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經一： 勢不足以化則除之。師曠之對，晏子之說，皆（合）〔舍〕勢之易也而道行之難，是與獸逐走也， 未知除患。患之可除，在子夏之說《春秋》也：「善持勢者蚤絕其姦萌。」故季孫讓仲尼以遇勢， 而況錯之於君乎？是以太公望殺狂矞，而臧獲不乘驥。嗣公知之，故（而）〔不〕駕鹿。薛公知之， 故與二欒博。此皆知同異之反也。故明主之牧臣也，說在畜（焉）〔烏〕。
經二： 人主者，利害之軺轂也，射者眾，故人主共矣。是以好惡見則下有因，而人主惑矣。 辭言通則臣難言，而主不神矣。說在申子之言「六慎」，與唐易之言弋也。患在國（年） 〔羊〕之請變，與宣王之太息也。明之以靖郭氏之獻十珥也，與犀首、甘（戍）〔茂〕之道穴聞也。 堂谿公知術，故問玉卮；昭侯能術，故以聽獨寢。明主之道，在申子之勸獨斷也。
經三： 術之不行，有故。不殺其狗，則酒酸。夫國亦有狗，且左右皆社鼠也。人主無堯之再誅， 與莊王之應太子，而皆有薄媼之決蔡嫗也。知貴、不能，以教歌之法先揆之。吳起之出愛妻， 文公之斬顛頡，皆違其情者也。故能使人彈疽者，必其忍痛者也。
齊景公之晉，從平公飲，師曠侍坐。景公問政於師曠曰： 「太師將奚以教寡人？」師曠曰：「君必惠民而已。」中坐，酒酣，將出，又復問政於師曠曰： 「太師奚以教寡人？」曰：「君必惠民而已矣。」景公出之舍，師曠送之，又問政於師曠。 師曠曰：「君必惠民而已矣。」景公歸，思，未醒，而得師曠之所謂：公子尾、公子夏者， 景公之二弟也，甚得齊民，家富貴而民說之，擬於公室，此危吾位者也。今謂我惠民者， 使我與二弟爭民耶？於是反國，發廩粟以賦眾貧，散府餘財以賜孤寡，倉無陳粟，府無餘財， 宮婦不御者出嫁之，七十受祿米。鬻德惠施於民也，已與二弟爭。居二年，二弟出走，公子夏逃楚，公子尾走晉。
景公與晏子遊於少海，登柏寢之臺而還望其國，曰：「美哉！泱泱乎， 堂〔堂〕乎！後世（出）將孰有此？」晏子對曰：「其田成氏乎！」景公曰： 「寡人有此國也，而曰田成氏有之，何也？」晏子對曰：「夫田成氏甚得齊民。其於民也， 上之請爵祿行諸大臣，下之私大斗斛區釜以出（貨）〔貸〕，小斗斛區釜以收之。殺一牛， 取一豆肉，餘以食士。終歲，布帛取二制焉，餘以衣士。故市木之價，不加貴於山； 澤之魚鹽龜鱉蠃蚌，不貴於海。君重斂，而田成氏厚施。齊嘗大飢，道旁餓死者不可勝數也， 父子相牽而趨田成氏者不聞不生。故（周秦）〔秦周〕之民相與歌之曰：『謳乎，其已乎！苞乎， 其往歸田成子乎！』《詩》曰：『雖無德與女，式歌且舞。』今田成氏之德而民之歌舞，民德歸之矣。 故曰：『其田成氏乎！』」公泫然出涕曰：「不亦悲乎！寡人有國，而田成氏有之。今為之柰何？」 晏子對曰：「君何患焉？若君欲奪之，則近賢而遠不肖，治其煩亂，緩其刑罰，振貧窮而恤孤寡， 行恩惠而給不足，民將歸君，則雖有十田成氏，其如君何？」
或曰：景公不知用勢，而師曠、晏子不知除患。夫獵者，託車輿之安， 用六馬之足，使王良佐轡，則身不勞而易及輕獸矣。今釋車輿之利，捐六馬之足與王良之御， 而下走逐獸，則雖樓季之足無時及獸矣。託良馬固車，則臧獲有餘。國者，君之車也；勢者， 君之馬也。夫不處勢以禁誅擅愛之臣，而必德厚以與天下齊行以爭（名）〔民〕，是皆不乘君之車， 不因馬之利，〔舍〕車而下走者也。故曰：「景公不知用勢之主也，而師曠（不知）、晏子不知除患之臣也。」
子夏曰：「《春秋》之記臣殺君、子殺父者，以十數矣。皆非一日之積也， 有漸而以至矣。」凡姦者，行久而成積，積成而力多，力多而能殺，故明主蚤絕之。 今田常之為亂，有漸見矣，而君不誅。晏子不使其君禁侵陵之臣，而使其主行惠，故簡公受其禍。 故子夏曰：「善持勢者，蚤絕姦之萌。」
季孫相魯，子路為郈令。魯以五月起眾為長溝，當此之為，子路以其私秩粟為漿飯， 要作溝者於五父之衢而飡之。孔子聞之，使子貢往覆其飯，擊毀其器，曰：「魯君有民，子奚為乃飡之？」 子路怫然怒，攘肱而入，請曰：「夫子疾由之為仁義乎？所學於夫子者，仁義也；仁義者， 與天下共其所有而同其利者也。今以由之秩粟而飡民，不可何也？」孔子曰：「由之野也！ 吾以女知之，女徒未及也。女故如是之不知禮也！女之飡之，為愛之也。夫禮，天子愛天下， 諸侯愛境內，大夫愛官職，士愛其家，過其所愛曰侵。今魯君有民而子擅愛之，是子侵也， 不亦誣乎！」
言未卒，而季孫使者至，讓曰：「肥也起民而使之，先生使弟子令徒役而飡之， 將奪肥之民耶？」孔子駕而去魯。以孔子之賢，而季孫非魯君也，以人臣之資，假人主之術， 蚤禁於未形，而子路不得行其私惠，而害不得生，況人主乎！以景公之勢而禁田常之侵也，則必無劫弒之患矣。
太公望東封於齊，齊東海上有居士曰狂矞、華士昆弟二人者立議曰： 「吾不臣天子，不友諸侯，耕作而食之，掘井而飲之，吾無求於人也。無上之名，無君之祿， 不事仕而事力。」太公望至於營丘，使吏執殺之以為首誅。周公旦從魯聞之，發急傳而問之曰： 「夫二子，賢者也。今日饗國而殺賢者，何也？」太公望曰：「是昆弟二人立議曰： 『吾不臣天子，不友諸侯，耕作而食之，掘井而飲之，吾無求於人也。無上之名，無君之祿， 不事仕而事力。』彼不臣天子者，是望不得而臣也；不友諸侯者，是望不得而使也；耕作而食之， 掘井而飲之，無求於人者，是望不得以賞罰勸禁也。且無上名，雖知，不為望用；不仰君祿， 雖賢，不為望功。不仕則不治，不任則不忠。且先王之所以使其臣民者，非爵祿則刑罰也。 今四者不足以使之，則望當誰為君乎？不服兵革而顯，不親耕耨而名，又〔非〕所以教於國也。 今有馬於此，如驥之狀者，天下之至良也。然而驅之不前，卻之不止，左之不左，右之不右， 則臧獲雖賤，不託其足。臧獲之所願託其足於驥者，以驥之可以追利辟害也。今不為人用， 臧獲雖賤，不託其足焉。已自謂以為世之賢士而不為主用，行極賢而不用於君，此非明主之所臣也， 亦驥之不可左右矣，是以誅之。」
一曰：太公望東封於齊。海上有賢者狂矞，太公望聞之往請焉， 三卻馬於門而狂矞不報見也，太公望誅之。當是時也，周公旦在魯，馳往止之；比至， 已誅之矣。周公旦曰：「狂矞，天下賢者也，夫子何為誅之？」太公望曰： 「狂矞也議不臣天子，不友諸侯，吾恐其亂法易教也，故以為首誅。今有馬於此， 形容似驥也，然驅之不往，引之不前，雖臧獲不（許）託足於其軫也。」
如耳說衛嗣公，衛嗣公說而太息。左右曰：「公何為不相也？」公曰： 「夫馬似鹿者，而題之千金。然而有（百）〔千〕金之馬而無（一）〔千〕金之鹿者， 馬為人用而鹿不為人用也。今如耳，萬乘之相也，外有大國之意，其心不在衛，雖辨智， 亦不為寡人用，吾是以不相也。」
薛公之相魏昭侯也，左右有欒子者曰陽胡、潘其，於王甚重，而不為薛公。 薛公患之，於是乃召與之博，予之人百金，令之昆弟博；俄又益之人二百金。方博有閒， 謁者言客張季之子在門，公怫然怒，撫兵而授謁者曰：「殺之！吾聞季之不為文也。」 立有間，時季羽在側，曰：「不然。竊聞季為公甚，顧其人陰未聞耳。」乃輟不殺客， 大禮之，曰：「曩者聞季之不為文也，故欲殺之；今誠為文也，豈忘季哉！」告廩獻千石之粟， 告府獻五百金，告騶私廄獻良馬固車二乘，因令奄將宮人之美妾二十人并遺季也。欒子因相謂曰： 「為公者必利，不為公者必害，吾曹何愛不為公？」因（斯）〔私〕競勸而遂為之。薛公以人臣之勢， 假人主之術也，而害不得生，況錯之人主乎！
一曰：齊宣王問弋於唐易子曰：「弋者奚貴？」唐易子曰：「在於謹廩。」 王曰：「何謂謹廩？」對曰：「鳥以數十目視人，人以二目視鳥，柰何不謹廩也？故曰『在於謹廩』也。」 （故）〔王〕曰：「然則為天下何以為此廩？今人主以二目視一國，一國以萬目視人主，將何以自為廩乎？」 對曰：「鄭長者有言曰：『夫虛靜無為而無見也。』其可以為此廩乎！」
一曰：薛公相齊，齊威王夫人死，中有十孺子皆貴於王，薛公欲知王所欲立， 而請置一人以為夫人。王聽之，則是說行於王，而重於置夫人也；王不聽，是說不行， 而輕於置夫人也。欲先知王之所欲置以勸（之）王置之，於是為十玉珥而美其一而獻之。 王以賦十孺子。明日坐，視美珥之所在而勸王以為夫人。
甘茂相秦惠王，惠王愛公孫衍，與之間有所言，曰：「寡人將相子。」 甘茂之吏道穴聞之（曰），以告甘茂。甘茂入見王，曰：「王得賢相，臣敢再拜賀。」王曰： 「寡人託國於子，安更得賢相？」對曰：「將相犀首。」王曰：「子安聞之？」對曰： 「犀首告臣。」王怒犀首之泄，乃逐之。
一曰：犀首，天下之善將也，梁王之臣也。秦王欲得之與治天下，犀首曰： 「衍其人臣者也，不敢離主之國。」居期年，犀首抵罪於梁王，逃而入秦，秦王甚善之。 樗里疾，秦之將也，恐犀首之代之將也，鑿穴於王之所常隱語者。俄而王果與犀首計，曰： 「吾欲攻韓，奚如？」犀首曰：「秋可矣。」王曰：「吾欲以國累子，子必勿泄也。」 犀首反走再拜曰：「受命。」於是樗里疾也道穴聽之矣。郎中皆曰：「兵秋起攻韓，犀首為將。 」於是日也，郎中盡知之；於是（日）〔月〕也，境內盡知之。王召樗里疾曰：「是何匈匈也， 何道出？」樗里疾曰：「似犀首也。」王曰：「吾無與犀首言也，其犀首何哉？」樗里疾曰： 「犀首也羈旅，新抵罪，其心孤，是言自嫁於眾。」王曰：「然。」使人召犀首，已逃諸侯矣。
堂谿公謂昭侯曰：「今有千金之玉卮，通而無當，可以盛水乎？」 昭侯曰：「不可。」「有瓦器而不漏，可以盛酒乎？」昭侯曰：「可。」對曰： 「夫瓦器，至賤也，不漏可以盛酒。雖有乎千金之玉卮，至貴而無當，漏，不可（乘）〔盛〕水， 則人孰注漿哉？今為人之主而漏其群臣之語，是猶無當之玉卮也。雖有聖智，莫盡其術， 為其漏也。」昭侯曰：「然。」昭侯聞堂谿公之言，自此之後，欲發天下之大事，未嘗不獨寢， 恐夢言而使人知其謀也。
一曰：堂谿公見昭侯曰：「今有白玉之卮而無當，有瓦卮而有當。君渴， 將何以飲？」君曰：「以瓦卮。」堂谿公曰：「白玉之卮美，而君不以飲者，以其無當耶？」 君曰：「然。」堂谿公曰：「為人主而漏泄其群臣之語，譬猶玉卮之無當。」堂谿公每見而出， 昭侯必獨臥，惟恐夢言泄於妻妾。
宋人有酤酒者，升概甚平，遇客甚謹，為酒甚美，縣幟甚高著，然不售， 酒酸。怪其故，問其所知，問長者楊倩。倩曰：「汝狗猛耶？」曰：「狗猛，則酒何故而不售？」 曰：「人畏焉。或令孺子懷錢挈壺罋而往酤，而狗迓而齕之，此酒所以酸而不售也。」夫國亦有狗， 有道之士懷其術而欲以明萬乘之主，大臣為猛狗迎而齕之，此人主之所以蔽脅，而有道之士所以不用也。
故桓公問管仲：「治國最奚患？」對曰：「最患社鼠矣。」公曰：「何患社鼠哉？」 對曰：「君亦見夫為社者乎？樹木而塗之，鼠穿其閒，（堀）〔掘〕穴託其中。燻之則恐焚木， 灌之則恐塗阤，此社鼠之所以不得也。今人君之左右，出則為勢重而收利於民，入則比周而蔽惡於君。 內閒主之情以告外，外內為重，諸臣百吏以為富。吏不誅則亂法，誅之則君不安。據而有之， 此亦國之社鼠也。」故人臣執柄而擅禁（禦），明為己者必利，而不為己者必害，此亦猛狗也。
一曰：宋之酤酒者有莊氏者，其酒常美。或使僕往酤莊氏之酒，其狗齕人， 使者不敢往，乃酤佗家之酒。問曰：「何為不酤莊氏之酒？」對曰：「今日莊氏之酒酸。」 故曰：「不殺其狗則酒酸。」
桓公問管仲曰：「治國何患？」對曰：「最苦社鼠。夫社， 木而塗之，鼠因自託也。燻之則木焚，灌之則塗，此所以苦於社鼠也。今人君左右， 出則為勢重以收利於民，入則比周謾侮蔽惡以欺於君，不誅則亂法，誅之則人主危。據而有之， 此亦社鼠也。」
堯欲傳天下於舜，鯀諫曰：「不祥哉！孰以天下而傳之於匹夫乎？」 堯不聽，舉兵而誅殺鯀於羽山之郊。共工又諫曰：「孰以天下而傳之於匹夫乎？」 堯不聽，又舉兵而誅共工於幽州之都。於是天下莫敢言無傳天下於舜。仲尼聞之曰： 「堯之知舜之賢，非其難者也。夫至乎誅諫者必傳之舜，乃其難也。」
荊莊王有茅門之法，曰：「群臣大夫諸公子入朝，馬蹄踐霤者，廷理斬其輈， 戮其御。」於是太子入朝，馬蹄踐霤，廷理斬其輈，戮其御。太子怒，入為王泣曰： 「為我誅戮廷理。」王曰：「法者，所以敬宗廟，尊社稷。故能立法從令尊敬社稷者， 社稷之臣也，焉可誅也？夫犯法廢令不尊敬社稷者，是臣乘君而下尚校也。臣乘君則主失威， 下尚校則上位危。威失位危，社稷不守，吾將何以遺子孫？」於是太子乃還走，避舍露宿三日，北面再拜請死罪。
一曰：楚王急召太子。楚國之法，車不得至於茆門。天雨，廷中有潦， 太子遂驅車至於茆門。廷理曰：「車不得至茆門。〔至茆門〕，非法也。」太子曰： 「王召急，不得須無潦。」遂驅之。廷理舉殳而擊其馬，敗其駕。太子入為王泣曰： 「廷中多潦，驅車至茆門，廷理曰：『非法也。』舉殳擊臣馬，敗臣駕。王必誅之。」 王曰：「前有老主而不踰，後有儲主而不屬，矜矣！是真吾守法之臣也。」乃益爵二級， 而開後門出太子。「勿復過。」
衛嗣君謂薄疑曰：「子小寡人之國以為不足仕，則寡人力能仕子，請進爵以子為上卿。」 乃進田萬頃。薄子曰：「疑之母親疑，以疑為能相萬乘所不窕也。然疑家巫有蔡嫗者，疑母甚愛信之， 屬之家事焉。疑智足以信言家事，疑母盡以聽疑也。然已與疑言者，亦必復決之於蔡嫗也。故論疑之智能， 以疑為能相萬乘而不窕也；論其親，則子母之間也；然猶不免議之於蔡嫗也。今疑之於人主也， 非子母之親也，而人主皆有蔡嫗。人主之蔡嫗，必其重人也。重人者，能行私者也。夫行私者， 繩之外也；而疑之〔所〕言，法之內也。繩之外與法之內，讎也，不相受也。」
一曰：衛君之晉，謂薄疑曰：「吾欲與子皆行。」薄疑曰：「媼也在中， 請歸與媼計之。」衛君自請薄媼。〔薄媼〕曰：「疑，君之臣也，君有意從之，甚善。」 衛君曰：「吾以請之媼，媼許我矣。」薄疑歸，言之媼也，曰：「衛君之〔愛〕疑奚與媼？」 媼曰：「不如吾愛子也。」「衛君之賢疑奚與媼也？」曰：「不如吾賢子也。」 「媼與疑計家事，已決矣，乃請決之於卜者蔡嫗。今衛君從疑而行，雖與疑決計，必與他蔡嫗敗之。 如是，則疑不得長為臣矣。」
吳起，衛左氏中人也，使其妻織組而幅狹於度。吳子使更之。其妻曰： 「諾。」及成，復度之，果不中度，吳子大怒。其妻對曰：「吾始經之而不可更也。」 吳子出之，其妻請其兄而索〔入〕。其兄曰：「吳子，為法者也。其為法也，且欲以與萬乘致功， 必先踐之妻妾，然後行之，子毋幾索入矣。」其妻之弟又重於衛君，乃因以衛君之重請吳子。 吳子不聽，遂去衛而入荊也。
一曰：吳起示其妻以組，曰：「子為我織組，令之如是。」組已就而效之， 其組異善。起曰：「使子為組，令之如是，而今也異善，何也？」其妻曰：「用財若一也， 加務善之。」吳起曰：「非語也。」使之衣歸。其父往請之，吳起曰：「起家無虛言。」
晉文公問於狐偃曰：「寡人甘肥周於堂，卮酒豆肉集於宮，壺酒不清， 生肉不布，殺一牛遍於國中，一歲之功盡以衣士卒，其足以戰民乎？」狐子曰：「不足。」 文公曰：「吾弛關市之征而緩刑罰，其足以戰民乎？」狐子曰：「不足。」文公曰： 「吾民之有喪資者，寡人親使郎中視事，有罪者赦之，貧窮不足者與之，其足以戰民乎？」 狐子對曰：「不足。此皆所以慎產也；而戰之者，殺之也。民之從公也，為慎產也， 公因而迎殺之，失所以為從公矣。」曰：「然則何如足以戰民乎？」狐子對曰：「令無得不戰。」 公曰：「無得不戰柰何？」狐子對曰：「信賞必罰，其足以戰。」公曰：「刑罰之極安至？」 對曰：「不辟親貴，法行所愛。」文公曰：「善。」
明日令田於圃陸，期以日中為期，後期者行軍法焉。 於是公有所愛者曰顛頡後期，吏請其罪，文公隕涕而憂。吏曰：「請用事焉。」遂斬顛頡之脊， 以徇百姓，以明法之信也。而後百姓皆懼曰：「君於顛頡之貴重如彼甚也，而君猶行法焉，況於我則何有矣。」
文公見民之可戰也，於是遂興兵伐原，克之。伐衛，東其畝，取五鹿。攻陽。勝虢。伐曹。南圍鄭，反之陴。 罷宋圍。還與荊人戰城濮，大敗荊人，返為踐土之盟，遂（城）〔成〕衡雍之義。一舉而八有功。 所以然者，無他故異物，從狐偃之謀，假顛頡之脊也。
夫痤疽之痛也，非刺骨髓，則煩心不可支也；非如是，不能使人以半寸砥石彈之。 今人主之於治亦然：非不知有苦則安；欲治其〔國〕，非如是不能聽聖知而誅亂臣。〔亂臣〕者， 必重人；重人者，必人主所甚親愛也。人主所甚親愛也者，是同堅白也。夫以布衣之資， 欲以離人主之堅白所愛，是以解左髀說右髀者，是身必死而說不行者也。
Chapter XXXIV. Outer Songeries of Sayings, The Upper Right Series
1The ways whereby the sovereign rules over the ministers are three:—
I. If the sovereign finds his influence insufficient to transform the ministers, then he should remove them. Musician K`uang in his reply and Yen Tzŭ in his persuasion both discarded 2 the easy policy of position and advocated the difficult measure of virtue. This is the same as to run on foot after animals while not yet aware how to remove an impending disaster. The possibility of removing disasters is revealed in Tzŭ-hsia's explanation of the Spring and Autumn Annals, "Who is skilful in maintaining his position would nip an evil in the bud early enough." Thus, even Chi-sun reprimanded Chung-ni for obstructing 3 his position. How much more should a sovereign blame rampant ministers? For the same reason, T`ai-kung Wang killed K`uang-yü; and the bondmen and bondwomen refused to ride the noble steed. Duke Ssŭ knew this reason, wherefore he refused to yoke any deer. Hsüeh Kung knew this reason, wherefore he gambled with the twins. Both these statesmen knew the opposition between identity and difference. Thus, the way the enlightened sovereign raises ministers is illustrated by the story of domesticating crows.
II. The lord of men is an attractive 4 target 5 of benefit and injury, which numerous persons would aim to shoot. Therefore, the lord of men is surrounded in common by a number of people. For this reason, if his like and hate are revealed, the inferiors will find opportunity to take, till the lord of men falls into delusion. Should the sovereign communicate the word and opinion of one minister to another, then every minister will hesitate to speak to him while he will lose his dignity. The saying is based on Shên Tzŭ's enumeration of six prudences and on T`ang I-chü's 6 discussion of the archer with stringed arrows. The calamity of the ruler's revealing like and hate is instanced by Kuo Yang's petition for self-reformation and King Hsüan's heaving deep sighs. The attempt to detect the opinion of the ruler is instanced by Lord Ching-kuo's 7 presenting ten ear-beads and Kan Mu's overhearing Hsi-shou's 8 affairs. T`ang-ch`i Kung knew the tact, wherefore he asked about the jade cups. Marquis Chao was skilful in applying the tact, wherefore after listening to any advice, he would sleep by himself. The way of the enlightened sovereign lies in making decisions by himself as encouraged by Shên Tzŭ.
III. If tact does not work, there are always reasons for it. If the wine merchant does not kill his fierce dog, his wine will become sour. Similarly, the state has dogs. Moreover, all the attendants are like the rats gnawing the shrine. Now, the lords of men are not as decisive as Yao in punishing both the first and the second remonstrants or as King Chuang in responding to the Crown Prince, but all are like the mother of Po Yi who would always ask the old woman of Ts`ai to give a decision. They may be anxious to know 9 how to rule over the state, but unable to make rules beforehand in the way the teachers of singing have melodies composed beforehand. Wu Ch`i who divorced his beloved wife and Duke Wên who executed Tien Chieh, both acted contrary to personal feelings. Thus, who can cut open the boils of people must be able to endure the same pain himself.
So much above for the canons.
Annotations to Canon I:—
Not encouraged after being rewarded and honoured and not afraid after being punished and disgraced—in other words, not transformed after the four methods are applied— then such ministers must be removed.
Duke Ching of Ch`i went to Chin and was invited by Duke P`ing to a carousal. Musician K`uang was in company with them. At the opening of the feast, Duke Ching asked Musician K`uang about government, "What will Grand Tutor teach me?" "Your Highness, be sure only to confer favours upon the people," replied Musician K`uang. At the height of the feast, when half-seas-over and about to leave, he again asked Musician K`uang about government. "What will Grand Tutor teach me?" "Your Highness, be sure only to confer favours upon the people," replied K`uang. When Duke Ching was leaving for his lodge and Musician K`uang was seeing him off, he again asked Musician K`uang about government. "Your Highness, be sure only to confer favours upon the people," was again the reply. Upon his return Duke Ching kept thinking about the meaning of the precept and comprehended the saying of Musician K`uang before he awoke fully from the intoxication. Prince Wei and Prince Hsia were two younger brothers of Duke Ching. They won the hearts of the people of Ch`i very well. Their families were noble and wealthy while the people liked them. Thus, their influences rivalled that of the royal house. "This must be endangering my throne," thought Duke Ching. "Now that he told me to confer favours upon the people, does it mean that I must fight with my two younger brothers for winning the hearts of the people?" Accordingly, after his return to his country he opened the granary for distributing alms among all the poor and took money 10 out of the treasury for giving help to orphans and widows, till the granary had no old grain and the treasury had no money left. Those court ladies who did not wait on his bed were given out in marriage. People above the age of seventy were granted pensions of rice. Thus, by displaying beneficence and distributing favours, 11 he fought with his two younger brothers for the people. In the course of two years, the two younger brothers ran out of the country, Prince Hsia finding shelter in Ch`u and Prince Wei running to Chin.
Once Duke Ching and Yen Tzŭ travelled to the district of
Small Sea. They went up the Cypress-Bed Terrace.
Turning homeward to survey his country, Duke
Ching exclaimed, "What a beautiful country! Woven with blue winding and deep
rolling rivers and dotted with stately and dignified mountains! Who will
possess it in the future?" "Will that be the family of T`ien Ch`êng?" said Yen
Tzŭ. "I am in possession of this country. Why do you say, `The family of
T`ien Ch`êng will have it'?" asked the Duke. In reply Yen Tzŭ said:
"Indeed, the family of T`ien Ch`êng have won the hearts of the people of Ch`i
very well. On the one hand, he asks for ranks and emoluments, which he
distributes among the chief vassals. On the
other, he enlarges the measures on lending grain out to poor people and
contracts the measures
12 on taking the grain back from them. Whenever he kills an
ox, he takes only one plate of the beef and with the
rest feeds scholars and warriors.
13 All the year round he takes only
14 of cloth for his own use
and gives the rest to scholars and warriors for clothing. Woods at the
market-place are not more expensive than in the mountains. Fish, salt,
tortoises, turtles, conches, and mussels, from swamps are not more expensive
than from the sea. While the Ruler is increasing taxes, T`ien Ch`êng enlarges
his alms. Once there was a famine in Ch`i. Those who starved to death by the
wayside were innumerable. It was never heard that father and son who led each
other and turned to T`ien Ch`êng for help were not saved from death. Therefore,
even the peoples of Chou and Ch`in have been in groups singing the song:—
Somebody said: "Duke Ching did not know how to make use of his position while Musician K`uang and Yen Tzŭ did not know how to get rid of troubles. To be sure if the hunter relies on the security of the carriage, utilizes the legs of the six horses, and makes Wang Liang hold their reins, then he will not tire himself and will find it easy to overtake swift animals. Now supposing he discarded the advantage of the carriage, gave up the useful legs of the horses and the skill of Wang Liang, and alighted to run after the animals, then even though his legs were as quick as Lou Chi's, he would not be in time to overtake the animals. In fact, if good horses and strong carriages are taken into use, then mere bondmen and bondwomen will be good enough to catch the animals. Now, the state is the ruler's carriage while position is his horse. Indeed, not to utilize the position and thereby interdict favour-selling ministers, but to make favours and kindnesses definite and confer them upon All-under-Heaven and do the same as crooked ministers would do in order thereby to fight with them for winning the hearts of the people, is always the same as not to ride the ruler's carriage and not to take advantage of the speed of horses, but to leave the carriage and alight to run after the animals. Hence the saying 18 : `Duke Ching was a sovereign not knowing how to utilize his position while Musician K`uang and Yen Tzŭ were ministers not knowing how to get rid of troubles.' "
Tzŭ-hsia said: "Regicides and parricides as recorded in the Spring and Autumn Annals number tens. Nine of them was an outcome of one day's fermentation. It always grew from a bud and developed into maturity. On the whole the wicked deeds, repeatedly committed, become a pile. When the pile is mature, the urge to commit further villainy becomes strong. When the urge is strong, it is liable to extend to murder. Therefore, the enlightened sovereign uproots them early. Now the attempt of T`ien Ch`êng to launch a rebellion could be seen budding, but the ruler never censured him. Yen Tzŭ never made his ruler suppress offensive ministers but advised him to confer favours. In consequence, Duke Chien suffered the calamity in posterity. Therefore, Tzŭ-hsia says, `Who is skilful in maintaining his position would nip an evil in the bud.' "
Chi-sun was Premier of Lu. Tzŭ-lu was Magistrate of Hou. In the fifth month of the year the Lu State requisitioned a number of able-bodied men to dig a long ditch. During the period of time Tzŭ-lu made rice gruel with the grain out of his private emolument and fed the workmen at the quarters of Wu-fu. Hearing about this, Confucius sent Tzŭ-kung there to overturn the food, break the vessels, and tell him, "The Ruler of Lu rules over the people. Why should you feed them?" Thereby, Tzŭ-lu, changing his colour from anger bared his arms, went in, and said, "Master, do you dislike Yu 19 practising benevolence and righteousness? What Yu has learned from the Master is benevolence and righteousness. To be benevolent and righteous is to give All-under-Heaven one's own possessions and let them share one's own profits. Why do you consider it wrong for Yu to feed the people with the grain out of his private emolument?" In reply Confucius said: "How crude Yu is! I thought you would know as much as this. Yet really you have not come to that. Thus you do not know the rules of propriety. Now, by feeding them you think you love them. To be sure, according to the rules of propriety, the Son of Heaven loves All-under-Heaven, the feudal lords love people within their respective domains, High Officials love their official duties, and scholars and warriors love their families. Who goes beyond the sphere of his love is called `offensive'. Now that the Ruler of Lu rules over the people while you attempt to love them at your pleasure, it means you are offensive. Aren't you absurd?"
Before Confucius had finished his speech, the messenger of Chi-sun arrived, blamed Confucius, and said, "Fei 20 requisitioned the men and set them to work, whereas Master sent a disciple to stop them and feed them. Would you mean to rob Fei of the people?" Thereupon Confucius took his carriage and left Lu. Thus, despite the worthiness of Confucius, even Chi-sun, not being the Ruler of Lu but merely applying the tact of the lord of men from the position of a minister, would nip an evil in the bud, shows that Tzŭ-lu was not allowed to confer private favours and no calamity could grow. How much more should the lord of men? Should the offensiveness of T`ien Ch`êng have been stopped with the position of Duke Ching, there would be no calamity of intimidation and regicide.
T`ai-kung Wang was enfeoffed eastward in Ch`i. By the eastern sea of Ch`i there were retired scholars named K`uangyü and Hua-shih. Being two brothers, both set up the principle: "Neither of us would minister to the Son of Heaven and make friends with the feudal lords, but would till and work and live on the crops and dig a well and drink the water. We would not ask anybody for help and accept neither title from any superior nor emolument from any ruler. We attend not to any official post but to our own physical strength." When T`ai-kung Wang arrived at Camp Hill, he sent men to arrest them and kill them at the first execution. Hearing about this, Duke Tan of Chou, sent out an urgent message from Lu and asked: "Indeed, the two gentlemen were worthies. Why did you kill worthies on receiving the rule over the country?" In reply T`ai-kung Wang said: "These two brothers had set up the principle: `Neither of us would minister to the Son of Heaven and make friends with the feudal lords. We would till and work and live on the crops and dig a well and drink the water. We would not ask anybody for help and receive neither title from any superior nor emolument from any ruler. We attend not to any official post but to our own physical strength.' Their refusal to minister to the Son of Heaven forecast Wang's inability to rule them as subjects. Their refusal to make friends with the feudal lords forecast Wang's inability to set them to work. Their pledge to till and work and live on the crops and dig a well and drink the water and thereby ask nobody for help forecast Wang's inability to encourage them with reward and prohibit them with punishment. Moreover, their decision to accept no title from any superior implied their refusal to work for Wang however intelligent they might be. Their expectation of no emolument from the ruler implied their refusal to render Wang any meritorious service however worthy they might be. Should they refuse any appointment to office, they would choose anarchy; should they attend to no official duties, they would be disloyal. Furthermore, the means whereby the early kings employed their ministers and subjects were either rank and emolument or censure and punishment. Now, if these four means be not sufficient to employ them, over whom shall Wang rule? To let them become celebrated without bearing arms and wearing armour and become famous without tilling the land and weeding the farm is not 21 the way to give teaching to the country. Now suppose there is a horse here which looks like a noble steed and is the best in All-under-Heaven. However, if it would not advance when driven forward nor would it stop when pulled back: and, if pulled to the left, it would not go to the left, and, pulled to the right, it would not go to the right; then even bondmen and bondwomen, humble as they are, would not rely on its legs. Bondmen and bondwomen want to rely on the legs of the steed because thereby they can seek gain and avoid harm. Now that it would not work for anybody, the slaves, humble as they are, would not rely on its legs. Similarly, the two brothers proclaimed themselves worthy personages of the world but would not work for any sovereign. However worthy their deeds might be, if they would not work for the ruler, they were not what the enlightened sovereign ought to take as subjects. They were like the steed that cannot be pulled to the left or right. This was the reason why they were executed."
According to a different source: T`ai-kung Wang was enfeoffed eastward in Ch`i. By the sea there was a worthy named K`uang-yü. Hearing of him, T`ai-kung Wang went to ask for an interview with him. Thrice in front of the gate he left his horse and walked on foot, but K`uang-yü never granted him an interview. Therefore, T`ai-kung Wang censured him. At that time, Duke Tan of Chou was in Lu and went on horseback to stop the execution. Upon his arrival the execution had already been accomplished. "K`uang-yü was a worthy man," said Duke Tan of Chou, "of All-under-Heaven. Why did you punish him, indeed?" In reply T`ai-kung Wang said: "K`uang-yü 22 considered it righteous 23 not to minister to the Son of Heaven nor to make friends with the feudal lords. I was afraid he might disturb the law and alter the morals. Therefore, I took him for the first execution. Now suppose there is a horse here which looks like a noble steed. However, if it would not advance when driven forward, then even bondmen and bondwomen would not rely on its legs for turning the wheels 24 of their carriage."
Ju-êrh once persuaded Duke Ssŭ of Wei of the way of government. Duke Ssŭ was pleased with his persuasion but heaved deep sighs. "Why does Your Highness not appoint him prime minister?" asked the chamberlains. "Indeed, any horse that looks like a deer," replied the Duke, "can be quoted at one thousand pieces of gold. However, there are horses each worth one thousand 25 pieces of gold but no deer worth one thousand pieces of gold. Why? It is because horses would work for men but no deer would work for men. Now, Ju-êrh deserves the premiership in a state of ten thousand chariots, and, besides, has an intention to serve a big state. His mind is not in Wei. Though eloquent and intelligent, he will not work for me. That is the reason why I do not appoint him premier."
When Hsüeh Kung was premier to Marquis Chao of Wey, there were twin brothers among the chamberlains, named Yang-hu and Pan-ch`i. Both were highly regarded by the sovereign 26 but would not do Hsüeh Kung any good. Over this Hsüeh Kung was worried. Therefore, he invited them to a gambling party. He gave each one hundred pieces of gold and let the brothers gamble. Of a sudden, he gave each two hundred pieces more. After they had gambled for a while, the usher came in and said, "The son of Chang Chi is waiting at the gate." Changing colour from anger, Kung took a weapon and passed it to the usher and said, "Kill him with this! I have heard Chi would never do Wên 27 any good." The usher kept standing for a while. Then Chi Yü by the side of them said, "That is not so. In secret I have heard Chi has been doing Your Excellency much good. It seems that nobody else has let Your Excellency know." Thereupon he rejected killing the visitor, and welcomed him as a guest, paid him great courtesies, and said: "Formerly I heard Chi would not do me any good. So I thought of killing him. Now I know he has been sincerely doing me good. How can I forget his kindness?" So saying, he told the granary-keeper to prepare one thousand piculs of grain, the treasurer to prepare five hundred pieces of gold, the stableman to prepare two teams of good horses and strong carriages out of his own stable, and besides ordered the eunuch to get ready twenty beautiful maids from among the court ladies. Of all these he made Chi a present. Accordingly, the twin brothers said to each other: "Who does Kung good, always gains everything; who does not do him good, always loses everything. Why should we choose not to do him good?" Thenceforth they personally encouraged each other to do him good. Thus, even Hsüeh Kung from the position of a minister, by applying the tact of the lord of men, could prevent an evil growing. How much more could the lord of men by doing the same?
To be sure the crow-tamer cuts off the lower feathers. Then the bird must depend upon him for food. How can it go wild? Indeed, the same is true when the enlightened sovereign wants to keep ministers under control. He must make the ministers always profit by the emoluments bestowed by the ruler and submit to the titles conferred by the superior. If they profit by the emoluments bestowed by the ruler and submit to the titles conferred by the superior, how can they remain disobedient?
Annotations to Canon II:—
Shên Tzŭ said: "If the superior's cleverness is visible, people will guard against it; if his stupidity is visible, people will bewilder him; if his knowledge is visible, people will disguise 28 themselves; if his ignorance is visible, people will hide their faults; if his freedom from avarice is visible, people will watch for unguarded moments; if his possession of avarice is visible, people will allure him. Hence the saying: `I find no way to know them. Only by not doing anything I can watch 29 them.' "
According to a different source: Shên Tzŭ said: "Be prudent in your speech, or people will accord 30 with you. Be prudent in your action, or people will follow after you. When you can see, 31 people will hide their defects from you. When your ignorance is visible, people will deceive you. When you have knowledge, people will keep you off. When you have no knowledge, people will trespass against you. Hence the saying `Only by not doing anything the ruler can watch the ministers.' "
T`ien Tzŭ-fang asked T`ang I-chü, "Of what must the archer with stringed arrows be cautious?" In reply I-chü said: "The bird sees you with several hundred eyes, whereas you aim at it with two eyes. You had better be careful about your hiding-place." "Good," said T`ien Tzŭ-fang, "You apply this principle to shooting with stringed arrows; I will apply it to the state." Hearing this, an elder of Chêng said: "T`ien Tzŭ-fang knows the need of making a hiding-place but has not yet found how to make it. To be sure, nihilism and invisibility make the hiding-place."
According to a different source: King Hsüan of Ch`i asked T`ang I Tzŭ about the art of shooting with stringed arrows, "What is most essential to the art of shooting with stringed arrows?" "Carefulness about the hiding-place," replied T`ang I Tzŭ. "What do you mean by `carefulness about the hiding-place'?" asked the King. In reply I Tzŭ said: "The bird sees man with tens of eyes, whereas man sees it with two eyes. How can man not be careful about his hiding-place? Therefore, I say, `The essence of the art lies in carefulness about the hiding place.' " "How is the rule over All-under-Heaven," remarked the King, "different from this? Now, with two eyes the lord of men sees the whole country, whereas the country sees the lord of men with a myriad eyes. Then how can he make himself a hiding-place?" In reply I Tzŭ said: "An elder of Chêng had the saying, `Indeed, the ruler, being empty and tranquil and doing nothing, is invisible.' Is this the way to make the hiding-place?"
Kuo Yang was highly regarded by the ruler of Chêng. When he heard the Ruler disliked him, he accompanied him at a carousal and purposely said beforehand to the Ruler: "If thy servant happens to be so unlucky as to have committed certain faults, may Your Highness kindly permit thy servant to know them. Then thy servant will ask permission to reform himself in hope that he may evade capital punishment."
Once an itinerant spoke to King Hsüan of Han about the way of government. King Hsüan was pleased with his theory and heaved deep sighs. On the same day 32 the courtiers reported the King's pleasure promptly to the itinerant in order to place him under an obligation.
When Lord Ching-kuo 33 was Premier of Ch`i, the Queen died. As nobody had yet known who would be installed as the new Queen, he presented ear-beads to the King and thereby knew it.
According to a different source: Hsüeh Kung was Premier under King Wei of Ch`i, when the royal consort died. There were then ten ladies admired by the King. Among these Hsüeh Kung wanted to know the one whom the King wanted in particular, so that he would ask the King to install that one as the new consort. However, should the King listen to him, then his suggestion would prevail upon the King and he would be highly regarded by the new consort; should the King not listen to him, his persuasion must have been ineffective and he would be slighted by the new consort. Thus, he wanted to know beforehand the one whom the King wanted in order to encourage the King to install that one. Thereupon he ordered ten ear-beads and specially beautified one of them. Then he presented them to the King. The King distributed them among the ten ladies. Next day, when he went to court, he saw the lady who had the most beautiful bead and so encouraged the King to install her as the new consort.
When Kan Mu was premier to King Hui of Ch`in, King Hui liked Kung-sun Yen. One day he spoke in private to him, "I am going to appoint you prime minister." This was overheard through a hole in the wall by a subordinate official of Kan Mu, and was reported to him. Meanwhile, Kan Mu went in to have audience with the King and said, "As Your Majesty has found a worthy premier, thy servant dares to repeat bows and offer his congratulations." "I have committed the state," said the King, "to your hands. Why should I find another worthy premier?" "Your Majesty is going to make Hsi-shou premier," was the reply. "Where did you hear that?" asked the King. "Hsi-shou told thy servant." Angry at Hsi-shou's letting out the news, the King banished him.
According to a different source: Hsi-shou was a good general in All-under-Heaven serving under the King of Liang-Wey. The King of Ch`in wanted to get him and entrust him with the rule over All-under-Heaven. "Yen is a minister," replied Hsi-shou, "and therefore dare not leave the country of his ruler at any time." In the course of one year Hsi-shou displeased the King of Liang-Wey and sought refuge in Ch`in. The King of Ch`in accorded him a very cordial reception. Chu Li-chi, the then Commander of Ch`in's forces, fearing lest Hsi-shou should replace him, bored a hole through the wall of the room where the King would have confidential conversations. Suddenly, the King actually consulted with Hsi-shou and said, "I want to attack Han. What will be the best way?" "The coming autumn will be the right time," replied Hsi-shou. "I want to entrust you," said the King, "with the state affairs then. You must not let out this secret." Running backward and repeating his bows, Hsi-shou said, "At your service." By that time Chu Li-chi had already heard the conversation. He told every courtier he met, "An army will be raised in autumn to attack Han with Hsi-shou as Commander." Thus, in a day all the courtiers knew this. In a month everybody within the boundary knew it. The King, accordingly, summoned Chu Li-chi and said, "Why is everybody panic-stricken? Whence did the rumour come out?" "It seems," replied Chu Li-chi, "that Hsi-shou declared the news." "I never spoke to Hsi-shou," said the King, "about the expedition. Why did he create such a rumour?" In reply Chu Li-chi said: "Hsi-shou is a refugee finding shelter in this country. As he trespassed against his former ruler recently, he is still feeling helpless in a new place. Therefore, he has created such a rumour in order to exercise his influence among the masses of people." "Right," the King said and sent men to summon Hsi-shou, but Hsi-shou had already made his escape to some other feudal lord.
T`ang-ch`i Kung said to Marquis Chao, "Suppose there is a jade cup worth one thousand pieces of gold, but it has no bottom. Can it be used in serving water?" "No," replied Marquis Chao. "Then suppose there is an earthen pot which does not leak. Can it be used in serving wine?" "Yes," replied Marquis Chao. Thereupon Chi Kung said: "Indeed, the earthen pot is the cheapest vessel, but, not leaking, can be used in serving wine. The jade cup, worth one thousand pieces of gold, is the most expensive vessel, but without a bottom it leaks and cannot be used in serving water. If so, who will ever pour any kind of liquid into it? Now, the lord of men who lets out the words of ministers is similar to the jade cup without a bottom. Though possessed of holiness and intelligence, he cannot exercise his tact to the utmost, for he divulges secrets." "Right," said the Marquis. Ever after Marquis Chao had heard these words from T`ang-chi Kung, whenever he wanted to launch any drastic measure in Allunder-Heaven, he would always sleep by himself for fear lest he should talk in his sleep and let anybody else know his scheme.
According to a different source: T`ang-chi Kung had an interview with Marquis Chao and said: "Suppose there are a white jade cup with no bottom and a pottery one with a bottom. When thirsty, which will Your Highness use for drinking?" "The pottery one of course," replied the Marquis. "The white jade cup is beautiful," said T`ang chi-kung, "but Your Highness will not drink from it. Is it because it has no bottom?" "Yes," replied the Ruler. Then T`ang Chi-kung said: "The lord of men who divulges the words of ministers, is comparable to the jade cup with no bottom." Thenceforth, every time after T`ang Chi-kung had an audience and went out, Marquis Chao would always lie by himself simply for fear lest he should talk in his sleep and divulge the conversation to his consorts.
Shên Tzŭ said: "Who sees things by himself, is called clear-sighted; who hears things by himself is called acute; and who can make decision by himself, is fit to rule 34 over All-under-Heaven.
Annotations to Canon III:—
Once there was a Sung man selling wine. His measures were very fair. His reception of customers was very courteous. The wine he made was excellent. He hoisted his banner 35 in an imposing manner. Yet he had no business and the wine would become sour. Wondering at the cause, he asked his acquaintance, an elder of the village, named Yang Ching. "It is because your dog is fierce," replied Ching. "If my dog is fierce, why does my wine not sell well?" "Because customers are afraid of it. When people send out children with money and pots or jars to buy wine from you, your dog would jump at them and sometimes bite them. This is the reason why your wine does not sell well and becomes sour." Indeed, the state has dogs, too. Thus experts in statecraft, bearing the right tact in mind, want to enlighten the sovereign of ten thousand chariots, whereas ministers like the fierce dog of the wine merchant would jump at them and bite them. This is the reason why the lord of men is deluded and experts in statecraft are not taken into service.
Similarly, Duke Huan asked Kuan Chung what was the greatest menace to the government of a state. "The greatest menace is the shrine rats," was the reply. "Why should we worry so much about the shrine rats?" asked the Duke. Then Kuan Chung replied: "Your Highness must have seen people building a shrine. They set up the beams and then plaster them. Yet rats gnaw holes through the plaster and shelter themselves inside. Then, if you smoke them out, you are afraid you might burn the wood; if you pour water over them, you are afraid the plaster might crumble. This is the reason why the shrine rats cannot be caught. Now the courtiers of the ruler of men, when out, are influential in position and thereby exploit the people; when in, they join one another in hiding their faults from the ruler. From inside they spy out the ruler's secrets and report them to foreign authorities, till they become influential both at home and abroad and all ministers and magistrates regard them as helpful. 36 If the authorities do not censure them, they continue disturbing laws; if they censure them, then the ruler will shield 37 them from blame, shelter them from punishment, 38 and still keep them around. They are the shrine rats in the state. Similarly, ministers who have the grip on state affairs and issue prohibitions at their pleasure, always giving advantages to those doing them good and causing injuries to those not doing them any good, are the same as fierce dogs.
Indeed, when chief vassals have become fierce dogs and would bite upholders of the true path, and when the courtiers have turned into shrine rats and would spy out the ruler's secrets, if the lord of men takes no notice of the impending danger, how can he avoid delusion and how can the state evade ruin?
According to a different source: Among the wine merchants in Sung there was a certain Chuang family. Their wine was always excellent. One day somebody sent a servant to buy the wine of the Chuangs. As their dog would bite customers, the servant dared not go to them and bought wine from another family. When he was asked why he did not buy the wine of the Chuangs, he replied, "The wine of the Chuangs is to-day sour." Hence the saying: "If the wine merchant does not kill his dog, his wine will become sour."
According to another different source: Duke Huan asked Kuan Chung, "What was the chief menace to the government of a state?" "The greatest distress is caused by the shrine rats," was the reply. "Indeed, after the shrine had its beams 39 set up and had them plastered, rats would hide themselves inside. If you attempt to smoke them out, the wood will be burned; if you pour water over them, the plaster will crumble. This is the way you are distressed by the shrine rats. Now, the courtiers of the ruler of men, when out, are influential in position and thereby exploit the people; when in, they join one another in slandering their enemies and in covering their own faults, and thereby deceive the ruler. If not censured, they keep disturbing laws; if censured the lord of men will shield 40 them from blame, shelter them from punishment, and still keep them around. They are shrine rats, too."
Similarly, ministers who have the grip on state affairs and issue prohibitions at their pleasure, always giving advantages to those doing them good and causing injuries to those not doing them any good, are fierce dogs, too. Therefore, if the courtiers become shrine rats and the administrators of state affairs turn into fierce dogs, the right type of statecraft will not function.
When Yao wanted to transfer the rule over All-underHeaven to Shun, against such a measure K`un remonstrated with him saying: "How inauspicious! Who would transfer the rule of All-under-Heaven to a commoner?" Yao never listened to him but raised an army and killed him in the vicinity of the Feather Mountains. Likewise, the Minister of Public Works remonstrated with him, saying, "Nobody should transfer the rule over All-under-Heaven to a commoner." Yao never listened to him but also raised an army and banished the Minister of Public Works to the city of Yu-chou. Thenceforth, All-under-Heaven dared not disapprove the transfer of the rule over All-under-Heaven to Shun. Hearing this, Chung-ni said: "It is not difficult for Yao to know the worthiness of Shun. Indeed, to punish the remonstrants and thereby effect the transfer of the throne to Shun was his difficulty."
According to a different source: Chung-ni said, "Not to ruin the result of observation with the object of suspicion is difficult."
King Chuang of Ching once issued the law of the inner gate 41 to the effect that "When any Ministers, High Officers, and Princes enter the court, if the hoofs of anybody's horse walk upon the `eavesdrops', the court guard should cut down the shaft of his carriage and execute his coachman." In the meantime, the Crown Prince entered the court. As soon as his horse trod on the "eavesdrops", the guard cut down the shaft of his carriage and executed his coachman. Angry at this, the Crown Prince went in to see the King and with tears in his eyes said, "May Your Majesty punish the guard for me!" In response the King said: "The law is the means whereby the ancestral shrine and the Altar of the Spirits of Land and Grain are revered. Therefore, who can live up to the law, carry out orders, and thereby revere the Shrine of the Spirits of Land and Grain, is a loyal subject to the community. Why should such a man be punished then? To be sure, who violates the law, discards orders, and thereby shows no respect to the Shrine of the Spirits of Land and Grain, is a subject offending his ruler and an inferior disobeying his superior. 42 If the subject offends his ruler, then the sovereign will lose his authority; if the inferior disobeys his superior, then the superior's status will be endangered. With my authority lost and my status endangered and the Altar of the Spirits of Land and Grain not safeguarded what can I bequeath to my descendants?" Thereupon the Crown Prince ran backward, kept away from his residence, stayed outdoors for three days, faced the north, repeated his bows, and apologized for the capital crime.
According to a different source: Once upon a time the King of Ch`u sent urgently for the Crown Prince. The law of the Ch`u State allowed no carriage to reach the inner gate of the palace. It was raining. There were puddles in the courtyard. Therefore, the Crown Prince had to take his carriage as far as the inner gate. "No carriage is allowed," shouted the court guard, "to reach the inner gate. To take any carriage as far as the inner gate 43 is against the law." "His majesty's summon is so urgent," said the Crown Prince, "that I cannot wait till the puddles dry up." So saying, he drove onward. Raising his halberd, the guard hit the horse and broke the yoke. The Crown Prince then went in to see the King and with tears in his eyes said: "There were in the courtyard so many puddles that I had to take the carriage as far as the inner gate. The guard, however, said it was against the law, raised his halberd, hit thy servant's horse and broke the yoke of thy servant's carriage. May Your Majesty be sure to punish him!" "With the aged sovereign in the front," remarked the King, "he never neglected the law; with the future ruler in the rear he never showed any favour. How worthy he must be! He is truly my law-abiding subject." Thereupon the King raised the rank of the guard by two grades, sent out the Crown Prince through the back gate, and prevented him from going through the inner gate again.
Duke Ssŭ 44 of Wei said to Po Yi: "You regard my state as small and therefore not worth serving. Yet I have ability to take you into service. Shall I raise your rank and appoint you High Noble?" So saying, he added one million mou 45 of fields to his emolument. In response to this Po Tzŭ said: "Yi's mother loves Yi and thinks Yi is even able to serve as prime minister to a ruler of ten thousand chariots with no insufficiency. However, Yi's family witch, Old Woman Ts`ai, is very much liked and believed by Yi's mother and is entrusted with all domestic affairs. Now, Yi is intelligent enough to be told 46 about the domestic affairs and his mother should always listen to him. However, whatever she had agreed with Yi, she would always refer to Old Woman Ts`ai for decision. Thus, for instance, after discussing Yi's wisdom and ability with the old woman, she came to consider Yi able to serve as prime minister to a ruler of ten thousand chariots. As regards the relationship, it lies between mother and son. Nevertheless, she could not help consulting Old Woman Ts`ai. Now, the relationship between Yi and the lord of men is not as intimate as that between mother and son while the lord of men always has witches like Old Woman Ts`ai. The witches of the lord of men are, no doubt, his powerful vassals, who are able to practise selfishness. Indeed, to practise selfishness is contrary to the inked string, whereas what Yi speaks about is always in accordance with the law. Who acts contrary to the inked string and who stands in accordance with the law are enemies and never tolerate each other."
According to a different source: The Ruler of Wei was going to Chin and said to Po Yi: "I want you to go along with me." "Mother is at home. May I go home and consult with her about the matter?" Thereupon the Ruler of Wei went himself to ask permission. "Yi is a subject," said Mother Po, "to Your Highness. It is very kind of you to take him along." Then the Ruler said to Po Yi: "I already 47 asked Mother. She gave me permission." When Po Yi went home, he asked his mother, "Who loves Yi better, His Highness or Mother?" "He does not love my son so much as I do," replied the mother. "Who recognizes Yi's worthiness more, His Highness or Mother?" "He does not recognize my son's worthiness so much as I do." Finally Yi said: "Every time after Mother and Yi discussed domestic affairs and decided on a certain plan, she would refer it to the Old Woman of Ts`ai, a fortune-teller, for the second decision. Now the ruler of Wei is going to take Yi along. Though he will decide with Yi on his plans, yet he will certainly consult some other Old Woman Ts`ai and break the plans. If such be the case, Yi will not be able to serve him long as Minister."
Indeed, the teacher of singing first teaches the pupil vocal gestures and different pitches. After the pupil becomes 48 able to express the clear lingual sounds, then the teacher begins to teach him real singing.
According to a different source: The teacher of singing, first of all, conforms the pupil's voice to certain rules. When singing staccato,49 the pupil must set his tone with guttural sounds; when singing legato,50 he must set his tone with lingual sounds. If his staccato is not set with guttural sounds and his legato not with lingual sounds, then he is not teachable. 51
Wu Ch`i was a native of Tso-shih in Wei. Once he asked his wife to weave a silk band. When finished, the band was too narrow for the regular width. So he asked her to weave a new one. "All right," said his wife. When finished, it was measured as before but fell short of the regular width, too. At this Wu Ch`i was very angry. In response his wife said: "After I had set in the warp, I could not change the width any more." Wu Ch`i divorced her. Then his wife asked her elder brother to send her back. Her elder brother said: "Wu Ch`i is a law-abiding man. In abiding by the law, he wants to apply legalism to his wife first and then to his son in order that some day he will be in a position to render a ruler of ten thousand chariots meritorious services. Give up your hope for reinstatement as his wife." Her younger brother had 52 influence on the Ruler of Wei. Therefore, through the influence of the Ruler of Wei he asked Wu Ch`i to take her back, but Wu Ch`i never listened to him and finally left Wei for Ching.
According to a different source: Wu Ch'i showed his wife a silk band and said to her: "Will you weave for me a silk band exactly like this one?" When the band was woven, he tried 53 it and found it extraordinarily well done. "I told you," said Wu Ch`i, "to weave for me a silk band exactly like this one, but now it is extraordinarily well done. Why?" In reply his wife said: "The material was the same, but I added a great deal of effort to make it better than the sample." "That was not what I told you to do." So saying, Wu Ch`i let his wife wear it and sent her home. Her father went to ask him to take her back. However, Wu Ch`i said, "Ch`i's house admits no empty word."
Duke Wên of Chin once asked Hu Yen: "If your Highness fills the reception hall with sweet tastes and fat meat, leaves a few cups of wine and a few plates of meat in the inner court, and lets the wine in the jar have no time to become clear and the raw meat have no time to be laid out, and if on killing an ox he would distribute the beef among the people in the country and clothe the officers and soldiers with the whole year's products of the weavers, will this be sufficient to make the people go to war?" "Insufficient," replied Hu Tzŭ. "Suppose I reduce the custom duties and business taxes and loosen censure and punishment, will that be sufficient to make the people go to war?" "Insufficient," replied Hu Tzŭ. "Suppose I personally send a courtier to look after the matter when anybody needs money for a funeral rite, give pardons to criminals and bestow favours upon the poor and the needy. Will this be sufficient to make the people go to war?" In reply Hu Tzŭ said: "All these methods are ways of earning one's livelihood. To make the people go to war, however, is to put them to death. Now that the people obey Your Highness on purpose to earn their livelihood, if Your Highness thereby drives them to their death, then they will lose the cause to obey Your Highness." "If so," asked the Duke, "what will be sufficient to make the people go to war?" "Make them unable to do anything but fighting," was the reply. "How to make them unable to do anything but fighting?" asked the Duke. "By making reward of faith and punishment definite," replied Hu Tzŭ. "This will be sufficient to make them go to war." "How far must the extremity of censure and punishment extend?" asked the Duke. "As far as any relative or noble held guilty. The law must prevail among the most beloved," replied Hu Tzŭ. "Good," remarked the Duke.
On the following day Duke Wên issued an order: A field-hunt is to be held at the Gardening Land; the time is fixed at noon sharp; whoever arrives late shall be court-martialled. There arrived late a favourite of Duke Wên, named Tien Chieh. The criminal judge asked the Duke to pass a sentence on him. Shedding tears, the Duke worried over it. But the judge said, "May Your Highness carry out the order!" Finally he cut Tien Chieh in two at the back in order to warn the hundred surnames and to prove the faith of the law. Thenceforth all the hundred surnames were afraid of punishment and said: "His Highness made so much of Tien Chieh. Still he applied the law to the case. How much less can we hope for pardon?"
Perceiving his ability to make the people go to war, Duke Wên raised an army, attacked Yüan, and took it. Attacking Wei, he made their field-ridges run eastward and thereby facilitate his military operations. He took Five Deer, attacked Yang, and defeated Kuo. Then he attacked Ts`ao and marched southward to besiege Chêng and upset the city walls. Then he raised the siege of Sung and fought with the Chings at Ch`êng-p`u and put them to rout. Turning homeward, he took an oath at Foot-Earth, and finally accomplished at Hêng-yung the righteousness of honouring the House of Chou. Thus, in an expedition he completed eight achievements. As to why he was so successful, there was no other reason than this, that he followed the counsel of Hu Yen and made use of the back of Tien Chieh.
Indeed the pain of the boil, unless the bone and marrow are pierced, the worried mind will no longer be able to bear. If the bone and marrow are not pierced, nobody can use the half-inch stone-needle to cut the boil open. The same is true with the lord of men in government. Unless he knows hardship, he cannot have peace. If he wants to govern his country, unless he experiences the pain, he will not be able to listen to the holy and the intelligent and remove the rebellious ministers. Rebellious ministers are always powerful men. Powerful men are always very near and dear to the lord of men. The relationship between the sovereign and his favourites is as inseparable as that between "Hard and White". 54 Indeed, if any wearer of hemp clothes attempts from such a humble position to remove the favourites of the lord of men who are as inseparable from him as hard from white, it will be as dangerous as to cut off the left thigh and speak to the right one. This is the reason why his body will be put to death and his theory never will prevail.
2. With Ku Kuang-ts`ê 合 above 勢 should be 舍.
3. With Wang Hsien-shên 遇 above 勢 should be 遏.
4. With Kao Hêng 軺 reads 招.
5. With Kao 轂 reads 彀.
6. 鞠 should be supplied below 易 in accordance with the annotation.
7. With Wang Hsien-shên 氏 should be 君.
8. 犀首 was originally name of an official post in Wey, which post Kung-sun Yen held so long, till it became his style.
9. With Wang Hsien-shên 知貴 seems to be a mistake for 欲知.
10. With Yü Yüeh 餘 above 財 is superfluous.
11. With Wang Hsien-shên 惠施 should be 施惠.
12. 斗斛區釜 refer to different measures for grain.
13. 士 or "gentry" in this case connotes both scholars and warriors.
14. 二制. One chih is about eighteen feet.
15. They feared they might be held under suspicion by the ruling authorities if they kept singing his praises.
16. The Book of Poatry, Pt. II. Bk. VII, IV, 3, trans. by Legge.
17. With Wang Hsien-shen 之歌舞 should be 歌舞之.
18. Both Hirazawa's and Waseda's editions have 故曰 in place of 或曰.
19. The personal name of Tzŭ-lu.
20. The personal name of Chi-sun.
21. 非 should be supplied above 所以教於囯.
22. With Wang Hsien-shen 也 below 狂矞 is superfluous.
23. 議 means 義.
24. 軫 really means "the bar behind a carriage". When it turns, the wheels of the carriage turn, too. Therefore, to turn the bar is the same as to turn the wheels.
25. With Kao Hêng 百 above 金 should be 千 as found in Wang Ch`ung's "Refutation of Han Fei Tzŭ".
26. I propose 主 for 王.
27. The personal name of Hsüeh Kung, i.e. Lord Mêng-ch`ang.
28. Hirazawa's edition has 飾 in place of 惑 below 人.
29. With Kao Hêng 規 in both cases means 窺.
30. With Yü Yüeh 知 is a mistake for 和.
31. With Kao Hêng 知 above 見 is superfluous.
32. With Yü Yüeh 曰 should be 日 and 引 above 王 should be 以.
33. T`ien Ying was his real name.
34. With Ku Kuang-ts`ê 主 should be 王.
35. In addition to the sign-board he hangs up, the Chinese storekeeper frequently hoists his banner for advertising purposes.
36. With Wang Hslen-shên 富 is a mistake for 輔.
37. With Ku Kuang-ts`ê 安 above 据 means 案, and 不 above it should be 所.
38. With Ku 腹 should be supplied below 據.
39. With Kao Hêng 樹 should be supplied above 木.
40. With Ku Kuang-ts`ê 危 above 據 should be 安.
41. With Sun I-jang 茅門 should be 雉門.
42. With Wang Hsien-shên 下尚校 should be 下校尚 which means 下亢上.
43. With Wang 至茆門 should be repeated.
44. 嗣君 should be 嗣公 and so throughout the annotation.
45. 萬頃. One ch`ing is one hundred mou. One mou is a Chinese acre; one English acre is about 6.6 mou.
46. With Ku Kuang-ts`ê 信 above 言 is superfluous.
47. With Wang Hsien-shên 以 below 吾 should be 已.
48. With Ku Kuang-ts`ê 反 should be 及.
51. 謂 above 教 means 為.
52. With Wang Hsien-shên 又 reads 有.
53. With Wang 效 should be 較 but with Kao Hêng 效 means 考 or 驗.
54. Kung-sun Lung made a epistemological analysis of the qualities of physical objects with special reference to the tactile and the visible qualities, for example, hardness and whiteness. A similar analysis was made two thousand years later in the West, first by Descartes and Locke and then by Berkeley and Hume. Distinguishing between the primary and the secondary qualities, Descartes and Locke considered solidity or hardness as primary and whiteness as secondary. According to them, the primary qualities of physical objects have objective existence while the secondary qualities are due to mental activities of the perceiver. Thus, both of them were subjectified by Berkeley, and Hume even went so far as to disprove the substantiality of the perceiving mind. The attention of our Chinese philosopher, Kung-sun Lung, was attracted to the relationship between hardness and whiteness, namely, between a primary quality and a secondary one, which has evidently interested no thinker in the West. According to Kung-sun Lung, whiteness is perceived by the eyes but never by the hand. Yet both inhere equally in the same object. Are hardness and whiteness two distinct qualities in objective existence or are they the same thing perceived by different senses? If neither the hands nor the eyes can solve this problem, who can solve it? These were some of the puzzling problems Kung-sun Lung raised and attempted to solve.
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