the sub-comm. on the Chiao t'ê shêng, Li chi chu shu, 25.25b).
16. 自 should be 示(Sun I-jang, Tsa i, 10.2a).
17. 皆 當 is superfluous (Lu).
18. Not to be identified. A somewhat similar statement is given in the Ku liang chuan, Ai 4 (Ku liang chu shu, 20.9b).
19. The Son of Heaven had five gates: the kao-mên 皋 門, the k'u-mên 庫丨, the chih-mên 雉丨, the ying-mên 應丨, and the lu-mên 路丨, enumerated from outside. The Feudal Lords had three: the kao-mên, the ying-m ên, and the lu-mên. In the state of Lu they were called k'u-mên, chih-mên, and lu-mên (cf. M.H. V. 408, n. 1, where the enumeration is different). With the Son of Heaven the middle gate was the chih-mên, and the (second) outer gate the k'u-mên; the same was in Lu, whereas with the other Feudal Lords the middle gate was the ying-mên, and the outer gate the kao-mên (sub-comm. in Chou li chu shu, 7.24a). The (Great) Altar of the God of the Earth (of the reigning King) stood to the right or west, and the ancestral temple to the left or east between the k'u-mên and the chih-mên (Chou li chu shu, Hsiao tsung po, 19.1a); cf. also n. 21.
20. Ch. XIX. 23 (Lun yü shu, 19.7b; L. 347).
21. Li chi chu shu, 48.17b; C. II. 316. I.e., right and left between the second and the third gates from outside (cf. n. 19). This situation applies to the Great Altar, which together with the ancestral temple gave a double protection to the governed people and the reigning House (Chavannes, o.c. 514-515). The King's Altar, however, was situated on the sacred field where the time of ploughing was inaugurated (sub-comm. in Li chi chu shu, Chi fa, 46.14a).
22. 置 社 chih-shê. Li chi chu shu, 46.13b; C. II. 266.
23. Ch. XI. 24 (Lun yü chu shu, 11.11 b; L. 246).
25. Sun I-jang's reading: 為 稷 立 祀 即 謂 之 稷 (o.c. 10.2a).
26. Lu's correction: 語 不 變 示 有 內 外. Probably the meaning is that the expression (shê-chi) denotes that the shê, by being put first, is more important than the chi.
27. Sun I-jang (o.c. 10.2b) reads 示for 自, in which case the meaning would be: "Therefore the name is not changed and neither are their functions, which indicates that [by the name these functions and their importance] may be known".
28. Liu's reading (72.4a):稷 常 存 養 人 為 用 故 立 其 神 .
29. Li chi chu shu, 25.22b; C. I. 586. The God of the Earth was the embodiment of the yin (Chavannes, o.c. 507).
30. This seems to be a later theory. Originally the tree was the god, and it was only during the Han that it was considered as a sign while the god itself was represented by a stone tablet 主chu (Chavannes, o.c. 475-476).
31. Chou li chu shu, Ta ssŭ t'u, 10.2b; B. I. 193, where the text is slightly different. The ta-ssŭ-t'u was charged with the building of the altar in the nine provinces of the Chou Kingdom, the hsiao-ssŭ-t'u with that of the Feudal Lords, acc. to the Chou li (cf. Chavannes, o.c. 443, n. 1 and 2).
32. For the Shang shu i p'ien see Vol. I, p. 267, n. 11. Chavannes translates this passage as: "Le grand dieu du sol était un pin", etc. (o.c. 467), which does not bring out its ambiguity.
33. For the Ch'un ch'iu wên i see Vol. I, p. 68, n. 237.
34. Not to be found in any of the three Commentaries. A somewhat similar passage, however, is quoted by Ch'u Shao-sun (1st. cent. B.C., see M.H. I. CCI ff.) in the Shih chi (60.10a) from the Ch'un ch'iu ta chuan, an otherwise unknown work (cf. Chavannes, o.c. 452).
35. . See Bretschneider, Botanicon Sinicum, II. 277.
36. Li chi chu shu, 37.17b; C. II. 61.
37. Ibid., 19.4a; C. I. 442.
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