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Chapter XXXIII. Outer Congeries of Sayings, The Lower Left Series

1 I. Censured for a crime, nobody feels bitter against the superior. For this reason, the footless 2 gate-keeper saved the life 3 of Tzŭ-kao. Rewarded for merit, no subject feels grateful to the sovereign. For this reason Chieh Huang held the right half of a tally in hand and rode in the coach of a feudal lord. King Hsiang did not know this principle, wherefore Chao Mao compared the reward of five chariots for his meritorious services to the upstart's wearing hemp sandals. If the principal makes no mistake in appointing subordinates to office and the subordinates do not feign ability, then every subordinate will be as good as Shao Shih-chou.

II. The sovereign should depend upon his own position and not upon the faithfulness of the ministers. For this reason, Tung-kuo Ya lodged a protest against the appointment of Kuan Chung to premiership. The sovereign should count on his tact and not on the faithfulness of the ministers. For this reason, Hun Hsien disapproved Duke Wên's policy. Therefore the tactful sovereign would make reward of faith so as to exert the abilities of the subjects and make punishment definite so as to forbid wickedness. Though the ministers have mixed deeds, he would always get the benefit out of them. For instance, Lord Chien appointed Yang Hu to premiership; and Duke Ai asked about the one-legged creature.

III. If the distinction between ruler and minister is lost sight of, the ruler will have to do the same as King Wên, who tied 4 his own sock strings and boasted of his virtue. If no difference between court ceremonies and private etiquette is made, one will have to live in the same way as Chi-sun who maintained his dignity all his life but met assassins in the end.

IV. If the sovereign expects profit from what ought to be prohibited and prohibits what is profitable, be he superhuman, he cannot enforce his policy. If he honours men held guilty and disgraces the rewarded, be he as great as Yao, he cannot attain any political order. Indeed, to open a gate but not to make people go through it, or to promise profit but not to make the people strive for it, is the cause of disorder.

If the Ruler of Ch`i granted his attendants no request and the Sovereign of Wey listened to no honourable recommendation but observed clearly and carefully the body of officials, then Chü could not spend money and Ch`uan could not use jade as a bribe. Hsi-mên Pao petitioned for reappointment to the Magistracy of Yeh. Thereby he knew the harm caused by the courtiers of the country. The courtiers would honour or disgrace the people as improperly as the son of the petty thief boasted of his father's fur coat and the son of the legless man prided himself upon his father's specially made clothes. If the ruler listens to the courtiers, he is doing what Tzŭ-ch`o called "drawing a circle with the left hand and a square with the right hand simultaneously" and the same as a stupid man who tried to get rid of ants with meat and drive flies away with fish. If so, how can he avoid the same worry as Duke Huan had over the number of office-hunters and Viscount 5 Hsüan had over the skinniness of the horses?

V. If ministers regard humility and frugality as virtues, then ranks are not sufficient to encourage and reward them. If favour and glory are not regulated, ministers will violate and intimidate the ruler. The saying is based on Miao Pên-huang's criticism of Hsien-pai and on Confucius's estimate of Yen Ying. For further illustration, Chung-ni spoke of Kuan Chung and Sun-shu 6 Ao about the former's extreme extravagance and the latter's extreme frugality; Yang Hu said his subordinates' attitude to him at his departure had become different from their attitude to him when he entered Ch`i and recommended them to the Ruler 7 ; and Lord Chien's remark on the way of recommending officials missed the right tact of a sovereign. If friends and partisans play into each other's hands and ministers give rein to their ambitions, the lord of men will be left in isolation. If all the officials make upright recommendations and do not play into each other's hands then the lord of men will be clear-sighted and even Yang Hu will become as worthy as Chao Wu and as just as Chieh Hu. However, Lord Chien condemned those officials who were first recommended by their friends and later acted against them as hedge and bramble thorns, which is not the right way to teach the people in the country to become public-spirited.

VI. If the prestige of the royal house is low, then ministers will refrain from uttering upright words. If self-seeking deeds triumph, then meritorious services for the public will become few. The saying is based on Wên-tzŭ's speaking without reserve, for which his father, Wu-tzŭ, used a stick to whip him, and on Tzŭ-ch`an's loyal remonstrations, for which his father, Tzŭ-kuo, blamed him and was angry at him. Furthermore, Liang Ch`ê enforced the law but Marquis Ch`êng recalled the official seal from him. Kuan Chung acted according to public justice, but his countrymen spoke ill of him and resented his action.

So much for the Canons.

Annotations to Canon I:

Confucius was Premier of Wei. His disciple, Tzŭ-kao, was the judge of a criminal court and once cut off the feet of a criminal. The footless man became their gate-keeper. Some people slandered Confucius before the Ruler of Wei, saying that Chung-ni was plotting a disturbance. Therefore, the Ruler of Wei wanted to arrest Confucius. Confucius ran away. All his disciples escaped. Tzŭ-kao went to the back 8 gate. The footless gate-keeper led the way and sheltered him in the basement beneath the gate. The officials sought for him but could not find him. At midnight, Tzŭ-kao asked the footless gate-keeper, "I could not bend the legal decree of the sovereign and cut off your feet with my own hands. This is the time for you to take revenge. Why are you willing to shelter me? How can I receive such a kindness from you?" In reply the footless man said: "I had my feet cut off as my crime deserved such punishment. Nothing could be done about it. Nevertheless, when Your Excellency was about to decide on the case against thy servant, Your Excellency interpreted the ordinance in all possible ways and supplied words either before or after thy servant's pleas, being so anxious to hold thy servant innocent, which thy servant understood very well. When the case was settled and the sentence was passed, Your Excellency in excess of pity felt unpleasant as expressed in the facial colour, which thy servant saw and also understood. That was not because of Your Excellency's private favour to thy servant but because of his inborn nature and benevolent heart. This is the reason why I have felt pleased and grateful to Your Excellency."

T`ien Tzŭ-fang went to Wey from Ch`i. He saw from a distance Chieh Huang riding in the coach of a feudal lord with cavaliers around and marching out in full dignity. Fang at first thought Marquis Wên was going out, and therefore moved his carriage to a side-track in order to avoid the procession. Later, he found Chieh Huang alone 9 in the coach. "Why are you riding in this coach?" asked Fang. In reply Huang said: "When His Highness was scheming to attack Central Hills, thy servant recommended Chieh Chioh to him and a proper scheme was devised. When His Highness was actually going to attack Central Hills, thy servant recommended Yo Yang to him and Central Hills was taken. After the conquest of Central Hills, His Highness worried over the governorship of the country, when thy servant recommended Li K`o to him, and as a result Central Hills became orderly. For this reason, His Highness awarded thy servant this coach." Thereupon Fang said: "To such a merit the reward is still too small to be equivalent."

When Ch`in and Han were attacking Wey, Chao Mao went westward on an itinerant tour and Ch`in and Han stopped the campaign. When Ch`i and Ching were attacking Wey, Mao went eastward on an itinerant tour and Ch`i and Ching stopped the campaign. Accordingly, King Hsiang of Wey supported him with the emolument 10 of five chariots. Complaining of the meagreness of the emolument, Mao said: "Formerly, when Po-i was buried with the dignity of a general at the foot of the Shou-yang Mountain, All-under-Heaven said, `Indeed, in view of the worthiness of Po-i and his reputation for benevolence, to bury him with the dignity of a general is hardly sufficient—not even enough to cover his hands and feet underground.' Now thy servant stopped the invading forces of four states. And for meritorious services Your Majesty granted thy servant five chariots. To reward for such meritorious services in this way is to do the same as an upstart in spite of his wealth wearing hemp sandals.

Confucius said: "Who knows how to be an official, plants gratitude in the mind of the people; who does not know how to be an official plants resentment in the mind of the people. The strickle is for adjusting the measure. The official is for adjusting the law. Who governs a state should not lose sight of the means of adjustment."

Shao Shih-chou was a faithful, honest, clean, and earnest man of antiquity. He served Lord Hsiang of Chao as bodyguard. Once he contested in strength with Hsü Tzŭ from Chung-mou and found himself not as strong as Hsü Tzŭ. He then went into the court and told Lord Hsiang to replace himself with Hsü Tzŭ. "Your post," said Lord Hsiang, "is coveted by everybody else. Why do you want Hsü Tzŭ to replace you?" "Thy servant serves Your Highness," replied Shao Shih-chou, "with his physical strength. Now, Hsü Tzŭ's strength is greater than mine. Unless thy servant offers to be replaced by him, thy servant is afraid others might recommend him to Your Highness and thy servant might be guilty of suppressing an able man."

According to a different source: Shao Shih-chou served as aide-de-camp to Lord Hsiang. Upon their arrival at Chin-yang, a wrestler named Niu Tzŭ contested with him in strength, but he could not win. Thereupon Chou spoke to the Lord: "Your Highness made thy servant an aide-decamp11 because Your Highness thought thy servant had great strength. Now that there is somebody having greater strength than thy servant may thy servant beg to present him to Your Highness?"

Annotations to Canon II:

When Duke Huan of Ch`i was going to make Kuan Chung Uncle Chung, he ordered the officials to the effect that as His Highness was going to make Chung Kuan Uncle Chung, those in favour of the measure, after entering the gate, keep to the left, and those against it, after entering the gate, keep to the right. Tung-kou Ya kept standing in the centre of the gate. Thereupon Duke Huan asked: "I am making Kuan Chung Uncle Chung and have ordered those in favour of the measure to keep to the left and those against it to keep to the right. Now why do you keep standing in the centre of the gate?" "Does Your Highness regard the wisdom of Kuan Chung as able 12 to devise schemes for coping with Allunder-Heaven?" asked Ya in return. "Certainly able," replied the Duke. "Does Your Highness think his decisions daring to carry out great plans?" "Certainly daring." "If his wisdom 13 is able to scheme for All-under-Heaven and his decisions dare to carry out any great plan wherefore Your Highness trusts him with the grips of the state, then how can the Ch`i State, as governed by Kuan Chung with his own wisdom and the advantage of Your Highness's position, be without danger?" "Right," said the Duke, and, accordingly, ordered Hsi P`êng to administer home affairs and Kuan Chung to administer foreign affairs so as to make them watch each other.

When Duke Wên went out into exile, Ch`i Chêng carried bowls of food along and followed him. One day he lost his way and went astray from the Duke. Hungry, he wept by the road. Sleeping off his starvation, he dared not eat the food. After Duke Wên returned to his country, raised an army to attack Yüan, vanquished it, and took it, Duke Wên said: "Who could easily endure the hardship of hunger and would by all means keep the bowls of food perfect, is certainly not going to rebel in Yüan." So saying he raised Chêng and appointed him Governor of Yüan. Hearing about this, High Officer Hun Hsien disapproved the policy and said: "Is it not tactless to expect Chêng not to rebel in Yüan because he did not touch the bowls of food? Thus the enlightened sovereign would not count on people's non-violation of him, but on his own inviolability by them; not on people's nondeception of him, but on his own undeceivability by them."

Yang Hu, in discussing the attitude of minister towards ruler said: "If the sovereign is worthy and enlightened, then exert all your mental energy to serve him; if he is unworthy, then devise crooked artifices to test him." Banished by Lu and suspected by Ch`i, he came to Chao, where Lord Chien of Chao welcomed him and appointed him premier. With wonder the attendants asked: "Hu is skilful in usurping the reins of government from the ruler. Why did Your Highness make him premier?" In reply Lord Chien said: "Yang Hu strives to usurp the power. I strive to maintain the power." So saying, he held right tact in hand and thereby controlled him. As a result, Yang Hu dared not do any wrong, but served Lord Chien well and promoted the strength of the Lord till he nearly became Hegemonic Ruler.

Duke Ai of Lu once asked Confucius: "I have heard that there was a one-legged 14 creature called Kuei. Was it really one-legged?" "No," replied Confucius, "Kuei was not one-legged. Kuei was irritable and ill-tempered. Most people did not like him. However, he was not hurt by anybody because of his faithfulness. Therefore, people used to say, `Only one good quality like this is sufficient'. Thus, Kuei was not a one-legged creature, but his only one good point was sufficient." "Certainly, if he possessed such a good quality, that was sufficient," said Duke Ai.

According to a different source: Duke Ai asked Confucius, "I have heard that Kuei was one-legged. Was it true?" In reply Confucius said: "Kuei was a man. Why was he one-legged? He was not different from anybody else except in his proficiency in music. Therefore, Yao said, `Kuei has one talent and that is sufficient,' and made him Master of Music. Thenceforth, gentlemen would say, `Kuei has one sufficiency.' He was not one-legged."

Annotations of Canon III:

King Wên was attacking Ch`ung. When he arrived at the Yellow Phoenix Mound, 15 the strings of his socks became loosened. Accordingly, he tied them up himself. "Why did you do that?" asked T`ai-kung Wang. "Of the people whom the ruler deals with," replied the King, "on the top 16 all are the ruler's teachers, in the middle all are his friends, and on the bottom all are his employees. Now, everybody here was a minister to the late King. Therefore, I found nobody to tie my strings."

According to a different source: Duke Wên was at war with the Chiu men. When he arrived at the Yellow Phoenix Hill, his shoe strings became loosened. Accordingly, he tied them up himself. "Could you not find anybody to do it for you?" asked the attendants. In reply the Duke said: "I have heard, `Everybody around the superior is respected by him; everybody around the ordinary ruler is loved by him; and everybody around the inferior ruler is despised by him.' Although Your Highness is unworthy, the late ruler's men are all here. So it is hard to have anybody tie my shoe strings."

Chi-sun was fond of entertaining scholars. All his life he lived in a dignified manner. In his private dwelling and clothing he always kept the same formality as in the court. Once he happened to neglect the formality and commit some faults, and could not keep up the same dignity. In consequence his guests thought he disliked and despised them, and altogether developed resentment at him, till they killed him. Hence the saying: "The gentleman shuns excess and shuns deficit."

According to a different source 17 : Nan-kung Ching-tzŭ asked Yen Cho-chü: "Chi-sun supported Confucius's disciples. Those who wore court costumes and sat with him in the court, numbered tens. But he met assassins. Why?" In reply Yen said: "Formerly King Ch`êng of Chou kept actors and clowns around in order to amuse himself as he wanted, but consulted with gentlemen when he decided on state affairs. That was the reason why he could realize his ambition in All-under-Heaven. On the contrary, Chi-sun supported Confucius's disciples, and those who wore court costumes and sat with him in the court, numbered tens, but when deciding on state affairs, he consulted with actors and clowns. That was the reason why he met assassins. Hence the saying: `Success or failure rests not with room-mates but with councillors.' "

Confucius was attending on Duke Ai of Lu, when Duke Ai gave him peaches and grains of glutinous millet. "Please help yourself," said Duke Ai. Confucius ate the millet first and then the peaches. Thereat the attendants all, covered their mouths with their hands, and laughed. "The grains are not for eating," remarked Duke Ai, "but for wiping off the skin of the peaches." In reply Chung-ni said: "Ch`iu knew it from the beginning. Indeed, glutinous millet is the head of the five 18 cereals. On commemorating the early kings it is used as the best offering. There are six 19 kinds of tree and grass fruits, 20 among which the peach is the lowest in rank and cannot enter the shrine on commemorating the early kings. Ch`iu has heard, `The gentlemen cleans the noble with the humble,' but never heard that he cleans the humble with the noble. Now, to clean the lowest among fruits with the highest among the cereals is to clean the worst with the best. Ch`iu regards such an act as contrary to righteousness and therefore dare not eat the peaches 21 before eating the best offering in the shrine of the royal ancestors."

Viscount Chien of Chao once said to the Chamberlains: "The sheet inside the carriage is too beautiful. Indeed, the crown, however simple, is always put on the head; the shoes, however good, are always put on the feet. Now, the sheet inside the carriage is very beautiful. What shoes shall I wear? Indeed, to wear beautiful things below and simple things above is the origin of the violation of righteousness."

Fei Chung spoke to Chow: "The Earl of the West, Ch`ang, is worthy. The hundred surnames like him. The feudal lords turn to him. He must be censured. If not ousted, he will be a menace to the Yin Dynasty." "You are speaking," said Chow, "of a righteous lord. Why should he be censured?" In reply Fei Chung said: "The crown, however worn-out, is always put on the head; the shoes, though decorated with five colours, are trodden upon the ground. Now the Earl of the West, Ch`ang, is subordinate to Your Majesty. He has practised righteousness, wherefore people turn to him. Surely, it must be Ch`ang who will eventually become a trouble to All-under-Heaven. Any minister 22 who does not serve his master with his worthiness must be censured. Moreover, being the ruler, Your Majesty censures a guilty minister. How can there be any fault in so doing?" "Indeed, with benevolence and righteousness the ruler encourages the subjects. Now that Ch`ang is fond of benevolence and righteousness, it is impracticable to censure him." Though persuaded for three times, he never listened. Hence followed the fall of Yin.

King Hsüan of Ch`i asked K`uang Ching: "Do the literati gamble?" "No, they don't." "Why?" asked the King. In reply K`uang Ching said: "The gamblers make much of the owl dice. 23 The winner of the owl dice, however, has to kill 24 it. Thus, to kill the owl dice is to kill the object of esteem. The literati, regarding this as harmful to righteousness, refrain from gambling." "Do the literati shoot birds with stringed arrows?" asked the King further. "No, they don't. To shoot birds with stringed arrows is to shoot above from below. This is the same as the subjects who injure the ruler. The literati, regarding this as harmful to righteousness, refrain from shooting with stringed arrows." "Do the literati play the instrument Sê?" asked the King furthermore. "No, they don't. Indeed, that kind of harp gets large sounds from small strings and small sounds from large strings. This is the same as the large and the small reversing their order and high and low exchanging status. The literati, regarding this as harmful to righteousness, refrain from playing the Sê instrument." "Good," said King Hsüan.

Chung-ni said, "Better let the people flatter the superior than let them flatter the inferior". 25

Annotations to Canon IV:

Chü was a retired scholar in Ch`i; Ch`uan in Wey. The Rulers of Ch`i and Wey were not enlightened and not able to penetrate into the actual conditions within the boundaries, and both followed the words of the attendants. Therefore, the two men used gold and jade and sought to join governmental service.

Hsi-mên, while Magistrate of Yeh, was clean and honest and had no self-interest even as small as the tip of an autumn spikelet. He was, however, very indifferent towards the courtiers. Therefore the courtiers joined one another and together did him an ill turn. After one yeat of his term, he handed in his report on local finance; then the Ruler took back his official seal. Thereupon he presented to the Ruler his own petition saying: "Formerly thy servant did not know how to be Magistrate of Yeh. Now that thy servant has the right way, may he petition for the seal in order to govern Yeh again? If his work is again not equal to the official duty, may Your Highness sentence him to capital punishment with axe and anvil." Marquis Wên, unable to bear dismissing him, gave him the post again. Pao, accordingly, imposed heavy taxes upon the hundred surnames and began to bribe the courtiers as promptly as possible. After one year he handed in his report. This time Marquis Wên went out to welcome him and even made bows to him. In response Pao said: "During the preceding year thy servant governed Yeh for Your Highness's sake, but Your Highness took away the official seal of thy servant. This year thy servant governed Yeh for the courtiers' sake, but Your Highness makes bows to thy servant. Thy servant is no longer able to govern the place." So saying he returned the seal and took his leave. Marquis Wên, refusing to accept the seal, said: "Formerly I did not know you but now know you well. Please do now well govern the place for my sake." So saying he did not accept the resignation.

In Ch`i once the son of a dog-like thief 26 and the son of a legless man played together and boasted before each other. The thief's son said: "My father's fur-coat alone has a tail." "My father alone never falls short of trousers 27 even in cold winter," said the other boy.

Tzŭ-ch`o said: "Nobody is able to draw a square with the left hand and a circle with the right hand at the same time."

Expel ants with meat! Then ants will multiply. Drive flies away with fish! Then flies will come nearer and nearer.

Once Duke Huan said to Kuan Chung: "Official posts are few, but office-hunters are many. Over this I am worried." "If Your Highness grants the attendants no request but awards men with emoluments only in accordance with their abilities and gives men official posts only in correspondence to their merits, then nobody dare hunt any office. What will Your Highness be worried about then?"

Viscount Hsüan of Han said: "My horses have had an abundance of madder 28 and grain. But why are they so skinny? I am worried over it." In reply Chou Shih said: "If the stableman feeds them with all the beans and grain, then they are bound to become fat. But suppose he give them much in the name but little in fact. Then they are bound to become skinny. If Your Highness does not investigate the causes of the fact but remains seated and worried over it, the horses never will become fat."

Duke Huan asked Kuan Chung about the appointment of officials to different posts. Kuan Chung said: "With reference to eloquence and penetration in wording, honesty and integrity in money, and knowledge of human affairs, thy servant is not as good as Hsien Shang. May Your Highness appoint him Supreme Judge! With reference to the manners in ascending and descending steps and courtesies shown to guests, thy servant is not as good as Hsi P`êng. May Your Highness appoint him Supreme Usher. In matters of cultivating grass lands, collecting taxes from towns, opening up wildernesses, and growing grain, thy servant is not as good as Ning Wu. May Your Highness appoint him Minister of Agriculture. Regarding the ability to make the warriors look upon death as going home when the three armies 29 have already formed in line, thy servant is not as good as Prince Ch`êng-fu. May Your Highness appoint him Minister of War. In moving against the facial expression of the ruler and making utmost remonstrations, I am not as good as Tung-kuo Ya. May Your Highness appoint him Minister of Censorship. To govern the Ch`i State, these five gentlemen are sufficient. If our Highness wants to become Hegemonic Ruler, I-wu is here at his service." 30

Annotations to Canon V:

31 Hsien-pai was Premier of Chin. 32 Beneath his reception hall there grew beans and weeds and outside his gate thorns and brambles. He never had two courses at a meal nor two sheets on the chair. None of his concubines wore silk. At home he gave no grain to his horses. When out, he never took his carriage. Hearing this, Shu Hsiang told Miao Pêng-huang about it. Pêng-huang, disapproving such a life, said: "This is to win the hearts of the subordinate people with the rank and emolument bestowed by the sovereign."

According to a different source: Yü 33 Hsien-pai of Chin was newly appointed High Noble. Shu Hsiang went to congratulate him. By the gate there were a coachman and a carriage, 34 but the horse was not eating fodder. Therefore, Hsiang asked, "Why don't you have two horses and two carriages?" In reply Hsien-pai said: "Our fellow countrymen seem still hungry to me. Therefore, I do not give fodder to my horses. Most of the grey-haired men walk on foot. Therefore, I do not have two carriages." "At first I came," said Hsiang, "to congratulate you upon your appointment to High Nobility, but now I congratulate you upon your frugality." Then Hsiang went out and told Miao Pêng-huang, "Join me in congratulating Hsien-pai on his frugality." "Congratulations on what?" remarked Miao Tzŭ. "Indeed, to bestow ranks and emoluments, flags and badges, is to differentiate the various kinds of merits as well as to distinguish between the worthy and the unworthy. Thus, according to the law of the Chin State, a Senior High Officer is entitled to two carriages and two teams of horses, 35 a Middle High Officer, to two carriages and one team: and a Junior High Officer, to one team only. This is to make grade and ranks clear. Moreover, every noble must attend to military duties, and therefore must keep his carriages and horses in good condition, 36 form his soldiers and chariots in lines, and thereby prepare for military action, so that in case of emergency they can provide against all eventualities and in time of peace they can serve in the court affairs. Now, he has been disturbing the state affairs of Chin and loosening the provisions against eventualities simply on purpose to perfect his private virtue and exalt his personal reputation. Is the frugality of Hsien-pai commendable at all? If not, then congratulations on what?" 37

Kuan Chung, on becoming Premier of Ch`i, said to Duke Huan, "Thy servant is noble but poor." "You shall have the same wealth as the Building of Three Returns," 38 said Duke Huan. "Then thy servant is wealthy but still low in rank." Duke Huan, accordingly, raised him above the Kaos and the Kuos. "Thy servant is now high in rank but very remote in relation from the ruling family." Thereupon the Duke made him Uncle Chung. Hearing this, Confucius disapproved of him and said, "Having become too extravagant he came to embarrass his superior."

According to a different source: Uncle Kuan Chung on going out would put red covers on his carriages and blue costumes on his attendants, and on coming home would have drum music played. In his yard stood tripods. His household has as much wealth as the Building of Three Returns. Therefore, Confucius said: "A good official, indeed! But his extravagance is sufficient to embarrass his superior. Sun-shu Ao, Premier of Ch`u, used a wooden cart pulled by a mare and took coarse rice with vegetable soup and dried fish for his meal. In winter he wore a lamb-skin coat and linen clothes in summer. His face always had the look of hunger. A good official, indeed. But in this case his frugality is sufficient to oppress his inferiors." 39

Yang Hu left Ch`i and found shelter in Chao. There Lord Chien asked him, "I have heard that you are good in raising able men." "While in Lu," said Hu, "thy servant raised three men, all of whom became magistrates. After Hu was found guilty in Lu, all of them searched after Hu. While living in Ch`i, thy servant recommended three men: One became an attendant on the King; one became a prefect; and the third became an official receiver of public guests. After I was found guilty, the attendant refused to see me; the prefect intended to arrest me on receiving me; and the official receiver pursued me up to the frontier, could not catch me, and stopped. Really I am not good in raising men." The Lord turned his face downwards with a smile and said: "Indeed, the planter of mandarin orange and pomelo trees, 40 on eating fruits, gets the sweet taste; the planter of hedgerows and brambles finds them prickly when they grow up. Hence the gentleman is cautious in raising men."

Chung-mou had no magistrate. Therefore Duke P`ing of Chin 41 asked Chao Wu: "Chung-mou is a place strategically important to three countries. 42 It is the key to the city of Han-tan. I want a good magistrate for it. Who will be the right man?" "Hsing Pai-tzŭ will be the right man," replied Wu. "Isn't he your enemy?" asked the Duke. "No private feud should go through public gates," was the reply. Then the Duke asked, "For the magistracy of Chung-fu, who is the right man?" "My son is the right one," was the reply. Hence the saying: "Recommend the right man from outsiders even if your enemy; recommend the right man among your relatives even if your son." Upon Chao Wu's death, all the forty-six men whom he had recommended to the Ruler, took their seats among the guests at his funeral service. To such an extent he had shown no personal favour to anybody all his life!

Duke P`ing once asked Shu Hsiang, "Among the ministers, who is the worthiest?" "Chao Wu," was the reply. "You side with your senior official," remarked the Duke. "No," said Hsiang, "Chao Wu, when standing up, looks undignified even in his full dress, and, when speaking, seems unable to utter his sentiments. Nevertheless, the officials he recommended number several tens, all of whom he enabled to exert their respective abilities, and in whom the public authorities put great trust, not to mention the fact that in his life Wu never utilized them to benefit his own family and upon his death never committed orphans to their charge. Therefore, thy servant dares to consider him the worthiest."

Chieh Hu recommended his enemy to Lord Chien for premiership. The enemy thought he had by good luck forgiven him, and so went purposely to thank him. Thereupon Hu drew his bow, and, on receiving him, aimed at him, saying: "To be sure, I recommended you because I regarded your ability equal to the post. To have hatred for you is my private feud with you. I never on account of my feud with you kept 43 you from my master." Hence the saying: "No private feud should go through public gates."

According to a different source: Chieh Hu recommended Hsing Pai-liu to the governorship of Shang-tang. Liu went to thank him and said: "You have forgiven me my fault. How dare I not repeat bows to you?" In reply Hu said: "To raise you is a public matter; to hate you is a private affair. You had better go. My hatred for you remains the same as before."

One day a man from the Prefecture of Chêng was selling pigs. When somebody asked him about the price, he said, "The way is still so long. The sun is setting. How can I have time to talk with you?" 44

Annotations to Canon VI:

Fan Wên-tzŭ was fond of speaking without reserve. His father, Wu-tzŭ, whipped him with a stick and said 45 : "Who makes discussions without reserve is not tolerated by people. If tolerated by nobody, he is in danger. He endangers not only himself but also his father."

Tzŭ-ch`an was son of Tzŭ-kuo. Tzŭ-ch`an was loyal to the Ruler of Chêng. Thereat Tzŭ-kuo was angry and reprimanded him, saying: "To be sure, when you act sharply different from the rest of the ministers and remain loyal to the sovereign by yourself, if the sovereign is worthy and enlightened, he will listen to you; if he is not enlightened, he will not listen to you. You cannot always foretell whether or not he is going to listen to you. Yet you have estranged yourself from the rest of ministers. If estranged from them, you certainly endanger yourself—not only yourself, but your father too."

Liang Ch`ê was Magistrate of Yeh. One day his elder sister went to see him. At dusk she arrived too late for the office hour. The gate was shut. 46 So she went over the wall and entered the city. Ch`ê cut off her feet, accordingly. Regarding this as not compassionate, Marquis Ch`êng of Chao took the official seal away from him and dismissed him from the magistracy.

Kuan Chung was arrested and brought from Lu to Ch`i. On the way he was hungry and thirsty. When passing through I-wu, he begged the frontier guard for food. The guard knelt down and presented the food to him with great reverence. Then in private the guard said to Chung: "If by any lucky chance you are not killed after you reach Ch`i but are taken into service instead, with what are you going to requite me?" In reply Kuan Chung said: "If my fate turns out as you have just said, I will take the worthy into service, give the able employment, and commend the serviceable. With what shall I requite you?" Accordingly the guard resented such an ungrateful saying.


1. 外儲說左下.

2. 跀危. With Wang Hsien-shên 危 should read 跪 which means 足.

3. With Ku Kuang-ts`ê and Wang Hsien-ch`ien 坐 should be 生.

4. With Wang Hsien-ch`ien 繫 should be supplied between 自 and 履.

5. 王 should be 子.

6. 叔孫 should be 孫叔 in accordance with the annotation.

7. With Ku Kuang-ts`ê, Hirazawa, and the Waseda University Press 而出入之容變 continues from 仲尼論管仲與孫叔敖 Ku thought the sentence involves mistakes. Hirazawa and the Waseda University Press both made a forced interpretation of its sense. With Wang Hsien-shên it leads to 陽虎之言見其臣也. The order of words, Wang says, is an ancient way of sentence construction.

8. With Wang Hsien-shên 出門 should be 后門.

9. 徙 means 獨.

10. With Wang Hsien-shên 將軍 seems to be a mistake for 之奉.

11. With Ku Kuang-ts`ê 騎 should be 驂.

12. With Ku 君 should be 若.

13. With Ku 知 should be 智.

14. 足 means "leg" as well as "sufficient". Hence the equivocation of 一足.

15. I read 黃鳳虛 for 鳳黃虛.

16. 上 should be supplied above 皆其師.

17. With Wang Hsien-shên 一曰 should be supplied above 南宮敬子.

18. Namely, glutinous millet, millet, wheat, hemp seed, and beans.

19. Namely, plums, apricots, chestnuts, melons, peaches, and mulberry.

20. 果 means the fruits of trees; 蓏, the fruits of grass.

21. With Wang Hsien-shên 桃 should be supplied above 先.

22. 人人 should be 人臣.

23. The dice on which an owl is engraved.

24. To kill the die means to discard it throughout the rest of the game.

25. The last four annotations are never referred to in the Canon.

26. 狗盜, namely, a sly thief wearing the dog's fur on stealing into people's houses as dogs do.

27. Poor people in particular fall short of trousers in winter while a legless man does not need them all the year.

28. With Kao Hêng 菽 should be 茹.

29. According to the system of Chou one army consisted of five divisions, each division having two thousand five hundred soldiers, and three armies made the biggest unit for military operations.

30. This last annotation is not referred to in the Canon.

31. With Ku Kuang-ts`ê 孟 should be 盂.

32. With Ku 魯 should be 晉.

33. 孟 should be 盂.

34. With Ku Kuang-ts`ê 車 should be supplied below 御.

35. Eight horses altogether.

36. With Wang Wei 循 above 車馬 should be 脩.

37. The annotation of Confucius's estimate of Yen Ying, which ought to follow this, is missing.

38. A famous tower of antiquity for keeping money and treasures.

39. With Wang Hsien-ch`ien these passages beginning with 孫叔敖相楚 are Confucius's sayings and therefore should be included in the same quotation.

40. 祖黎 above 橘柚 is superfluous.

41. Hirazawa's edition has 晉 in place of 魯.

42. Chao, Ch`i, and Yen.

43. With Lu Wên-shao 擁 should be 壅.

44. This annotation is not referred to in the Canon. Wang Hsien-shên suspected that these passages were hiatuses from the end of Work XVIII, "Facing the South" (v. p. 155 n. 6).

45. With Wang Hsien-shên 夫 above 直議 should be 曰.

46. 閉門 should be 門閉.

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