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經一： 賞罰共，則禁令不行。何以明之？〔明之〕以造父、於期。子罕為出彘， 田恆為圃池，故宋君、簡公弒。患在王良、造父之共車，田連、成竅之共琴也。
經二： 治強生於法，弱亂生於阿，君明於此，則正賞罰〔而〕非仁下也。爵祿生於功，誅罰生於罪， 臣明於此，則盡死力而〔非〕忠君也。君通於不仁，臣通於不忠，則可以王矣。 昭襄知主情而不發五苑；田鮪知臣情故教田章，而公儀辭魚。
經三： 明主者，鑒於外也，而外事不得不成，故蘇代非齊王。人主鑒於上也，而居者不適不顯， 故潘壽言禹情。人主無所覺悟，方吾知之，故恐同衣（於）〔同〕族，而況借於權乎！ 吳章知之，故說以佯，而況借於誠乎！趙王惡虎目而壅。明主之道，如周行人之卻衛侯也。
經四： 人主者，守法責成以立功者也。聞有吏雖亂而有獨善之民，不聞有亂民而有獨治之吏， 故明主治吏不治民。說在搖木之本與引網之綱。故失火之嗇夫，不可不論也。救火者， 吏操壺走火，則一人之用也。操鞭使人，則役萬夫。故所遇術者，如造父之遇驚馬， 牽馬推車則不能進，代御執轡持筴則馬咸騖矣。是以說在椎鍛平夷，榜檠矯直。不然， 敗在淖齒用齊戮閔王，李兌用趙餓主父也。
經五： 因事之理，則不勞而成。故茲鄭之踞轅而歌以上高梁也。其患在趙簡主稅吏請輕重；薄疑之言「國中飽」， 簡主喜而府庫虛，百姓餓而姦吏富也。故桓公巡民而管仲省腐財怨女。不然，則在延陵乘馬不得進，造父過之而為之泣也。
造父御四馬，馳驟周旋而恣欲於馬。恣欲於馬者，擅轡筴之制也。然馬驚於出彘， 而造父不能禁制者，非轡筴之嚴不足也，威分於出彘也。王子於期為駙駕，轡筴不用而擇欲於馬， 擅芻水之利也。然馬過於圃池而駙（馬）〔駕〕敗者，非芻水之利不足也，德分於圃池也。
故王良、造父，天下之善御者也，然而使王良操左革而叱咤之，使造父操右革而鞭笞之，馬不能行十里， 共故也。田連、成竅，天下善鼓琴者也，然而田連鼓上、成竅擑下而不能成曲，亦〔共〕故也。 夫以王良、造父之巧，共轡而御不能使馬，人主安能與其臣共權以為治？以田連、成竅之巧， 共琴而不能成曲，人主又安能與〔其〕臣共勢以成功乎？
司城子罕謂宋君曰：「慶賞賜與，民之所喜也，君自行之； 殺戮誅罰，民之所惡也，臣請當之。」宋君曰：「諾。」於是出威令，誅大臣，君曰： 「問子罕也。」於是大臣畏之，細民歸之。處期年，子罕殺宋君而奪政。故子罕為出彘以奪其君國。
一曰：造父為齊王駙駕，以渴服馬，百日而服成。服成，請效駕齊王， 王曰：「效駕於圃中。」造父驅車入圃，馬見圃池而走，造父不能禁。造父以渴服馬久矣， 今馬見池，駻而走，雖造父不能治。今簡公之〔以〕法禁其眾久矣，而田成恆利之，是田成恆傾圃池而示渴民也。
一曰：司城子罕謂宋君曰：「慶（駕）〔賞〕賜予者，民之所好也，君自行之； 誅罰殺戮者，民之所惡也，臣請當之。」於是戮細民而誅大臣，君曰：「與子罕議之。」居朞年， 民知殺生之命制於子罕也，故一國歸焉。故子罕劫宋君而奪其政，法不能禁也。故曰： 「子罕為出彘，而田成常為圃池也。」今王良、造父共車，人操一邊轡而（入）〔出〕門閭， 駕必敗而道不至也。令田連、成竅共琴，人撫一絃而揮，則音必敗，曲不遂矣。
秦昭王有病，百姓里買牛而家為王禱。公孫述出見之，入賀王曰： 「百姓乃皆里買牛為王禱。」王使人問之，果有之。王曰：「訾之人二甲。夫非令而擅禱， 是愛寡人也。夫愛寡人，寡人亦且改法而心與之相循者，是法不立；法不立，亂亡之道也。 不如人罰二甲，而復與為治。」
一曰：秦襄王病，百姓為之禱；病愈，殺牛塞禱。郎中閻遏、公孫衍出見之， 曰：「非社臘之時也，奚自殺牛而祠社？」怪而問之。百姓曰：「人主病，為之禱；今病愈， 殺牛塞禱。」閻遏、公孫衍說，見王，拜賀曰：「過堯、舜矣。」王驚曰：「何謂也？」對曰： 「堯、舜其民未至為之禱也。今王病，而民以牛禱；病愈，殺牛塞禱。故臣竊以王為過堯、舜也。」 王因使人問之，何里為之，訾其里正與伍老屯二甲。閻遏、公孫衍媿不敢言。居數月，王飲酒酣樂， 閻遏、公孫衍謂王曰：「前時臣竊以王為過堯、舜，非直敢諛也。堯、舜病，且其民未至為之禱也。 今王病而民以牛禱，病愈，殺牛塞禱。今乃訾其里正與伍老屯二甲，臣竊怪之。」王曰： 「子何故不知於此？彼民之所以為我用者，非以吾愛之為我用者也，以吾勢之為我用者也。 吾（適）〔釋〕勢與民相收，若是，吾適不愛而民因不為我用也，故遂絕愛道也。」
秦大饑，應侯請曰：「五苑之草著：蔬（）〔菜〕、橡果、棗栗， 足以活民，請發之。」昭襄王曰：「吾秦法，使民有功而受賞，有罪而受誅。今發五苑之蔬草者， 使民有功與無功俱賞也。夫使民有功與無功俱賞者，此亂之道也。夫發五苑而亂，不如棄棗蔬而治。」
公儀休相魯而嗜魚，一國盡爭買魚而獻之，公儀子不受。其弟諫曰： 「夫子嗜魚而不受者，何也？」對曰：「夫唯嗜魚，故不受也。夫即受魚，必有下人之色； 有下人之色，將枉於法；枉於法，則免於相。雖嗜魚，此不必（能自給）致我魚，我又不能自給魚。 即無受魚而不免於相，雖嗜魚，我能長自給魚。」此明夫恃人不如自恃也，明於人之為己者不如己之自為也。
子之相燕，貴而主斷。蘇代為齊使燕，王問之曰：「齊王亦何如主也？」 對曰：「必不霸矣。」燕王曰：「何也？」對曰：「昔桓公之霸也，內事屬鮑叔，外事屬〔管〕仲， 桓公被髮而御婦人，日遊於市。今齊王不信其大臣。」於是燕王因益大信子之。子之聞之， 使人遺蘇代金百鎰，而聽其所使（之）。
一曰：蘇代為（秦）〔齊〕使燕，見無益子之，則必不得事而還，貢賜又不出， 於是見燕王，乃譽齊王。燕王曰：「齊王何若是之賢也？則將必王乎？」蘇代曰：「救亡不暇，安得王哉？」 燕王曰：「何也？」曰：「其任所愛不均。」燕王曰：「其亡何也？」曰：「昔者齊桓公愛管仲， 置以為仲父，內事理焉，外事斷焉，舉國而歸之，故一匡天下，九合諸侯。今齊任所愛不均，是以知其亡也。」 燕王曰：「今吾任子之，天下未之聞也？」於是明日張朝而聽子之。
潘壽謂燕王曰：「王不如以國讓子之。人所以謂堯賢者，以其讓天下於許由， 許由必不受也，則是堯有讓許由之名，而實不失天下也。今王以國讓子之，子之必不受也， 則是王有讓子之之名，而與堯同行也。」於〔是〕燕王因舉國而屬之子之，〔子之〕大重。
一曰：潘壽，（闞）〔隱〕者。燕使人聘之。潘壽見燕王曰： 「臣恐子之之如益也。」王曰：「何益哉？」對曰：「古者禹死，將傳天下於益， 啟之人因相與攻益而立啟。今王信愛子之，將傳國子之，太子之人盡懷印，為子之之人無一人在朝廷者。 王不幸棄群臣，則子之亦益也。」王因收吏璽，自三百石以上皆效之子之，子之大重。 夫人主之所以鏡照者，諸侯之士徒也，今諸侯之士徒皆私門之黨也。人主之所以自淺娋者， 巖穴之士徒也，今巖穴之士徒皆私門之舍人也。是何也？奪（號）〔褫〕之資在子之也。 故吳章曰：「人主不佯憎愛人。佯愛人，不得復憎也；佯憎人，不得復愛也。」
一曰：燕王欲傳國於子之也，問之潘壽，對曰：「禹愛益而任天下於益， 已而以啟人為吏。及老，而以啟為不足任天下，故傳天下於益，而勢重盡在啟也。 已而啟與友黨攻益而奪之天下，是禹名傳天下於益，而實令啟自取之也。此禹之不及堯、舜明矣。 今王欲傳之子之，而吏無非太子之人者也，是名傳之而實令太子自取之也。」燕王乃收璽， 自三百石以上皆效之子之，〔子之〕遂重。
趙王遊於圃中，左右以菟與虎而輟，（盼）〔盻〕然環其眼。王曰：「可惡哉，虎目也！」 左右曰：「平陽君之目可惡過此。見此未有害也，見平陽君之目如此者，則必死矣。」其明日， 平陽君聞之，使人殺言者，而王不誅也。
搖木者一一攝其葉，則勞而不徧，左右拊其本，而葉徧搖矣。臨淵而搖木， 鳥驚而高，魚恐而下。善張網者引其綱，（不）〔若〕一一攝萬目而後得，則是勞而難； 引其綱，而魚已囊矣。故吏者，民之本、綱者也，故聖人治吏不治民。
造父方耨，（得）〔時〕有子父乘車過者，馬驚而不行，其子下車牽馬， 父子推車，請造父助我推車。造父因收器，輟而寄載之，援其子之乘，乃始檢轡持筴， 未之用也，而馬（轡驚）〔咸騖〕矣。使造父而不能御，雖盡力勞身助之推車，馬猶不肯行也。 今身使佚，且寄載，有德於人者，有術而御之也。故國者，君之車也；勢者，君之馬也。 無術以御之，身雖勞，猶不免亂；有術以御之，身處佚樂之地，又致帝王之功也。
一曰：田嬰相齊，人有說王者曰：「終歲之計，王不一以數日之閒自聽之， 則無以知吏之姦邪得失也。」王曰：「善。」田嬰聞之，即遽請於王而聽其計。王將聽之矣， 田嬰令官具押券斗石參升之計。王自聽計，計不勝聽，罷食後，復坐，不復暮食矣。 田嬰復謂曰：「群臣所終歲日夜不敢偷怠之事也，王以一夕聽之，則群臣有為勸勉矣。」 王曰：「諾。」俄而王已睡矣，吏盡揄刀削其押券升石之計。王自聽之，亂乃始生。
齊桓公微服以巡民家，人有年老而自養者，桓公問其故。對曰：「臣有子三人， 家貧無以妻之，傭未反。」桓公歸，以告管仲。〔管仲〕曰：「畜積有腐棄之財，則人飢餓； 宮中有怨女，則民無妻。」桓公曰：「善。」乃論宮中有婦人而嫁之。下令於民曰：「丈夫二十而室，婦人十五而嫁。」
一曰：桓公微服而行於民間，有鹿門稷者，行年七十而無妻。桓公問管仲曰： 「有民老而無妻者乎？」管仲曰：「有鹿門稷者，行年七十矣而無妻。」桓公曰： 「何以令之有妻？」管仲曰：「臣聞之：上有積財，則民臣必匱乏於下；宮中有怨女， 則有老而無妻者。」桓公曰：「善。」令於宮中「女子未嘗御出嫁之」。乃令男子年二十而室， 女年十五而嫁。則內無怨女，外無曠夫。
延陵卓子乘蒼龍挑文之乘，鉤飾在前，錯錣在後，馬欲進則鉤飾禁之， 欲退則錯錣貫之，馬因旁出。造父過而為之泣涕，曰：「古之治人亦然矣。夫賞所以勸之而毀存焉， 罰所以禁之而譽加焉。民中立而不知所由，此亦聖人之所為泣也。」
一曰：延陵卓子乘蒼龍與翟文之乘，前則有錯飾，後則〔有〕利錣（筴）， 進則引之，退則筴之。馬前不得進，後不得退，遂避而逸，因下抽刀而刎其腳。造父見之，泣， 終日不食，因仰天而歎曰：「筴，所以進之也，錯飾在前；引，所以退之也，利錣在後。 今人主以其清潔也進之，以其不適左右也退之，以其公正也譽之，以其不聽從也廢之。民懼， 中立而不知所由，此聖人之所為泣也。」
Chapter XXXV. Outer Congeries of Sayings, The Lower Right Series
1 I. If the Ruler enforces reward and punishment with the minister, then prohibitions and ordinances will take no effect. How can I make this clear? With the cases of Tsao-fu and Yü-ch`i as illustration. Tzŭ-han acted like the jumping pig; T`ien Hêng made benevolence and kindness as attractive as the garden pool. In consequence, the Ruler of Sung and Duke Chien were murdered. The calamity of its practice is also illustrated by Wang Liang and Tsao-fu driving the same chariot and T`ien Lien and Ch`êng Chiao playing the same lute.
II. Order and strength are due to the law; weakness and disorder, to its crookedness. If the ruler understands this principle, he must rectify reward and punishment but never assume humanity towards his inferiors. Rank and emolument are due to meritorious services; censure and punishment, to criminal offences. If the minister understands this, he must exert his strength even at the risk of his life but never assume loyalty to the ruler. Thus, with the ruler well versed in the practice of inhumanity and the minister in that of disloyalty, it is possible to rule over All-under-Heaven. For illustration, King Chao-hsiang, knowing the gist of the sovereign, stopped giving the starvelings fruits and vegetables from the Five Parks; and T`ien Yu, knowing the gist of the minister, gave instructions to his son, T`ien Chang. Kung Yi refused the present of fish.
III. If the lord of men takes no interest in foreign affairs, then itinerants from abroad are bound to be successful. For instance, Su Tai reproved the King of Ch`i before the King of Yen. If the lord of men takes interest 2 in ancient precepts, then private scholars are certain to become celebrated. For instance, P`an Shou extolled the acts of King Yü. It was because the lord of men in so doing perceived no fault of his own. Knowing this principle, Fang Wu was afraid of sharing anything with any kin. How much more should the ruler of men be afraid of letting any minister exercise his authority? Knowing this principle, Wu Chang spoke about the futility of anybody showing pretentious love or hatred. How much more futile must it be to show true love or true hatred? The King of Chao disliked the tiger's eyes and thereby incurred delusion. The way of the enlightened sovereign is very often like the way of the official usher of the court of Chou refusing the Ruler of Wei admission.
IV. The lord of men abides by the law and calls actual results to account in order thereby to perform his great achievement. We hear about people who behave well by themselves despite the dissipation of the magistrate; but we never hear about any magistrate who governs himself well but has rebellious people. Therefore, the enlightened sovereign governs the magistrates but never directly governs the people. The basis of this argument is found in shaking the tree by its root and drawing the net by its rope. Therefor, take for further illustration the fire brigade. On suppressing the fire, if the captain takes one jar of water and runs to the fire with it, it means that he performs the function of only one man; whereas if he takes a whip in hand and drives other men to work then he can make a myriad men work. Therefore, upholders of tact can accomplish the result as easily as Tsao-fu handling a frightened horse. When Tsao-fu led the horse and pulled the carriage, he could not advance them. When he replaced the coachman, held the reins in hand and took the whip along, then the horses would all start galloping. Therefore, the principle can be illustrated with the iron hammer flattening metallic plates and the wooden stand straightening bows. Action contrary to the principle is 3 instanced by Cho Ch`ih serving Ch`i and murdering King Min and in the case of Li Tai serving Chao and starving the Father Sovereign to death.
V. If you follow the right course of a task, you will accomplish it without hard work. For this reason, Tzŭ Chêng sat on the shaft and sang and thereby went across the arch of a bridge. The contrary is instanced by the tax collector asking Lord Chien of Chao about the increase and decrease in taxation and by Po Yi speaking about the satiation of the stomach of the country. In this remark Lord Chien rejoiced, but the public treasury was running empty; the hundred surnames were starving, but the officials were wealthy. For further illustration, Duke Huan inspected the real situation of the people, so that Kuan Chung used up the surplus money in the treasury and sent away the resentful girls from the court. Action contrary to the principle is instanced by Cho Tzŭ of Yen-ling who could not advance his carriage while driving the horses and by whom Tsao-fu passed and for whom he wept.
So much above for the canons.
Annotations to Canon I:—
Tsao-fu managed four horses, drove them as fast as possible, turned them around everywhere, and thus moved in any direction as he pleased. He could manage the horses in the way he pleased, because he handled the reins and the whip at his will. However, when horses were frightened by the jumping pig, Tsao-fu lost control of them, not because the severity of the reins and the whip became insufficient, but because his authority over the horses was shaken by the jumping pig. Prince Yü-Ch`i harnessed extra horses alongside his chariot, and, without holding the reins and any whip, managed the horses at his pleasure. This was on account of the attractiveness of the fodder and water he was giving them. However, when the horses passed by the garden pool, the extra horses broke away, not because the benefit of his fodder and water became insufficient, but because his kindness was shaken by the garden pool.
For the same reason, though Wang Liang and Tsao-fu were skilful drivers in All-under-Heaven, if you let Wang Liang hold the left rein and thunder the horse onward and let Tsai-fu hold the right rein and whip it on, the horse will not be able to go even ten li, because they held the reins of the same horse together. Likewise, though T`ien Lien and Ch`êng Chiao were skilful players of the lute in Allunder-Heaven, yet if T`ien Lien played the upper notes and Ch`êng Chiao played the lower notes, the result could not be any tune at all, because they handled the same lute. Indeed, even Wang Liang and Tsao-fu, despite their skill could not put the horse to use when they held the reins and the horse together. How much less could the lord of men succeed in government by sharing his power with his ministers? Even T`ien Lien and Ch`êng Chiao, despite their skill, could not make a tune when they played the same lute together. How much less could the lord of men accomplish any achievement by sharing his august position with his ministers?
According to a different source: Tsao-fu served as assistant charioteer to the King of Ch`i. Once, when he thought his work in training the horses to bear thirst was complete he drove the chariot to the garden. As soon as the thirsty horses saw the garden pool they broke away from the chariot and ran to the pool, so that the harness was broken to pieces.
As regards Prince Yü-ch`i, he on behalf of Lord Chien of Chao shaped his course to race for a goal one thousand li away. When he started, a pig hid itself in a ditch. As he got the reins and the whip ready and began to make a rush for the goal, the pig all of a sudden jumped out from the ditch. Thereby the horse was frightened, and the harness was broken to pieces.
Tzŭ-han, Garrison Commander of the Capital, said to the Ruler of Sung: "Reward and bestowal are welcomed by the people. May Your Highness confer them! Execution and punishment are disliked by the people. May thy servant beg to perform them?" "All right," replied the Ruler of Sung. Thenceforth, on issuing important ordinances and on censuring chief vassals, he always said: "Ask Tzŭ-han to give a decision!" Thereupon, chief vassals became afraid of Tzŭ-han while the masses of people turned to him. In the course of one year, Tzŭ-han murdered the Ruler of Sung and usurped the reins of government. Thus, Tzŭ-han acted like a jumping pig and thereby usurped the state from his ruler.
Duke Chien from his supreme status inflicted heavy punishment, carried severe censure, increased taxes, and executed culprits. On the contrary, T`ien Hêng 4 always created compassion and favour and displayed generosity and kindness. Thus, Duke Chien turned the people into thirsty horses and conferred no favour upon them; whereas T`ien Hêng made benevolence and kindness as attractive to the people as the garden pool to the thirsty horses.
According to a different source: Tsao-fu served as assistant charioteer to the King of Ch`i and trained the horses to bear thirst. In one hundred days the training was complete. 5 Then he asked the King of Ch`i to try harnessing the team. "Try them in the garden," ordered the King. When Tsao-fu drove the chariot into the garden, the horses, seeing the garden pool ran wild, and Tsao-fu could not stop them. For a long time Tsao-fu trained the horses to bear thirst. Yet in the presence of a pool the horses all at once ran wild, when even Tsao-fu could not restrain them. Now, for a long period the law of Duke Chien restrained the people; whereas T`ien Hêng gave all kinds of profits to them. In other words, T`ien Hêng emptied the water of the garden pool and showed it to the thirsty people.
According to a different source: Prince Yü-ch`i on behalf of the Ruler of Sung was running a race of one thousand li. After he had harnessed the horses to the chariot, he rubbed the mane 6 and touched the line of the bridle-bit. Then he started, drove on, and advanced the horses. The rings of the yokes hit the leather-ropes, which he immediately stretched and pulled. The horses then bent their knees, straightened their bodies, and started galloping. All of a sudden a pig jumped out from a ditch. The horses moved back and retreated. Even by whipping them he could not drive them forward. They ran wild. He could not stop them by holding the reins.
According to a different source: Ssŭ-ch`êng Tzŭ-han said to the Ruler of Sung: "Reward and bestowal are welcomed by the people. May Your Highness confer them personally! Punishment and execution are disliked by them. May thy servant beg to take charge of them?" Thenceforth, on executing crooked people or on censuring chief vassals, the Ruler always said, "Ask Tzŭ-han to give decision!" In the course of one year, the people knew the order to kill was issued by Tzŭ-han. In consequence, the whole country turned to him. In the long run, Tzŭ-han intimidated the Ruler of Sung and usurped his reins of government. Hence the saying: "Tzŭ-han acted like the jumping pig; T`ien Hêng 7 made benevolence and kindness as attractive as the garden pool." Suppose Wang Liang and Tsao-fu drove the same chariot, each holding the rein on one side, and went out 8 of the village gate. Then the harness would break, and the destination would never be reached. Suppose T`ien Lien and Ch`êng Chiao had the same lute, each handling one string, and started playing it. Then the notes would become disharmonious and no tune could be performed.
Annotations to Canon II:—
King Chao of Ch`in was ill. The hundred surnames in every hamlet bought an ox and every family prayed for the King's earliest recovery. When Kung-sun Shu went out, he saw it. Therefore, he went in to congratulate the King and said, "The hundred surnames in every village bought an ox to pray for Your Majesty's earliest recovery." The King, accordingly, sent men out to inquire into the matter, and found it true. Therefore, the King said: "Make the people of every village pay a fine 9 of two suits of armour. To be sure, who with no order offers prayers at his pleasure, loves me, the King. Indeed, when the people love me, I will have to alter the law and bend my will to comply with their requests. In this manner the law will not stand. If the law does not stand, it leads to chaos and ruin. Thus, the best measure is to fine the people of every village two suits of armour and restore them to order."
According to a different source: King Hsiang of Ch`in was ill. The hundred surnames prayed for his earliest recovery. When he was perfectly recovered from illness, they killed oxen as sacrifices to thank the gods. When courtier Yen O and Kung-sun Yen went out, they saw it and said, "This is not the time of any festival. 10 Why do the people kill oxen and sacrifice them at the shrines?" Out of curiosity they put the question to the people. In reply they said: "When His Majesty was ill, we prayed for his recovery. As he is perfectly recovered from the illness, we kill oxen as sacrifice to thank the gods." Glad to hear this, Yen O and Kung-sun Yen interviewed the King and offered bows and congratulations, saying, "Your Majesty has surpassed Yao and Shun!" "What do you mean?" asked the King in wonder. In reply they said: "During the reigns of Yao and Shun the people never came to pray for the ruler's recovery from his illness. Now, when Your Majesty was ill, the people in the prayers for his earliest recovery promised the gods oxen sacrifices. When Your Majesty had perfectly recovered from the illness, they killed the oxen to fulfil their promise. Therefore, thy servants personally think that Your Majesty surpasses Yao and Shun." The King, accordingly, sent men out to inquire into the matter, found out those villages which had held prayers, and fined every village headman and every leader of five families two suits of armour 11 each. Ashamed of their thoughtlessness, Yen O and Kung-sun Yen dared not speak about it. Several months afterwards, one day, when the King was half-seas-over and happy at a carousal, they both said to the King: "Formerly thy servants said Your Majesty surpassed Yao and Shun, and thereby dared not mean to flatter you. When Yao and Shun were ill, the people never came to pray for the ruler's recovery. Now, when Your Majesty was ill, the people in their prayers for his earliest recovery pledged themselves to sacrifice oxen. When Your Majesty was perfectly recovered from the illness, they killed the oxen to fulfil their pledge. Unexpectedly, however, Your Majesty fined every village headman and every leader of five families two suits of armour each. At such a measure thy servants have been wondering personally." In response the King said: "Why don't you gentlemen know such a reason as this? As to why the people work for me, it is not because of my love that they work for me, it is because of my position. Suppose I discard my position and attempt to win the hearts of the people with love. Then, as soon as I happen to slacken my love, they will no longer work for me. Therefore, I extirpate the policy of love."
Once, when Ch`in had a great famine, Marquis Ying petitioned His Majesty and said: "The grass, 12 vegetables, acorns, dates, and chestnuts in the Five Parks are sufficient to save the people. May Your Majesty give them out?" In reply King Chao-hsien said: "In accordance with the law of our country the people shall be rewarded for merits and punished for crimes. Now, if I give out the vegetables and fruits of the Five Parks, I will in so doing reward men of merit and no merit equally. To be sure, to reward men of merit and no merit equally, leads to disorder. Indeed, instead of giving out the products of the Five Parks and thereby inviting confusion, we may as well discard the fruits and vegetables and thereby maintain order."
According to a different source, the King said: "If I order the fruits of grass, vegetables, dates, and chestnuts in the Five Parks to be given out to the people, these may be sufficient to save them. The measure, however, is to make men of merit and no merit struggle with each other for my gifts. To be sure, instead of giving life to them and thereby inviting confusion, we may as well let them die and thereby keep order. High Officer, leave the matter out!"
T`ien Yu taught his son, T`ien Chang, and said: "If you want to benefit yourself, benefit your ruler first; if you want to benefit your family, benefit your country first."
According to a different source: T`ien Yu taught his son, T`ien Chang, and said: "The sovereign offers ranks and offices; the minister offers wisdom and strength. Hence the saying `Rely on nobody but yourself!' "
Kung-yi Hsiu, Premier of Lu, was fond of fish. Therefore, people in the whole country contentiously bought fish, which they presented to him. However, Kung-yi Tzŭ would not accept the presents. Against such a step his younger brother remonstrated with him and said: "You like fish, indeed. Why don't you accept the present of fish?" In reply he said: "It is solely because I like fish that I would not accept the fish they gave me. Indeed, if I accept the fish, I will be placed under an obligation to them. Once placed under an obligation to them, I will sometime have to bend the law. If I bend the law, I will be dismissed from the premiership. After being dismissed from the premiership, I might not be able to supply myself with fish. On the contrary, if I do not accept the fish from them and am not dismissed the premiership, however fond of fish, I can always supply myself with fish." Thus, he understood the principle that self-reliance is better than reliance on others and also the principle that self-help is better than help by others.
Annotations to Canon III:—
Tzŭ-chih, Premier of Yen, was influential and in charge of all governmental decisions. Once Su Tai representing Ch`i went to Yen, where the King asked him, "What kind of a ruler is the King of Ch`i?" "He will never attain Hegemony," was the reply. "For what reason?" asked the King of Yen. "When Duke Huan was Hegemonic Ruler," replied Tai, "he entrusted Pao Shu with home affairs and Kuan Chung with foreign affairs while he himself left his hair uncombed, enjoyed drives with women, and every day strolled down-town. The present King of Ch`i, however, put no trust in his chief vassals." Thereafter, the King of Yen increased his confidence in Tzu-chih accordingly. Hearing about this, Tzu-chih sent men to present Su Tai one hundred ih of gold and let him use it at his pleasure.
According to a different source: Su Tai went to Yen as envoy from Ch`in. Perceiving that unless he could benefit Tzŭ-chih, he would have to go homeward without accomplishing his mission and would be given no bestowal upon his return to Ch`in, therefore, when he was having an audience with the King of Yen, he purposely praised the King of Ch`i. "If the King of Ch`i is so worthy," asked the King of Yen, "will he become ruler over All-underHeaven?" "If he is hardly able to save his country from ruin," replied Tai, "how can he become ruler over Allunder-Heaven?" "Why?" asked the King of Yen. "Because he does not put his whole confidence in his beloved ministers," replied Tai. "Why will the country go to ruin?" asked the King of Yen. In reply Tai said: "Formerly Duke Huan of Ch`i loved Kuan Chung, made him Uncle, and let him administer home affairs and give decision on foreign affairs, till the whole country turned to him for government. As a result, Duke Huan brought All-under-Heaven under one rule and called nine conferences of the feudal lords. The present King of Ch`i, however, does not put his whole confidence in his beloved ministers. Therefore, thy servant knows his country will go to ruin." "All-under-Heaven have not yet heard," said the King of Yen, "that I have put my whole confidence in Tzŭ-chih." On the following day, he, accordingly, called an assembly of officials in the court and entrusted Tzŭ-chih with all state affairs.
P`an Shou said to the King of Yen: "Your Majesty had better transfer the state to Tzŭ-chih. People have called Yao worthy because he transferred the rule over All-underHeaven to Hsü Yu. As Hsü Yu never would accept the throne, Yao gained the fame for abdicating in favour of Hsü Yu while in fact he never lost his rule over All-under-Heaven. Now, if Your Majesty alienate the state to Tzŭ-chih, Tzŭ-chih never will accept it. Yet in that case Your Majesty will gain fame for abdicating in favour of Tzŭ-chih and do the same as Yao." The King of Yen, accordingly, committed the whole state affairs to the hands of Tzŭ-chih, wherefore Tzŭ-chih became very powerful.
According to a different source: P`an Shou was a retired 13 scholar. Yen sent out men to engage him in public service. When P`an Shou had an audience with the King of Yen, he said. "Thy servant is afraid Tzŭ-chih will be like Ih." "Why will he be like Ih?" asked the King. In reply Shou said: "In antiquity, when Yü was dying and about to transfer the rule over All-under-Heaven to Ih, the followers of Ch`i joined one another in attacking Ih and set up Ch`i on the throne. Now, Your Majesty trusts and loves Tzŭ-chih and is going to alienate the state to him. Yet all the followers of the Crown Prince are holding official seals, whereas there is none of Tzŭ-chih's men in the court. Should by any unlucky chance Your Majesty pass away from the body of officials, Tzŭ-chih would suffer like Ih." Accordingly, the King recalled all the seals from the officials whose bounties were above three hundred piculs, and left them in the hands of Tzŭ-chih, whereupon Tzŭ-chih became very powerful. Indeed, the means whereby the lord of men looks at himself as in a mirror, are envoys from other feudal lords, but now all those envoys are partisans of private families. Again, the means whereby the lord of men spreads his own powers are scholars from rocky caves, but now all those envoys are henchmen of private families. What is the reason for this? This is because the power of life and death is held by such influential men as Tzŭ-chih. Therefore, Wu Chang said: "The lord of men should not pretentiously hate or love anybody. Should he pretentiously love anybody, he would be unable to hate the person again; should he pretentiously hate anybody, he would not be able to love the person again."
According to another different source: When the King of Yen wanted to alienate the state to Tzŭ-chih, he asked P`an Shou about the measure. In reply P`an Shou said: "Yü loved Ih and entrusted him with All-under-Heaven. Later, he appointed followers of Ch`i officials. In his old age, he considered Ch`i unfit to rule over All-under-Heaven and therefore alienated All-under-Heaven from Ih; while all posts and powers were held in the hands of Ch`i. Later, Ch`i and his partisans attacked Ih and robbed him of the rule over All-under-Heaven. Thus, in name Yü transferred the rule over All-under-Heaven to Ih, but in fact he let Ch`i take the throne. Clearly enough from this viewpoint, Yü was not as great as Yao and Shun. Now, Your Majesty wants to abdicate in favour of Tzŭ-chih while every official is a follower of the Crown Prince. This is to abdicate in favour of him in name but let the Crown Prince take the throne in fact." Thereupon the King of Yen recalled all seals from the officials whose bounties were above three hundred piculs, and left all of them in the hands of Tzŭ-chih. After all, Tzŭ-chih became powerful.
Fang Wu Tzŭ said: "I have heard that according to the etiquette of antiquity no ruler should take the same carriage with any wearer of the same kind of clothes or share the same house with any kin. How much less should he allow any minister to exercise his ruling authority and dislocate his august position?"
Wu Chang said to King Hsüan of Han: "The lord of men should not pretentiously love anybody; for, if he does one day, he will not be able to hate him again. Nor should he pretentiously hate anybody; or, if he does one day, he will not be able to love him again. Therefore, if the signs of pretentious hatred and pretentious love 14 are visible, then flatterers will take advantage of the opportunities either to disgrace their enemies or to honour their friends. Even then the enlightened sovereign cannot save the situation. How much less could he restore the status of affairs if he showed anybody true love or true hatred?"
One day the King of Chao took a walk in the Royal Garden. When the attendants were going to give rabbits to the tiger, he stopped to look at the tiger. The tiger angrily strained its eyes round and round. "How awful the tiger's eyes are!" remarked the King. "The eyes of Lord P`ingyang," said some attendant, "are even more awful than these. When people see the tiger's eyes, they do not always get hurt; but when they see the eyes of Lord P`ing-yang strained in this way, they are sure to die." On the following day, Lord P`ing-yang heard about this remark and sent men to kill the speaker, but the King never censured them.
Once the Ruler of Wei was paying a visit to the court of Chou. The official usher of Chou asked his pen-name. "The Feudal Lord of Wei, 15 Land-Extender," 16 was the reply. The usher, refusing him admission, said, "No feudal lord is supposed to have the same name as the Son of Heaven." Thereupon the Ruler of Wei changed his pen-name and said, "The Feudal Lord of Wei, Hui." Thereafter he was ushered into the court. Hearing about this, Chung-ni said: "How extensive the prohibition of intimidation is! Even an empty name would not be lent to others, to say nothing of a real fact."
Annotations to Canon IV:—
If someone wants to move a tree and pulls each leaf, he works hard but cannot shake the whole tree. If he holds the root from the right and the left, then all the leaves will be shaken. If you shake the tree by the pool, then the birds will be scared and fly up and the fish will be frightened and swim down. Who is skilful in hauling in a net, draws in the rope and never pulls the knots, one after another, till he gets the whole net. If he pulls the knots, one after another, so as to get the whole net, he works hard and meets difficulties. If he draws in the net by the rope, the fish will have been trapped. For the same reason, magistrates are the roots and ropes of the people. Therefore, the sage governs the magistrates but never directly governs the people.
In the case of the fire brigade, if the captain carries water in jars and pots and runs to the fire, he will perform the function of only one man; whereas if he takes a whip in hand and thereby gives directions to the workmen, then he will rule over a myriad of men. For this reason, the sage does not look after the trifles of the people and the enlightened sovereign does not attend to small affairs.
One day, when Tsao-fu was picking weeds in the field, there passed by him father and son riding in a carriage. The horses were frightened and refused to go any farther. The son alighted from the carriage and pulled the horses. The father 17 pushed the carriage. Then they asked Tsao-fu, "Will you help us move the carriage?" Tsao-fu, accordingly put the implements together, stopped 18 working, and left them on the carriage. Then he helped the son get into the carriage. Finally, he held the reins in hand and took the whip along. Before he started moving the reins and the whip, the horses all began galloping 19 of a sudden. Were Tsao-fu unable to drive the carriage, then even though he exerted his strength and exhausted his body to help them move the carriage, the horses would still be unwilling to go forward. Because he knew how to drive, he took his ease, had a ride, and placed strangers under an obligation. Likewise, the state is the carriage of the Ruler; the august position is his horse. If the Ruler does not know how to drive the carriage, then even though he exhausts himself, he cannot avoid chaos. If he knows how to drive, he will remain in the place of ease and joy and accomplish the achievement of the emperor and the king.
Iron hammers are for flattening metallic plates. Wooden stands are for collecting crooked arrows. The sage makes laws in order thereby to flatten the indented and correct the crooked.
When Cho Ch`ih was serving Ch`i he pulled the sinews out of King Min's body. When Li Tai was serving Chao, he starved the Father Sovereign to death. These two rulers were both unable to use their iron hammers and wooden stands with the result that they were put to death and became the laughing-stock of All-under-Heaven.
According to a different source: After entering Ch`i one would hear of Cho Ch`ih only and never hear of the King of Ch`i; after entering Chao one would hear of Li Tai only and never hear of the King of Chao. Hence the saying: "If the lord of men does not apply tact, his prestige and position will become insignificant and ministers will celebrate themselves at leisure."
According to another different source: When T`ien Ying was Premier of Ch`i, somebody said to the King of Ch`i: "If Your Majesty does not spend a few days in listening to the annual financial reports personally, then Your Majesty will have no other way to know the officials' wickednesses and corruptions." "Right," said the King. Hearing about this T`ien Ying immediately went to ask the King to listen to his reports. When the King was about to listen to the reports, T`ien Ying ordered his subordinate officials to get ready the officially signed documents and the accounts of measures of grain. To these the King listened personally, till he could no longer listen to any more reports. After his lunch, 20 he sat down again. At dusk he had no more time left for his supper. Then T`ien Ying said: "These reports involve such duties as the officials night and day all year around dare not neglect. If Your Majesty spends an evening in listening to them, the officials will be encouraged." "All right," said the King. All of a sudden the King fell asleep. In the meantime the officials pulled knives out and whittled the remaining documents and accounts of measures. 21 Thus, as the King listened to the reports personally, disorder began.
According to a different source: King Wu-ling entrusted King Hui-wên with the state affairs, and appointed Li Tai premier. As King Wu-ling did not hold the power of life and death over the people himself, he was eventually intimidated by Li Tai.
Annotations to Canon V:—
Tzŭ Chêng was pulling a push-cart to go across the arch of a bridge, but was unable to bear the weight. So he sat on the shaft and started singing. Meanwhile the passers-by from the front stopped and those from the rear ran forward to help him, till the push-cart went up the arch. Suppose Tzŭ Chêng had no technique to attract people. Then even though he exhausted himself to death, the cart would not be able to go across the bridge. Now that he did not exhaust himself while the cart went up the arch of the bridge, was because he had the technique to make use of people.
When Lord Chien of Chao was sending tax-collectors out, they asked him about the rate of taxation. Thereupon Lord Chien said: "Neither too high nor too low. If too high, it will profit the superior. If too low, it will profit the people. The magistrates who seek no private profit, are honest . . ." 22
Once Po Yi said to Lord Chien of Chao: "The stomach of the country of your Highness is well satiated." Rejoicing in such a remark, Lord Chien gladly asked, "In what way?" In reply Yi said: "On the top the treasury and the granary are empty and running low; at the bottom the hundred surnames are poor and starving; whereas in the centre the crooked officials are wealthy."
Once Duke Huan went out in disguise and inspected the domestic conditions of the people. There was an aged man in a house supporting himself. So Duke Huan asked him why he was left alone. In reply the man said: "Thy servant has three sons. The whole family being poor, I have been unable to find wives for them. They are in the employ of other people and have not yet come back." Upon his return to the court, Duke Huan related this situation to Kuan Chung. Kuan Chung said: "If the public treasury has a surplus amount of money, the people must be suffering hunger and starvation. If the court has discontented girls, many men must be having no wives." "Right," the Duke said, and then instructed the court to give women in marriage and issued an order among the people to the effect that "men must start housekeeping at twenty, and women must get married at fifteen."
According to a different source: Once Duke Huan went out in disguise among the people. There was an old man named Lu Mên-chi. He had lived seventy years and had no wife. Therefore, Duke Huan asked Kuan Chung, "Is there anyone among the people who has lived up to old age and had no wife?" "There is a man," replied Kuan Chung, "named Lu Mên-chi who has lived seventy years and had no wife." "Then how can we make every man have a wife?" asked Duke Huan. "Thy servant has heard," replied Kuan Chung, "if the sovereign has money saved, the subjects must be suffering destitution. If the court has discontented girls, there must be men who live up to old age and have no wives." "Right," said Duke Huan. Then he ordered the court to give in marriage those girls who had never attended on the Ruler, and also ordered men to start housekeeping at twenty and women to get married at fifteen. In consequence, there were no discontented girls inside the court and no wifeless men outside.
Cho Tzŭ of Yen-ling rode in a carriage pulled by a team of blue-haired horses with the herring-bone design. 23 The horses were equipped with spur-reins 24 in the front and with hoes plated with gold in the back. Thus, on going forward, they were stopped by the spur-ornaments; on going backward, the plated hoes struck them. Finally the horses began to jump sideways. Thereby Tsao-fu passed and with tears running down said: "Exactly in the same way the ancients governed the people. Indeed, reward is for encouraging people, but disgrace goes with it. Punishment is for prohibiting people, but to it is added honour. The people, then standing on the middle line, do not know which way to follow. For this reason the sage wept for them."
According to a different source: Cho Tzŭ of Yen-ling rode in a carriage pulled by a team of blue-haired horses with the herring-bone design. They were equipped with spurornaments in the front and sharp hoes at the back. On going forward, he pulled the spurs; on going backward, he moved the hoes. The horses could not go either forward or backward, till they avoided either way and jumped sideways. Therefore, he pulled his knife and cut off the horses' legs. Seeing this, Tsao-fu shed tears and stopped eating all day long. Looking up to heaven, he sighed and said: "By whipping the horses he wanted to advance them, but the spur-ornaments were in the front. By pulling them he wanted to withdraw them, but the sharp hoes were in the back. Now, the lord of men promotes men on account of their purity and honesty, but degrades them because they do not suit the courtiers. He honours men on account of their justice and fairness, but removes them because they do not blindly obey him. In consequence, the people, feeling uneasy, keep standing on the middle line and do not know which way to follow. For this reason, the sage weeps for them."
2. 明主 should be 人主 inasmuch as 明主 here makes no sense, and so throughout this canon.
3. With Wang Hsien-shên 敗 below 不然 should be 則.
4. With Wang Hsien-shen 成 above 恆 is superfluous as it was a posthumously given name, and so throughout this annotation.
5. With Wang Hsien-ch`ien 服成 above 請效 is superfluous.
6. With Wang Hsien-shen 手 should be 毛.
7. I propose 田恆 for 田成常 inasmuch as 成 was posthumously given and was altered into 常 by scholars during the Han Dynasty to avoid the sacred name of an emperor.
8. With Wang Hsien-shĕng 入 should be 出.
9. With Kao Hêng 訾 stands for 貲 which means "a fine paid to escape punishment."
10. 社臘. 社 refers to the festivals in spring and autumn and 臘 refers to those following the winter solstice.
11. With Kao Hêng 屯 above 二甲 should be 出.
12. With Yü Yüeh and Wang Hsien-shen 著 below 草 is superfluous.
13. 闞 should be 隱.
14. With Wang Hsien-shen 佯愛人 and 佯憎人 should be repeated respectively.
15. With Wang 諸俟 both above 辟疆 and above 燬 should be 衛俟.
16. 辟疆. The Son of Heaven alone was entitled to such a pen-name as they thought the Son of Heaven alone deserved to open land and extend territory.
17. With Wang Hsien-shën 子 below 父 is superfluous.
18. With Wang 輟而 below 收器 should be 而輟.
19. I propose 咸騖 for 轡驚 in accordance with the Canon.
20. With Ku Kuang-ts`ê 後 below 罷食 is superfluous.
21. Made of bamboo slips, they could be easily whittled with knives.
22. With Wang Hsien-shên there must be hiatuses below this passage.
23. With Yü Yüeh 挑文 should read 翟文.
24. With Kao Hêng 飾 below 鉤 should stand for 勒.
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