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孟 子 少 時 誦 ， 其 母 方 織 ， 孟 輟 然 中 止 ， 乃 復 進 ， 其母 知 其 諠 也 ， 呼 而 問 之 曰 ： 「 何 為 中 止 ？ 」 對 曰 ： 「 有所 失 復 得 。 」 其 母 引 刀 裂 其 織 ， 以 此 誡 之 ， 自 是 之 後 ，孟 子 不 復 諠 矣 。 孟 子 少 時 ， 東 家 殺 豚 ， 孟 子 問 其 母 曰 ：「 東 家 殺 豚 ， 何 為 ？ 」 母 曰 ： 「 欲 啖 汝 。 」 其 母 自 悔 而言 曰 ： 「 吾 懷 妊 是 子 ， 席 不 止 ， 不 坐 ； 割 不 正 ， 不 食 ；胎 教 之 也 。 今 適 有 知 而 欺 之 ， 是 教 之 不 信 也 。 」 乃 買 東家 豚 肉 以 食 之 ， 明 不 欺 也 。 詩 曰 ： 「 宜 爾 子 孫 繩 繩 兮 。」 言 賢 母 使 子 賢 也 。
田 子 為 相 ， 三 年 歸 休 ， 得 金 百 鎰 ， 奉 其 母 。 母 曰： 「 子 安 得 此 金 ？ 」 對 曰 ： 「 所 受 俸 祿 也 。 」 母 曰 ： 「為 相 三 年 ， 不 食 乎 ？ 治 官 如 此 ， 非 吾 所 欲 也 。 孝 子 之 事親 也 ， 盡 力 致 誠 ， 不 義 之 物 ， 不 入 於 館 ， 為 人 子 不 可 不孝 也 ！ 子 其 去 之 。 」 田 子 愧 慚 ，走 出 ， 造 朝 還 金 ， 退 請就 獄 。 王 賢 其 母 ， 說 其 義 ， 即 舍 田 子 罪 ， 令 復 為 相 ， 以金 賜 其 母 。 詩 曰 ： 「 宜 爾 子 孫 繩 繩 兮 。 」
孔 子 行 ， 聞 哭 聲 甚 悲 。 孔 子 曰 ： 「 驅 ！ 驅 ！ 前 有賢 者 。 」 至 、 則 皋 魚 也 。 被 褐 擁 鎌 ， 哭 於 道 傍 。 孔 子 辟車 與 之 言 曰 ： 「 子 非 有 喪 ， 何 哭 之 悲 也 ？ 」 皋 魚 曰 ： 「吾 失 之 三 矣 ： 少 而 學 ， 游 諸 侯 ， 以 後 吾 親 ， 失 之 一 也 ；高 尚 吾 志 ， 間 吾 事 君 ， 失 之 二 也 ； 與 友 厚 而 小 絕 之 ， 失之 三 矣 。 樹 欲 靜 而 風 不 止 ， 子 欲 養 而 親 不 待 也 。 往 而 不可 〔 追 者 ， 年 也 ， 去 而 不 可 〕 得 見 者 、 親 也 。 吾 請 從 此辭 矣 。 」 立 槁 而 死 。 孔 子 曰 ： 「 弟 子 誡 之 ， 足 以 識 矣 。」 於 是 門 人 辭 歸 而 養 親 者 十 有 三 人 。
子 路 曰 ： 「 有 人 於 斯 ， 夙 興 夜 寐 ， 手 足 胼胝 ， 而面 目 黧 黑 ， 樹 藝 五 穀 ， 以 事 其 親 ， 而 無 孝 子 之 名 者 、 何也 ？ 」 孔 子 曰 ： 「 吾 意 者 、 身 未 敬 邪 ！ 色 不 順 邪 ！ 辭 不遜 邪 ！ 古 人 有 言 曰 ： 『 衣 歟 ！ 食 歟 ！ 曾 不 爾 即 。 』 子 勞以 事 其 親 ， 無 此 三 者 ， 何 為 無 孝 之 名 ！ 意 者 、 所 友 非 仁人 邪 ！ 坐 ， 語 汝 ， 雖 有 國 士 之 力 ， 不 能 自 舉 其 身 ， 非 無力 也 ， 勢 不 便 也 。 是 以 君 子 入 則 篤 孝 ， 出 則 友 賢 ， 何 為其 無 孝 子 之 名 ！ 詩 曰 ： 「 父 母 孔 邇 。 」
伯 牙 鼓 琴 ， 鍾 子 期 聽 之 ， 方 鼓 琴 ， 志 在 山 ， 鍾 子期 曰 ： 「 善 哉 ！ 鼓 琴 ！ 巍 巍 乎 如 太 山 。 」 志 在 流 水 ， 鍾子 期 曰 ： 「 善 哉 ！ 鼓 琴 ！ 洋 洋 乎 若 江 河 。 」 鍾 子 期 死 ，伯 牙 僻 琴 絕 絃 ， 終 身 不 復 鼓 琴 ， 以 為 世 無 足 與 鼓 琴 也 。非 獨 琴 如 此 ， 賢 者 亦 有 之 ， 苟 非 其 時 ， 則 賢 者 將 奚 由 得遂 其 功 哉 ！
秦 攻 魏 ， 破 之 。 少 子 亡 而 不 得 。 令 魏 國 曰 ： 「 有得 公 子 者 ， 賜 金 千 斤 ； 匿 者 、 罪 至 十 族 。 」 公 子 乳 母 與俱 亡 。 人 謂 乳 母 曰 ： 「 得 公 子 者 賞 甚 重 ， 乳 母 當 知 公 子處 而 言 之 。 」 乳 母 應 之 曰 ： 「 我 不 知 其 處 ， 雖 知 之 ， 死則 死 ， 不 可 以 言 也 。 為 人 養 子 ， 不 能 隱 而 言 之 ， 是 畔 上畏 死 。 吾 聞 ： 忠 不 畔 上 ， 勇 不 畏 死 。 凡 養 人 子 者 ， 生 之， 非 務 殺 之 也 ， 豈 可 見 利 畏 誅 之 故 ， 廢 義 而 行 詐 哉 ！ 吾不 能 生 而 使 公 子 獨 死 矣 。 」 遂 與 公 子 俱 逃 澤 中 。 秦 軍 見而 射 之 ， 乳 母 以 身 蔽 之 ， 著 十 二 矢 ， 遂 不 令 中 公 子 。 秦王 聞 之 ， 饗 以 太 牢 ， 且 爵 其 兄 為 大 夫 。 詩 曰 ： 「 我 心 匪石 ， 不 可 轉 也 。 」
子 路 曰 ： 「 人 善 我 ， 我 亦 善 之 ； 人 不 善 我 ， 我 不善 之 。 」 子 貢 曰 ： 「 人 善 我 ， 我 亦 善 之 ； 人 不 善 我 ， 我則 引 之 進 退 而 己 耳 。 」 顏 回 曰 ： 「 人 善 我 ， 我 亦 善 之 ；人 不 善 我 ， 我 亦 善 之 。 」 三 子 所 持 各 異 ， 問 於 夫 子 。 夫子 曰 ： 「 由 之 所 持 ， 蠻 貊 之 言 也 ； 賜 之 所 言 ， 朋 友 之 言也 ； 回 之 所 言 ， 親 屬 之 言 也 。 」 詩 曰 ： 「 人 之 無 良 ， 我以 為 兄 。 」
齊 景 公 縱 酒 ， 醉 ， 而 解 衣 冠 ， 鼓 琴 以 自 樂 。 顧 左右 曰 ： 「 仁 人 亦 樂 此 乎 ？ 」 左 右 曰 ： 「 仁 人 耳 目 猶 人 ，何 為 不 樂 乎 ！ 」 景 公 曰 ： 「 駕 車 以 迎 晏 子 。 」 晏 子 聞 之， 朝 服 而 至 。 景 公 曰 ： 「 今 者 、 寡 人 此 樂 ， 願 與 大 夫 同之 。 」 晏 子 曰 ： 「 君 言 過 矣 ！ 自 齊 國 五 尺 已 上 ， 力 皆 能勝 嬰 與 君 ， 所 以 不 敢 者 、 畏 禮 也 。 故 自 天 子 無 禮 ， 則 無以 守 社 稷 ； 諸 侯 無 禮 ， 則 無 以 守 其 國 ； 為 人 上 無 禮 ， 則無 以 使 其 下 ； 為 人 下 無 禮 ， 則 無 以 事 其 上 ； 大 夫 無 禮 ，則 無 以 治 其 家 ； 兄 弟 無 禮 ， 則 不 同 居 ； 人 而 無 禮 ， 不 若遄 死 。 」 景 公 色 媿 ， 離 席 而 謝 曰 ： 「 寡 人 不 仁 無 良 ， 左右 淫 湎 寡 人 ， 以 至 於 此 ， 請 殺 左 右 ， 以 補 其 過 。 」 晏 子曰 ： 「 左 右 無 過 。 君 好 禮 ， 則 有 禮 者 至 ， 無 禮 者 去 ； 君惡 禮 ， 則 無 禮 者 至 ， 有 禮 者 去 。 左 右 何 罪 乎 ？ 」 景 公 曰： 「 善 哉 ！ 」 乃 更 衣 而 坐 ， 觴 酒 三 行 ， 晏 子 辭 去 ， 景 公拜 送 。 詩 曰 ： 「 人 而 無 禮 ， 胡 不 遄 死 。 」
傳 曰 ： 堂 衣 若 扣 孔 子 之 門 ， 曰 ： 「 丘 在 乎 ？ 丘 在乎 ？ 」 子 貢 應 之 曰 ： 「 君 子 尊 賢 而 容 眾 ， 嘉 善 而 矜 不 能， 親 內 及 外 ， 己 所 不 欲 ， 勿 施 於 人 。 子 何 言 吾 師 之 名 焉？ 」 堂 衣 若 曰 ： 「 子 何 年 少 言 之絞 ？ 」 子 貢 曰 ： 「 大 車不 絞 ， 則 不 成 其 任 ； 琴 瑟 不 絞 ， 則 不 成 其 音 。 子 之 言 絞， 是 以 絞 之 也 。 」 堂 衣 若 曰 ： 「 吾 始 以 鴻 之 力 ， 今 徒 翼耳 ！ 」 子 貢 曰 ： 「 非 鴻 之 力 ， 安 能 舉 其 翼 ！ 」 詩 曰 ： 「如 切 如 瑳 ， 如 琢 如 磨 。 」
齊 景 公 出 弋 昭 華 之 池 ， 顏 鄧 聚 主 鳥 而 亡 之 ， 景 公怒 ， 而 欲 殺 之 。 晏 子 曰 ： 「 夫 鄧 聚 有 死 罪 四 ， 請 數 而 誅之 。 」 景 公 曰 ： 「 諾 。 」 晏 子 曰 ： 「 鄧 聚 為 吾 君 主 鳥 而亡 之 ， 是 罪 一 也 ； 使 吾 君 以 鳥 之 故 而 殺 人 ， 是 罪 二 也 ；使 四 國 諸 侯 聞 之 ， 以 吾 君 重 鳥 而 輕 士 ， 是 罪 三 也 ； 天 子聞 之 ， 必 將 貶 絀 吾 君 ， 危 其 社 稷 ， 絕 其 宗 廟 ， 是 罪 四 也。 此 四 罪 者 、 故 當 殺 無 赦 ， 臣 請 加 誅 焉 。 」 景 公 曰 ： 「止 。 此 亦 吾 過 矣 ， 願 夫 子 為 寡 人 敬 謝 焉 。 」 詩 曰 ： 「 邦之 司 直 。 」
魏 文 侯 問 於 解 狐 曰 ： 「 寡 人 將 立 西 河 之 守 ， 誰 可用 者 ？ 」 解 狐 對 曰 ： 「 荊 伯 柳 者 、 賢 人 ， 殆 可 。 」 〔 文侯 曰 ： 「 是 非 子 之 讎 也 ？ 」 對 曰 ： 「 君 問 可 ， 非 問 讎 也。 」 〕 文 侯 將 以 荊 伯 柳 為 西 河 守 。 荊 伯 柳 問 左 右 ， 誰 言我 於 吾 君 。 左 右 皆 曰 ： 「 解 狐 。 」 荊 伯 柳 見 解 狐 而 謝 之曰 ： 「 子 乃 寬 臣 之 過 也 ， 言 於 君 ， 謹 再 拜 謝 。 」 解 狐 曰： 「 言 子 者 ， 公 也 ； 怨 子 者 ， 吾 私 也 。 公 事 已 行 ， 怨 子如 故 。 」 張 弓 射 之 ， 走 十 步 而 沒 ， 可 謂 勇 矣 。 詩 曰 ： 「邦 之 司 直 。 」
楚 有 善 相 人 者 ， 所 言 無 遺 美 ， 聞 於 國 中 。 莊 王 召見 而 問 焉 。 對 曰 ： 「 臣 非 能 相 人 也 ， 能 相 人 之 友 者 也 。觀 布 衣 者 ， 其 友 皆 孝 悌 篤 謹 畏 令 ， 如 此 者 ， 家 必 日 益 ，而 身 日 安 ， 此 所 謂 吉 人 者 也 。 觀 事 君 者 ， 其 友 皆 誠 信 有行 好 善 ， 如 此 者 、 措 事 日 益 ， 官 職 日 進 ， 此 所 謂 吉 臣 者也 。 人 主 朝 臣 多 賢 ， 左 右 多 忠 ， 主 有 失 敗 ， 皆 交 爭 正 諫， 如 此 者 、 國 日 安 ， 主 日 尊 ， 名 聲 日 顯 ， 此 所 謂 吉 主 者也 。 臣 非 能 相 人 也 ， 觀 友 者 也 。 」 王 曰 ： 「 善 。 」 其 所以 任 賢 使 能 ， 而 霸 天 下 者 ， 始 遇 之 於 是 也 。 詩 曰 ： 「 彼己 之 子 ， 邦 之 彥 兮 。 」
孔 子 出 遊 少 源 之 野 。 有 婦 人 中 澤 而 哭 ， 其 音 甚 哀。 孔 子 使 弟 子 問 焉 ， 曰 ： 「 夫 人 何 哭 之 哀 ？ 」 婦 人 曰 ：「 鄉 者 、 刈 蓍 薪 ， 亡 吾 蓍 簪 ， 吾 是 以 哀 也 。 」 弟 子 曰 ：「 刈 蓍 薪 而 亡 蓍 簪 ， 有 何 悲 焉 ！ 」 婦 人 曰 ： 「 非 傷 亡 簪也 ， 蓋 不 忘 故 也 。 」
傳 曰 ： 君 子 之 聞 道 ， 入 之 於 耳 ， 藏 之 於 心 ，察 之以 仁 ， 守 之 以 信 ， 行 之 以 義 ， 出 之 以 遜 ， 故 人 無 不 虛 心而 聽 也 。 小 人 之 聞 道 ， 入 之 於 耳 ， 出 之 於 口 ， 苟 言 而 已， 譬 如 飽 食 而 嘔 之 ， 其 不 惟 肌 膚 無 益 ， 而 於 志 亦 戾 矣 。詩 曰 ： 「 胡 能 有 定 。 」
孔 子 與 子 貢 子 路 顏 淵 遊 於 戎 山 之 上 。 孔 子 喟 然 嘆曰 ： 「 二 三 子 各 言 爾 志 ， 予 將 覽 焉 。 由 、 爾 何 如 ？ 」 對曰 ： 「 得 白 羽 如 月 ， 赤 羽 如 朱 ， 擊 鐘 鼓 者 、 上 聞 於 天 ，下 槊 於 地 ， 使 將 而 攻 之 ， 惟 由 為 能 。 」 孔 子 曰 ： 「 勇 士哉 ！ 賜 、 爾 何 如 ？ 」 對 曰 ： 「 得 素 衣 縞 冠 ， 使 於 兩 國 之間 ， 不 持 尺 寸 之 兵 ， 斗 升 之 糧 ， 使 兩 國 相 親 如 弟 兄 。 」孔 子 曰 ： 「 辯 士 哉 ！ 回 、 爾 何 如 ？ 」 對 曰 ： 「 鮑 魚 不 與蘭 茞 同 笥 而 藏 ， 桀 紂 不 與 堯 舜 同 時 而 治 。 二 子 已 言 ， 回何 言 哉 ！ 」 孔 子 曰 ： 「 回 有 鄙 之 心 。 」 顏 淵 曰 ： 「 願 得明 王 聖 主 為 之 相 ， 使 城 郭 不 治 ， 溝 池 不 鑿 ， 陰 陽 和 調 ，家 給 人 足 ， 鑄 庫 兵 以 為 農 器 。 」 孔 子 曰 ： 「 大 士 哉 ！ 由來 區 區 汝 何 攻 ？ 賜 來 便 便 汝 何 使 ？ 願 得 之 冠 ， 為 子 宰 焉。 」
賢 士 不 以 恥 食 ， 不 以 辱 得 。 老 子 曰 ： 「 名 與 身 孰親 ？ 身 與 貨 孰 多 ？ 得 與 亡 孰 病 ？ 是 故 甚 愛 必 大 費 ， 多 藏必 厚 亡 。 知 足 不 辱 ， 知 止 不 殆 ， 可 以 長 久 。 大 成 若 缺 ，其 用 不 敝 ； 大 盈 若 沖 ， 其 用 不 窮 ； 大 直 若 詘 大 辯 若 訥 ，大 巧 若 拙 ， 其 用 不 屈 。 罪 莫 大 於 多 欲 ， 禍 莫 大 於 不 知 足。 故 知 足 之 足 ， 常 足 矣 。 」
孟 子 妻 獨 居 ， 踞 ， 孟 子 入 戶 視 之 。 白 其 母 曰 ： 「婦 無 禮 ， 請 去 之 。 」 母 曰 ： 「 何 也 ？ 」 曰 ： 「 踞 。 」 其母 曰 ： 「 何 知 之 ？ 」 孟 子 曰 ： 「 我 親 見 之 。 」 母 曰 ： 「乃 汝 無 禮 也 ， 非 婦 無 禮 。 禮 不 云 乎 ： 『 將 入 門 ， 〔 問 孰存 ； 〕 將 上 堂 ， 聲 必 揚 ； 將 入 戶 ， 視 必 下 。 』 不 掩 人 不備 也 。 今 汝 往 燕 私 之 處 ， 入 戶 不 有 聲 ， 令 人 踞 而 視 之 ，是 汝 之 無 禮 也 ， 非 婦 無 禮 也 。 」 於 是 孟 子 自 責 ， 不 敢 出婦 。 詩 曰 ： 「 采 葑 采 菲 ， 無 以 下 體 ？ 」
孔 子 出 衛 之 東 門 ， 逆 姑 布 子 卿 。 曰 ： 「 二 三 子 引車 避 ， 有 人 將 來 ， 必 相 我 者 也 ， 志 之 。 」 姑 布 子 卿 亦 曰： 「 二 三 子 引 車 避 ， 有 聖 人 將 來 。 」 孔 子 下 ， 步 。 姑 布子 卿 迎 而 視 之 五 十 步 ， 從 而 望 之 五 十 步 。 顧 子 貢 曰 ： 「是 何 為 者 也 ？ 」 子 貢 曰 ： 「 賜 之 師 也 ， 所 謂 魯 孔 丘 也 。」 姑 布 子 卿 曰 ： 「 是 魯 孔 丘 歟 ！ 吾 固 聞 之 。 」 子 貢 曰 ：「 賜 之 師 何 如 ？ 」 姑 布 子 卿 曰 ： 「 得 堯 之 顙 ， 舜 之 目 ，禹 之 頸 ， 皋 陶 之 喙 。 從 前 視 之 ， 盎 盎 乎 似 有 王 者 ； 從 後視 之 ， 高 肩 弱 脊 ， 此 惟 不 及 四 聖 者 也 。 」 子 貢 吁 然 。 姑布 子 卿 曰 ： 「 子 何 患 焉 。 汙 面 而 不 惡 ， 葭 喙 而 不 藉 ， 遠而 望 之 ， 羸 乎 若 喪 家 之 狗 ， 子 何 患 焉 ！ 子 何 患 焉 ！ 」 子貢 以 告 孔 子 。 孔 子 無 所 辭 ， 獨 辭 喪 家 之 狗 耳 ， 曰 ： 「 丘何 敢 乎 ？ 」 子 貢 曰 ： 「 汙 面 而 不 惡 ， 葭 喙 而 不 藉 ， 賜 以知 之 矣 。 不 知 喪 家 狗 ， 何 足 辭 也 ？ 」 子 曰 ： 「 賜 、 汝 獨不 見 夫 喪 家 之 狗 歟 ！ 既 斂 而 槨 ， 布 器 而 祭 ， 顧 望 無 人 。意 欲 施 之 ， 上 無 明 王 ， 下 無 賢 士 方 伯 ， 王 道 衰 ， 政 教 失， 強 陵 弱 ， 眾 暴 寡 ， 百 姓 縱 心 ， 莫 之 綱 紀 。 是 人 固 以 丘為 欲 當 之 者 也 。 丘 何 敢 乎 ！ 」
脩 身 不 可 不 慎 也 ： 嗜 慾 侈 則 行 虧 ， 讒 毀 行 則 害 成； 患 生 於 忿 怒 ， 禍 起 於 纖 微 ； 汙 辱 難 湔 灑 ， 敗 失 不 復 追。 不 深 念 遠 慮 ， 後 悔 何 益 ！ 徼 幸 者 、 伐 性 之 斧 也 ， 嗜 慾者 、 逐 禍 之 馬 也 ， 謾 誕 者 、 趨 禍 之 路 也 ， 毀 於 人 者 、 困窮 之 舍 也 。 是 故 君 子 不 徼 幸 ， 節 嗜 慾 ， 務 忠 信 ， 無 毀 於一 人 ， 則 名 聲 尚 尊 ， 稱 為 君 子 矣 。 詩 曰 ： 「 何 其 處 兮 ，必 有 與 也 。 」
君 子 之 居 也 ， 綏 如 安 裘 ， 晏 如 覆 杅 。 天 下 有 道 ，則 諸 侯 畏 之 ； 天 下 無 道 ， 則 庶 人 易 之 。 非 獨 今 日 ， 自 古亦 然 。 昔 者 ， 范 蠡 行 遊 ， 與 齊 屠 地 居 ， 奄 忽 龍 變 ， 仁 義沈 浮 ， 湯 湯 慨 慨 ， 天 地 同 憂 。 故 君 子 居 之 ， 安 得 自 若 ！詩 曰 ： 「 心 之 憂 矣 ， 其 誰 知 之 ？ 」
田 子 方 之 魏 。 魏 太 子 從 車 百 乘 而 迎 之 郊 ， 太 子 再拜 謁 田 子 方 ， 田 子 方 不 下 車 。 太 子 不 說 曰 ： 「 敢 問 何 如則 可 以 驕 人 矣 ？ 」 田 子 方 曰 ： 「 吾 聞 以 天 下 驕 人 而 亡 者、 有 矣 。 〔 以 一 國 驕 人 而 亡 者 ， 有 矣 。 〕 由 此 觀 之 ， 則貧 賤 可 以 驕 人 矣 。 夫 志 不 得 ， 則 授 履 而 適 秦 楚 耳 ， 安 往而 不 得 貧 賤 乎 ？ 」 於 是 太 子 再 拜 而 後 退 ， 田 子 方 遂 不 下車 。
戴 晉 生 弊 衣 冠 而 往 見 梁 王 。 梁 王 曰 ： 「 前 日 寡 人以 上 大 夫 之 祿 要 先 生 ， 先 生 不 留 ； 今 過 寡 人 邪 ！ 」 戴 晉生 欣 然 而 笑 ， 仰 而 永 嘆 曰 ：「 嗟 乎 ！ 由 此 觀 之 ， 君 曾 不 足 與 遊 也 。 君 不 見 大 澤 中 雉乎 ？ 五 步 一 噣 ， 終 日 乃 飽 ； 羽 毛 悅 澤 ， 光 照 於 日 月 ； 奮翼 爭 鳴 ， 聲 響 於 陵 澤 者 何 ？ 彼 樂 其 志 也 。 援 置 之 囷 倉 中， 常 噣 粱 粟 ， 不 旦 時 而 飽 ； 然 猶 羽 毛 憔 悴 ， 志 氣 益 下 ，低 頭 不 鳴 ， 夫 食 豈 不 善 哉 ？ 彼 不 得 其 志 故 也 。 今 臣 不 遠千 里 而 從 君 遊 者 ， 豈 食 不 足 ？ 竊 慕 君 之 道 耳 ， 臣 始 以 君為 好 士 ， 天 下 無 雙 ， 乃 今 見 君 不 好 士 明 矣 ！ 」 辭 而 去 ，終 不 復 往 。
楚 莊 王 使 使 賚 金 百 斤 ， 聘 北 郭 先 生 。 先 生 曰 ： 「臣 有 箕 帚 之 使 ， 願 入 計 之 。 」 即 謂 夫 人 曰 ： 「 楚 欲 以 我為 相 ， 今 日 相 ， 即 結 駟 列 騎 ， 食 方 丈 於 前 ， 如 何 ？ 」 婦人 曰 ： 「 夫 子 以 織 屨 為 食 ， 食 粥 毚 履 ， 無 怵 惕 之 憂 者 、何 哉 ？ 與 物 無 治 也 。 今 如 結 駟 列 騎 ， 所 安 不 過 容 膝 ； 食方 丈 於 前 ， 所 甘 不 過 一 肉 。 以 容 膝 之 安 ， 一 肉 之 味 ， 而殉 楚 國 之 憂 ， 其 可 乎 ？ 」 於 是 遂 不 應 聘 ， 與 婦 去 之 。 詩曰 ： 「 彼 美 淑 姬 ， 可 與 晤 言 。 」
傳 曰 ： 昔 戎 將 由 余 使 秦 。 秦 繆 公 問 以 得 失 之 要 ，對 曰 ： 「 古 有 國 者 ， 未 嘗 不 以 恭 儉 也 ， 失 國 者 、 未 嘗 不以 驕 奢 也 。 」 由 余 因 論 五 帝 三 王 之 所 以 衰 ， 及 至 布 衣 之所 以 亡 ， 繆 公 然 之 。 於 是 告 內 史 王 繆 曰 ：「 鄰 國 有 聖 人 ， 敵 國 之 憂 也 。 由 余 、 聖 人 也 ， 將 奈 之 何？ 」 王 繆 曰 ：「 夫 戎 王 居 僻 陋 之 地 ， 未 嘗 見 中 國 之 聲 色 也 ， 君 其 遺 之女 樂 ， 以 婬 其 志 ， 亂 其 政 ， 其 臣 下 必 疏 ， 因 為 由 余 請 緩期 ， 使 其 君 臣 有 間 ， 然 後 可 圖 。 」 繆 公 曰 ： 「 善 。 」 乃使 王 繆 以 女 樂 二 列 遺 戎 王 ， 為 由 余 請 期 ， 戎 王 大 悅 ， 許之 。 於 是 張 酒 聽 樂 ， 日 夜 不 休 ， 終 歲 婬 縱 ， 卒 馬 多 死 。由 余 歸 ， 數 諫 不 聽 ， 去 ， 之 秦 ， 秦 公 子 迎 ， 拜 之 上 卿 。遂 并 國 十 二 ， 辟 地 千 里 。
子 夏 過 曾 子 。 曾 子 曰 ： 「 入 食 。 」 子 夏 曰 ： 「 不為 公 費 乎 ？ 」 曾 子 曰 ： 「 君 子 有 三 費 ， 飲 食 不 在 其 中 ；君 子 有 三 樂 ， 鐘 磬 琴 瑟 不 在 其 中 。 」 子 夏 曰 ： 「 敢 問 三樂 ？ 」 曾 子 曰 ： 「 有 親 可 畏 ， 有 君 可 事 ， 有 子 可 遺 ， 此一 樂 也 。 有 親 可 諫 ， 有 君 可 去 ， 有 子 可 怒 ， 此 二 樂 也 。有 君 可 喻 ， 有 友 可 助 ， 此 三 樂 也 。 」 子 夏 問 ： 「 敢 問 三費 ？ 」 曾 子 曰 ： 「 少 而 學 ， 長 而 忘 ， 此 一 費 也 。 事 君 有功 ， 而 輕 負 之 ， 此 二 費 也 ， 久 交 友 而 中 絕 之 ， 此 三 費 也。 」 子 夏 曰 ： 「 善 哉 ！ 謹 身 事 一 言 ， 愈 於 終 身 之 誦 ； 而事 一 士 ， 愈 於 治 萬 民 之 功 ； 夫 人 不 可 以 不 知 也 。 吾 嘗 蓾焉 ， 吾 田 歲 不 收 ， 土 莫 不 然 ， 何 況 於 人 乎 ！ 與 人 以 實， 雖 疏 必 密 ； 與 人 以 虛 ， 雖 戚 必 疏 。 夫 實 之 與 實 ， 如 膠如 漆 ； 虛 之 與 虛 ， 如 薄 冰 之 見 晝 日 。 君 子 可 不 留 意 哉 ！」 詩 曰 ： 「 神 之 聽 之 ， 終 和 且 平 。 」
晏 子 之 妻 使 人 布 衣 紵 表 。 田 無 宇 譏 之 曰 ： 「 出 於室 ， 何 為 者 也 ？ 」 晏 子 曰 ： 「 家 臣 也 。 」 田 無 宇 曰 ： 「位 為 中 卿 ， 食 田 七 十 萬 ， 何 用 是 人 為 畜 之 ？ 」 晏 子 曰 ：「 棄 老 取 少 ， 謂 之 瞽 ； 貴 而 忘 賤 ， 謂 之 亂 ； 見 色 而 說 ，謂 之 逆 。 吾 豈 以 逆 亂 瞽 之 道 哉 ！ 」
夫 鳳 凰 之 初 起 也 ， 翾 翾 十 步 ， 〔 藩 籬 〕 之 雀 喔 咿而 笑 之 ， 及 其 升 於 高 ， 一 詘 一 信 ， 展 而 雲 間 ， 藩 木 之 雀超 然 自 知 不 及 遠 矣 。 士 褐 衣 縕 著 ， 未 嘗 完 也 ， 糲 藿 之 食， 未 嘗 飽 也 ， 世 俗 之 士 即 以 為 羞 耳 ； 及 其 出 則 安 百 議 ，用 則 延 民 命 ， 世 俗 之 士 超 然 自 知 不 及 遠 矣 。 詩 曰 ： 「 正是 國 人 ， 胡 不 萬 年 ！ 」
齊 王 厚 送 女 ， 欲 妻 屠 牛 吐 ， 屠 牛 吐 辭 以 疾 。 其 友曰 ： 「 子 終 死 腥 臭 之 肆 而 已 乎 ！ 何 為 辭 之 ？ 」 吐 應 之 曰： 「 其 女 醜 。 」 其 友 曰 ： 「 子 何 以 知 之 ？ 」 吐 曰 ： 「 以吾 屠 知 之 。 」 其 友 曰 ： 「 何 謂 也 ？ 」 吐 曰 ： 「 吾 肉 善 ，〔 如 量 〕 而 去 苦 少 耳 ； 吾 肉 不 善 ， 雖 以 吾 附 益 之 ， 尚 猶賈 不 售 。 今 厚 送 子 ， 子 醜 故 耳 。 」 其 友 後 見 之 ， 果 醜 。傳 曰 ： 「 目 如 擗 杏 ， 齒 如 編 貝 。 」
傳 曰 ： 孔 子 過 康 子 ， 子 張 子 夏 從 。 孔 子 入 座 。 二子 相 與 論 ， 終 日 不 決 。 子 夏 辭 氣 甚 隘 ， 顏 色 甚 變 。 子 張曰 ： 「 子 亦 聞 夫 子 之 議 論 邪 ？ 徐 言 誾 誾 ， 威 儀 翼 翼 ， 後言 先 默 ， 得 之 推 讓 ， 巍 巍 乎 ！ 蕩 蕩 乎 ！ 道 有 歸 矣 。 小 人之 論 也 ， 專 意 自 是 ， 言 人 之 非 ， 瞋 目 搤 腕 ， 疾 言 噴 噴 ，口 沸 目 赤 ， 一 幸 得 勝 ，疾 笑 嗌 嗌 ， 威 儀 固 陋 ， 辭 氣 鄙 俗， 是 以 君 子 賤 之也 。 」
Mencius as a child was once reciting his lessons when his mother happened to be spinning. Breaking off suddenly, he stopped in the middle, then started up again. His mother knew his mind was wandering, and called out to ask, "Why do you stop in the middle?"
He replied, "I had forgotten part of it, and then I remembered it again." His mother took a knife and cut her thread. She did this as a warning to him. After that Mencius did not let his mind wander again.
When Mencius was a child, their neighbor on the east killed a pig. Mencius asked his mother, "What did our neighbor on the east kill the pig for?"
His mother said, "To feed you." His mother then regretted [her words] and said, 2 "When I was pregnant with this child I would not sit on a mat that was not straight, 3 nor would I eat meat that was not cut properly 4 —this was teaching him in the womb. To deceive him now when he has grown to have understanding is to teach him to be distrustful." Whereupon she purchased some of the pork from the neighbor on the east and fed it to him to show that she had not been deceiving him. The Ode says, 5
It speaks of a worthy mother making her son worthy.
When T`ien-tzŭ had been minister three years he went back home to rest. He had got a hundred i of gold, 7 which he presented to his mother. His mother said, "Where did you get this gold?"
He replied, "It is the salary I received as an official."
His mother said, "Were you three years a minister without [having to] eat? I do not care for this way of holding office. The filial son, in serving his parents, makes every effort to be honest, and does not allow anything improper to come into his house. [To be disloyal as a minister] is to be unfilial as a son."Were you three years a minister without [having to] eat? I do not care for this way of holding office. The filial son, in serving his parents, makes every effort to be honest, and does not allow anything improper to come into his house. [To be disloyal as a minister] is to be unfilial as a son. 8 May you get rid of it."
T`ien-tzŭ was ashamed and left. He went to the court and returned the gold. He resigned and asked to be put in prison. The king, 9 considering the mother to be a worthy woman and pleased with her sense of what was proper (i), pardoned 10T`ientzŭ's fault and ordered him to come back as minister. The gold he gave to the mother.
The Ode says, 11
It speaks of a worthy mother making her son worthy. 12
Confucius was on a trip 14 when he heard sounds of bitter weeping. Confucius said, "Make haste! Make haste! There is a sage up ahead!" When they got there it was Kao Yü, 15 dressed in coarse cloth and holding a sickle, weeping by the side of the road. Confucius left his carriage and said to him, "You are not in mourning; why do you weep so bitterly?"
Kao Yü said, "I have erred in three ways. When I was young I was [fond of] study and traveled [about] among the feudal lords, 16 to the neglect of my parents. This was my first error. Setting my ambitions high, (?) I was careless in serving my prince. 17 This was my second error. I have broken off relations with intimate friends for trifling causes. 18 This was my third error. `The tree would be still, but the wind will not stop, 19 the son wishes to look after them, but his parents will not tarry.' 20 When they are past there is no [overtaking them—such are the years of our lives]; when they are gone there is no recalling them—such are our parents. 21 I venture to take leave [of the world (?) from this time." And he at once stiffened in death. 22
Confucius said, "May you take a warning from him, my disciples. It is worth your attention." Whereupon thirteen of his followers took their leave and returned home to look after their parents.
Tzŭ-lu said, "Here is a man who gets up early and goes to bed late, whose hands and feet are callused and whose face and eyes are burnt black from planting the five cereals in the service of his parents, and yet he has not the name of a filial son. Why is this?"
Confucius said, "I suspect 24 that probably he is not respectful in bearing, or his expression is not conciliatory, or his words are not polite. The ancients had a saying, `Is it clothing? Is it food? I have never relied on you for them.' " 25
"This son works hard to serve his parents, and he lacks these three defects. How is it he [still] has not the name of filial?" 26
"It may be that his friends are possibly not good men. Sit down and I will tell you. If a man, although he has the strength of the stoutest warrior in the state, 27 is unable to lift his own body, it is not that his strength is lacking, but that such a feat is impossible. 28 For this reason the superior man inside his house is sincerely filial, and outside he makes friends with worthy men. Then how can be not have the name of a filial son?"
The Ode says, 29
Po-ya played the lute while Chung Tzŭ-ch`i listened to him. As he played he happened to think of Mt. [T`ai], 31 and Chung Tzŭ-ch`i said, "How well you play! [The music] is lofty as Mt. T`ai." [After a little while] 32 he thought of flowing water, and Chung Tzŭ-ch`i said, "How well you play! [The music] is expansive as the Chiang or the River."
When Chung Tzŭ-ch`i died, Po-ya split his lute and broke the strings, and to the end of his life did not again play the lute, maintaining that there was no one in the world worth playing for. It is not only the lute that is like this; for the sage it is also true. If it is not the proper time, in what way can the sage accomplish his meritorious acts?
Ch`in attacked and defeated Wei. 34 One of the younger sons 35 [of the ruling house of Wei] escaped and was not taken. An order was issued to the state of Wei that read, "Anyone who takes the kung-tzŭ will be rewarded with a thousand chin of gold. Anyone who conceals him will be punished along with his relatives to the tenth degree."
The kung-tzŭ's nurse had escaped with him, and someone said to her, "Whoever gets the kung-tzŭ will be very richly rewarded. His nurse should know where the kung-tzŭ is, [and if so, should] tell it."
The nurse replied, "I do not know where he is, and even if I did know, I would die sooner than tell. When you have brought up a child for someone, you cannot tell where you have hidden him (?). That would be to betray one's master and to [show] fear [of] death. I have heard that a loyal person does not betray his master, nor does a brave one fear death. The rule is that one who brings up another's child has the duty of 36 keeping him alive, not that of killing him. It would not be right to violate what is proper (i) and to practice deceit out of fear of punishment and with an eye to gain. I cannot go on living and let the kung-tzŭ die alone." And she fled with the kung-tzŭ into a marsh. Catching sight of them, some soldiers of Ch`in shot at them. The nurse shielded [the boy] with her own body and received twelve arrows, not one of which did she let strike the kung-tzŭ.37 When the King of Ch`in heard of it, he performed the Great Sacrifice 38 to her, and further gave her elder brother the rank of Great Officer.
The Ode says, 39
Tzŭ-lu said, "If a person treats me well, I will also treat him well. If a person does not treat me well, I will not treat him well."
Tzŭ-kung said, "If a person treats me well, I will also treat him well. If a person does not treat me well, I will bring him around. It is simply a matter of adapting oneself." 41
Yen Hui said, "If a person treats me well, I will also treat him well. If a person does not treat me well, I will still treat him well."
The three disciples differing among themselves in what they advocated, asked the Master about it. He said, "What Yu advocates 42 is appropriate to the Man and Mai barbarians; what Tz`ŭ advocates is appropriate to friends; what Hui advocates is appropriate to relatives."
The Ode says, 43
Duke Ching of Ch`i gave himself over to wine. Drunk, he loosened his clothes and cap, and [began] to play on a lute for his own enjoyment. Turning to his attendants, he said, "Does the perfectly good (jen) man also take pleasure in this sort of thing?" 46
His attendants said, "The ears and eyes of the man who is perfectly good are like those of other people; why should he not enjoy it?"
Duke Ching said, "Send a carriage to fetch Yen-tzŭ." Yen-tzŭ had heard [of what was going on], and came dressed in court costume. Duke Ching said, "Today I have been enjoying this, and I would like to share [my pleasure] with the Great Officers. [Let us dispense with propriety (li).]" 47
Yen-tzŭ said, "What Your Highness proposes is wrong. In the state of Ch`i, men of five ch`ih48 and upwards [in height] are all of them strong enough to overcome you or me. The reason they do not dare do so is out of respect for propriety (li). Truly, if the Son of Heaven lacks propriety, he will have no means of protecting the altars of Earth and Grain; if the feudal lords lack propriety, they will have no means of protecting their states. If those in a superior position lack propriety, they will have no way of employing those under them. If those in a subordinate position lack propriety, they will have no way of serving their superiors. If the Great Officers lack propriety, they will have no way of keeping their own houses in order. If brothers lack propriety, they will be unable to live together. If a common man lacks propriety, he had best quickly die." 49
Duke Ching, shamefaced, got off the mat and made his excuses, "I am devoid of goodness (jên). I have been brought to this by evil attendants who befuddled me with drink. Let me put the attendants to death to make good their transgression."
Yen-tzŭ said, "The attendants have transgressed in nothing. If Your Highness were fond of propriety, then men with propriety would come to you, while those lacking propriety would leave. If you dislike propriety, then those lacking propriety will come, while men with propriety will leave. Of what crime are the attendants guilty?"
Duke Ching approved, and, having changed his clothes, took his seat. When the wine beaker had three times passed around, Yen-tzŭ took his leave. Duke Ching escorted him out, bowing.
The Ode says, 50
There is a tradition that T`ang I-jo [once] knocked at Confucius' gate and said, "Is Ch`iu at home? Is Ch`iu at home?"
Tzŭ-kung answered, "The superior man honors the worthy and bears with all. He praises the good and pities the incompetent. 52 His affection for his family extends to outsiders. What he does not want done to himself, he does not do to others. 53 Why do you use my teacher's given name?"
T`ang I-jo said, "Why do you who are so immature speak rudely?" 54 (?)
Tzŭ-kung said, "If a large chariot is not made tight, 55 it will not be equal to its function. If [the strings of] a lute or cither are not pulled tight, 56 they will not produce any music. Your words were rude, 57 so I responded with rudeness." 58
T`ang I-jo said, "At first I had the strength of a wild goose, but now I simply flap my wings in vain."
Tzŭ-kung said, "Without the strength of a wild goose, how can 59 you lift your wings?"
The Ode says, 60
Duke Ching of Ch`i went on a shooting expedition to the lake at Chao-hua. Yen Têng-chü, 62 who was in charge of the birds, lost one. Duke Ching was angry and wanted to put him to death. Yen-tzŭ said, "Têng-chü is guilty of four crimes punishable by death. Please permit me to charge him with them before punishing him."
Duke Ching said, "Granted."
Yen-tzŭ said, "Têng-chü, you 63 were in charge of the birds for our Prince, but you lost one. This is your first crime. You have caused our Prince to kill a man because of a bird. This is your second crime. You will be the cause of the feudal lords of the four [neighboring] states, when they get words of it, believing that our Prince values birds above his officers. This is your third crime. When the Son of Heaven hears of it; he will certainly degrade our Prince, so that the altars to Earth and Grain will be endangered, while [worship in] the ancestral temple will be broken off. This is your fourth crime. For these four crimes you deserve to be put to death without mercy. 64 I would like to administer the punishment."
Duke Ching said, "Stop! I too was at fault. I would like you, Master, to make my humble excuses."
The Ode says, 65
Marquis Wên of Wei asked Hsieh Hu, 67 "I am going to appoint a governor of Hsi-ho. Who is fitted for the place?"
Hsieh Hu said, "Ching Po-liu 68 is a worthy man and well enough fitted." Marquis Wên appointed Ching Po-liu governor of Hsi-ho. 69
Ching Po-liu asked his attendants, "Who mentioned me to our Prince?"
They all said, "It was Hsieh Hu."
Ching Po-liu went to see Hsieh Hu and thanked him, saying, "You must have forgiven me my fault. For mentioning me to the prince, I respectfully and repeatedly bow my thanks."
Hsieh Hu said, "Mentioning you was a public matter, but hating you is my private affair. 70 The public matter has been discharged, but I hate you as before." He strung his bow and shot him. [Po-liu] ran ten steps and collapsed. [Hsieh Hu] may be called brave. 71
The Ode says, 72
In Ch`u there was a man skilled in physiognomizing people. His predictions never failed, 74 and he was famous throughout the country. King Chuang summoned him to an audience and asked him about it. He replied, "I am not able to physiognomize people; it is a mater of being able to size up their friends. Take a commoner whose friends are all filial and fraternal, sincerely respectful and in awe of commands from their superiors—[with friends] like this, his household will daily increase and he will always be comfortable. This is what I call a [common] man destined for good luck. Take one serving a prince, whose friends are all sincere and trustworthy, who conduct themselves properly and love the good—[with friends] like this, his activities daily flourish and he daily advances in office. (?) This is what I call an official destined for good luck. Take 75 a ruler among whose court ministers are many sages, and among whose attendants are many loyal men, so that whenever the ruler neglects or mismanages anything, all strive to correct and admonish him. [With supporters] like these, his state is daily more peaceful, the ruler is daily more respected, and his fame daily becomes more apparent. This is what I call a ruler destined for good luck. I am not able to physiognomize people; it is a matter of looking at their friends."
The king approved. [King Chuang's] 76 employment of sages and use of the able to establish his hegemony over the empire was probably derived from this. 77
The Ode says, 78
Confucius went out for a stroll in the meadow of Shao-yüan. There was a woman standing in the middle of a marsh and weeping most bitterly. Confucius [thought it unusual and] 79 sent his disciples to make inquiries. They said, "Why do you weep so bitterly?"
The woman replied, 80 "Just now I was cutting milfoil for firewood when I lost my hairpin made of [a stalk of] milfoil. This is why I was grieved."
The disciples said, 81 "To lose a milfoil hairpin when you are cutting milfoil for firewood—how is that a cause for grief?"
The woman said, "It is not that I am unhappy at losing the [value of the] pin; [what grieves me is that] 82 I cannot forget the associations I had with it." 83
Traditionally, when the superior man hears of the Way, he lets it enter his ears and treasures it up in his heart. He illumines it with jên and protects it with sincerity. He puts it into practice according to i, and delivers it with complaisance. As a result none listens to him but with a receptive mind.
When the mean man hears of the Way, he lets it enter his ears and then ejects it through his mouth. It is simply a case of speech put to a perverted use. It is comparable to eating to repletion and then vomiting. Not only is that of no benefit to the body, but this also impairs the mind. 85
The Ode says, 86
Confucius was walking about on top of Mt. Jung with Tzŭ-kung, Tzŭ-lu, and Yen Yüan. With a sigh Confucius said, "May each of you, my disciples, express his ambition. I am going to examine them. How about you, Yu?"
He replied, "[I would like] to get white plumes like the moon and red plumes like the sun. 88 [The noise of] beaten gong and drum would resound to the heavens above, and below . . . lances to the earth. 89 Only I would be able to send an army to attack."
Confucius said, "A brave soldier! Tz`ŭ, how about you?"
He replied, "With plain gown and white silk cap 91 I would go on my mission between the two states, and without holding a weapon so much as a foot long, or so much as a shêng or a tou92 of grain, I would cause the two states to be intimate as brothers."
Confucius said, "A sophist! Hui, what about you?"
He replied, "Rotten fish are not kept in the same container with the lan-ch`ih plant. 93 Chieh and Chou do not rule at the same time as Yao and Shun. These two have spoken, so how can I speak?"
Confucius said, "Hui has a humble mind. . ." (?)94
Yen Yüan said, "I would like to get to be minister to an enlightened king or a saintly ruler. I would have no walls built nor moats or ditches dug. Yin and yang would be [kept] in equilibrium. [Every] family would have sufficient, [every] man would have enough. I would melt down the weapons in storage to make agricultural implements."
Confucius said, "A great officer! Yu might come confident, but what attacks would you be making? Tz`ŭ might come loquacious, 95 but what use would you have for him? I would like to have an official's robe 96 and cap and be your steward."
The sage does not suffer shame that he may eat, or endure disgrace that he may succeed. Lao-tzŭ said,
Truly, he who has once known the contentment that comes simply through being content, will never again be otherwise than contented. 106
Mencius' wife was alone and in a squatting position. Mencius entered the door and saw her. He told his mother, "My wife has no sense of propriety (li), and I would like to send her away."
His mother said, "How is that?"
"She was squatting."
His mother said, "How do you know?"
Mencius said, "I saw her myself."
His mother said, "Then it is you who have no sense of propriety, not she. Do not the rules of propriety say, `When you are about to enter a gate [you should ask who is there], 108 when you are going to ascend the hall you must make a noise, and when you are going to enter a door you must look down, 109 so that you do not take by surprise a person who is unprepared? Now you went into a place of retirement, entering the door without making a sound, so as to catch sight of a person squatting. In this you acted improperly; it is not your wife who was improper."
Thereupon Mencius took the blame on himself and did not dare send his wife away. The Ode says, 110
Confucius left [the capital of] Wei by the east gate and met Ku-pu Tzŭ-ch`ing. 113 He said, "My disciples, draw my chariot aside. A man is coming who will undoubtedly [want to] physiognomize me. Pay attention [to what he says]."
Ku-pu Tzŭ-ch`ing also said, "My disciples, draw my chariot aside. A saint is coming." Confucius got down and walked. Ku-pu Tzŭ-ch`ing came to meet him, and for fifty paces regarded him. Then he followed him for fifty paces, looking at him. He turned to Tzŭ-kung and said, "Who is this man?"
Tzŭ-kung said, "He is my teacher. His name is K`ung Ch`iu, of Lu."
Ku-pu Tzŭ-ch`ing said, "So that is K`ung Ch`iu of Lu! I have certainly heard of him."
Tzŭ-kung said, "How does my teacher impress you?"
Ku-pu Tzŭ-ch`ing said, "He has Yao's forehead and Shun's eyes, 114 Yü's neck and Kao-yao's mouth. 115 Viewed from the front he is complete as though he possessed territory. 116 Viewed from the back, he has high shoulders and a weak back; 117 only in this is he inferior to [those] saints." Tzŭ-kung sighed. Ku-pu Tzŭ-ching said, "What are you worried about? For his unprepossessing face 118 he is not hated, nor is he employed for his reed mouth 119 (?). Viewed from afar he is uneasy 120 as the dog in a house of mourning. What are you grieved about? What are you grieved about?"
Tzŭ-kung reported this to Confucius, who found nothing to disclaim, excepting only [the part about] the dog in a house of mourning. He said, "How should I dare?"
Tzŭ-kung said, " `For his unprepossessing face he is not hated, nor is he employed for his reed mouth'; this I understand. I do not understand why you should disclaim that about the dog in a house of mourning."
The Master said, "Tz`ŭ, have you never seen the dog in a house of mourning? After [the body] is put into the coffin, and that put into the outer coffin, vessels are set out for the sacrifice. 121Everywhere [the dog] looks, no one is about, and he has the idea of wanting to let himself go. 122 (?) Above there is no enlightened king and below no sage overseers of provinces; 123 the Kingly Way is declining, government and teaching are lost. The strong oppress the weak and the many are cruel to the few. The people give rein to their desires and no one can regulate them. That man certainly took me as one who wishes to play that part. 124 How should I dare?"
Self-improvement is something about which one must be careful. If desires are extravagant, conduct will be deficient. If slander is indulged in, perfection will be impaired. Trouble is born from anger, and disaster arises from trifles. Shame and disgrace are hard to wash away; defeat and loss cannot be again made good. If you do not think deeply and do not exercise far-sighted care, what good will remorse be? Hoping for good luck is the axe that cuts down a man's nature; desire is the horse that gallops after disaster; boasting is the path that leads to disaster; slandering others is the dwelling place of poverty. For this reason the superior man expels false hopes of good luck, 126 regulates his desires, and devotes himself to being sincere and trustworthy. He does not slander anyone, and so his name is venerated and he is called a superior man.
The Ode says, 127
The way of living of the superior man is soft as comforting furs, 128 as stable as an inverted cup. 129 When the empire has the True Way, the feudal lords are in awe of him; when the empire is without the True Way, the common people are comfortable in his presence. 130 Not today only, but since antiquity it has been thus. Of old when Fan Li went on his wanderings, he lived in a shambles in Ch`i. 131 . . . (?) . . . Suddenly there is a supernatural transformation, 132jên and i are agitated, 133 vast and comprehensive, Heaven and Earth share his grief. (?) Hence, how can the place where the superior man dwells be static?
The Ode says, 134
T`ien Tzŭ-fang went to Wei, and the Heir Apparent of Wei met him in the suburbs of the capital with an escort of a hundred chariots. The Heir Apparent bowing twice, welcomed T`ien Tzŭ-fang who did not ascend from his own chariot. The Heir Apparent was displeased and said, "May I enquire how it is you can treat another person arrogantly?"
T`ien Tzŭ-fang said, "I have heard that there have been those who have made [possession of] the empire a pretext for being arrogant toward others and who lost [the empire]. 136 Viewed in this light, a poor and humble person may be arrogant toward others. If he does not get what he wants, he has only to put on his shoes 137 and go to Ch`in or Ch`u. Where should he go that he would not be able to be poor and humble?" Whereupon the Heir Apparent bowed twice and withdrew to the rear. T`ien Tzŭ-fang never did descend from his chariot.
Tai Chin-shêng, in a worn gown and cap, went to see the King of Liang, who said, "Some time ago I invited you [to serve me] with the salary of a Great Officer of upper rank, but you would not stay. And now you have come to me?"
Tai Chin-shêng laughed merrily, then looking up with a long sigh, he said, "Alas, from this I see that Your Highness has never been worth associating with. Have you not seen the pheasant in a large marsh? 139 Every five steps he pecks [at the ground], and only at the end of the day is he full. His feathers are rich and glossy, 140 glistening and shining under the sun and moon. He flaps his wings and sings arrogantly, so that the sound echoes from the hills and through the marsh. Why does he do so? Because he enjoys what he wants. If you take him away and put him inside a granary, so that he is constantly pecking up millet, he will be full before the sun is up. But his feathers will be dull and bedraggled, and his appetite and ch`i increasingly decline. He hangs his head and does not sing. Is it possibly because his food is not good? It is because he has not what he wants. Now when I have not counted it far to come a thousand li141 to be with Your Highness, was it possibly because [otherwise] my food would have been insufficient? It was simply because I ventured to admire your principles. I used to think you were fond of gentlemen, and without a peer in the empire. Now I clearly see that you are not fond of gentlemen." Taking his leave he departed, and never came back again.
King Chuang of Ch`u sent a messanger to visit Master Pei-kuo 143 and present him with a hundred chin144 of gold. Master [Pei-kuo] said, "I have a dustpan-and-broom servant, and I would like to go in and consult with her." To his wife he said, "Ch`u wants me for its minister. Should I be minister today, immediately I will have horses harnessed four abreast and a mounted escort, 145 and food spread before me over ten cubits square. 146 How about it?"
His wife said, "You, Master, gain your living by weaving straw sandals. You eat gruel and have a small income 147 (?), but you are without apprehensive worry. How is this if not from having nothing to do with affairs? Now though you have horses harnessed four abreast and a mounted escort, 148 still the place you occupy is only [the room] taken up by your knees; and though you may have food spread out before you over ten cubits square, the only dish you would enjoy especially would be meat. 149 For the comfort of room for your knees and the flavor of a meat dish is it right to take on the worries of the state of Ch`u regardless of your own safety?"
As a result he did not reply to the offer, but went away with his wife. The Ode says, 150
There is a tradition that of old the Jung barbarians sent Yu-yü on a mission to Ch`in. Duke Mu of Ch`in asked him concerning the essentials of success and failure [in a state]. He replied, "Those who held their states in ancient times without exception did it through respect and economy. Those who lost their states did so through arrogance and extravagance." Yu-yü continued with a discussion of the causes of the decline of the Five Emperors and the Three Kings 152 and ended up with the conditions that resulted in the perishing of the common people. 153 (?) Duke Mu agreed with what he said. Afterwards he reported to the Nei-shih, Wang Mu, 154 "The existence in a neighboring state of a sage is the worry of its opponents. Yu-yü is a sage. What are we to do?"
Wang Mu said, "The king of the Jung lives in a rustic, out-ofthe-way place and has never experienced the sounds and sights of the Middle Kingdom. Let Your Highness present him with female musicians to deprave his mind and throw his government into confusion. His subjects will certainly be alienated. To this end, ask on Yu-yü's behalf to postpone the date [of his return], so that separation between prince and minister may be effected. After that we can put our schemes into practice."
Duke Mu approved and had Wang Mu send two troupes of female musicians to the king of the Jung and ask on behalf of Yu-yü that the period [of his visit be prolonged]. The King of the Jung was delighted and granted the request. Whereupon he set out wine and listened to music, not resting day or night. By the end of the year he was dissolute and abandoned. Many of his men and horses died. 155 When Yu-yü came back he remonstrated in vain several times and then left for Ch`in. Duke Mu of Ch`in met him and conferred on him [the post of] prime minister.156 As a result [Ch`in] annexed twelve states and opened up a thousand li of territory.
Tzŭ-hsia went to see 157 Tsêng-tzŭ, who said, "Come in and eat." 158
Tzŭ-hsia said, "Is it not putting you to [unnecessary] expense?"
Tsêng-tzŭ said, "The superior man has three [unnecessary] expenditures, but food and drink are not among them. The superior man has three joys, 159 but gongs and sonorous stones, lute and cither are not among them."
Tzŭ-hsia said, "I venture to ask about the three joys."
Tsêng-tzŭ said, "Having parents to stand in awe of, a prince to serve, and a son to leave behind—this is the first joy. Having parents to remonstrate with, a prince to leave, and a son to be angry with—this is the second joy. Having a prince to make things clear to, and friends to help—this is the third joy."
Tzŭ-hsia said, "I venture to ask about the three expenditures."
Tsêng-tzŭ said, "To study when young and forget when adult —this is the first expenditure. To serve one's prince with merit and be lightly repudiated—this is the second expenditure. For a long time to have friendly relations and then to break them off suddenly 160 —this is the third expenditure."
Tzŭ-hsia said, "Excellent! Carefully to emulate one [wise] saying is better than continually reciting it, 161 and to serve one gentleman (?) is better than the merit of governing all the people 162 —this is something a man must know. I once let my fields go to grass (?) and for a whole year I got no harvest. 163 When this is true of all land, how much the more it is so of men! If you are sincere with men, though they be far away, they will be intimate, and if you are false with them, even close associates will be alienated. Meeting sincerity with sincerity is like glue, is like lacquer. Meeting falseness with falseness is like thin ice exposed to the noonday sun. Can the superior man do anything but bear this in mind?"
The Ode says, 166
Yen-tzŭ's wife sent on an errand a man dressed in cotton cloth with hempen border. T`ien Wu-yü criticised him saying, "Who is that fellow who [just] came out of the house?"
Yen-tzŭ said, "He is a household servant."
T`ien Wu-yü said, "With the position of chung-ch`ing and sustenance fields [to the number of] seven hundred thousand, why do you keep such a person in your employ?"
Yen-tzŭ said, "To discharge the old and choose the young is termed blindness. When rich to forget the poor is termed disorder. To be carried away by the sight of physical beauty is termed perversity. How should I take the way of perversity, disorder, and blindness?"
When first the phoenix rises, the sparrow 168 capable only of fluttering along for ten paces chirrups his laughter; but when [the phoenix] has mounted on high, 169 one curve, one straightening, 170 and he soars among the clouds. 171 The sparrow on the bamboo fence 172 in despair realizes himself unable to get so far. The gentleman clad in coarse cloth and wearing hemp-quilted garments, of which he never possessed a sufficiency, and subsisting on coarse grain and vegetables, of which he has never eaten his fill, 173 is considered by the common man merely to be in a shameful condition. But when he comes out [of retirement], he settles the hundred discussions; when he is employed, he prolongs the life of the people; and the common man in despair realizes himself unable to get so far.
The Ode says, 174
The king of Ch`i offered his daughter with a rich dowry in marriage to Butcher T`u. 175 Butcher T`u declined on the pretext of illness. His friend said, 176 "You will just be in a stinking shop to the end of your life. Why did you refuse him?"
T`u answered, "His daughter is ugly."
His friend said, "How do you know?"
T`u said, "From my butchery I know it."
His friend said, "What do you mean?"
T`u said, "When my meat is good I can dispose of it [by weight] and regret only that there is too little. 177 When my meat is not good, even though I add on more meat 178 to increase [the weight], I still cannot sell it. Now if he offers his daughter with a rich dowry, it is simply because she is ugly." Later on his friend saw her, and she really was ugly. As the saying has it,
There is a tradition that Confucius went to see K`ang-tzŭ with Tzŭ-chang and Tzŭ-hsia following. Confucius went in and sat down, while the two disciples got into a discussion that was [still] not settled by the end of the day. Tzŭ-hsia's speech and expression 180 (ch`i) were choked to a degree and his countenance was greatly altered. Tzŭ-chang said, "You have surely heard our Master in a discussion? He speaks slowly and gently, and deports himself gravely and respectfully. He speaks after first being silent. When he makes a point, he pushes [the other] forward and makes way for him. Majestic and vast, his is a Way to turn to. The mean man, in discussions, is jealous of his own ideas and insists he is in the right. He declares the other to be wrong, and, his eyes glaring with anger, he seizes his wrist and spurts out [a stream of] rapid words. His mouth froths, his eyes are inflamed. Once he has the good luck to come out ahead in the argument, he bursts out with a hee! hee! of laughter. In gravity and deportment he is vulgar; his speech and expression are low. That is why the superior man despises him."
1. LNC 1.15b-16a relates the first incident in quite different words.
2. TPYL 430.1a-b has ## "His mother regretted the slip of her tongue." (CHy.) Po-t`ieh 6.25a: ## "Then she admonished [herself] saying." (Chao 211.)
3. Analects 233 (10/9).
4. Ibid. 232 (10/8.3).
5. Shih 11 No. 5/2.
6. LNC 1.28a-b has a more artistic version of this story.
7. LNC has ## "received 100 i of gold in bribes from underofficials."
8. For ## "a son must be filial" read ## ## with CHy after TPYL 811.1b and LNC. (Chao 212.)
9. King Hsüan of Ch`i, according to LNC. (Chou.)
10. ## = ##. (CHy.)
11. Shih 11 No. 5/2.
12. B, C lack this line.
13. SY 10.17b-18b and Chia-yü 2.6b-7a provide two versions of this story, based perhaps on HSWC, but retold with the addition of further details. Both agree in making the speaker Ch`iu Wu-tzŭ instead of Kao Yü; see note 3 below.
14. To Ch`i, according to Chia-yü.
15. ##. SY and Chia-yü have ##. Chu Ch`i-fêng (TT 403-4) gives six other variants, all of which he derives from a ## Kao Ch`ai, the disciple of Confucius. (Chao 212.)
16. ##. Li Shan's com. on Wên hsüan 18.12b quotes this as ## ##. (CHy.) KTCY 1.4a (4), Li Hsien's com. on Hou-Han shu 37.4b (##), and TPYL 487.7a likewise, but with ## for ## and ## for ## ##. (Chao 213.)
17. ##. D has ## "I neglected my prince to serve my parents." Li Shan's com.: ## "Refusing to serve a mediocre prince, in the end my service was without results." (CHy.) TPYL has ## "Neglecting my duty, I would not serve a mediocre prince." (Chao.)
18. ##. Li Shan's com.: ## "I seldom made friendly visits and had few friends, so that in my old age I have no one to rely on." (CHy.) TPYL is nearly identical. KTCY has ## "I suddenly broke off relations with intimate friends." As HSWC 9/25 has ## ##, Chao thinks ## here is a mistake for ##. The variant in TPYL and Li Shan presupposes ## (corrupted to ## ?) as a point of departure. SY has ##.
19. ##. CHy prefixes ## from Li Shan's com.; cf. HSWC 7/7: ## ## and 1/17: ##.
20. Cf. HSWC 7/7. 1/17 has ##.
21. For ## read ## 。 ## ## with CHy after TPYL. Li Hsien's com. is the same, but omits ##; also Li Shan's com., with ## for ## for ##, and ## for ##. KTCY agrees with the latter. (Chao 214.) Cf. HSWC 7/17.
22. Cf. HSWC 1/27, note 8. For ## SY has ## "cut his throat"; Chia-yü: ## "cast himself into the water." Li Shan quotes it with ## for ##: "broke out in tears."
23. From Hsün-tzŭ 20.8a-9a. Chia-yü 5.21a-b follows Hsün-tzŭ. B, C connect this with the preceding paragraph.
24. ##. Omit ## with CHy after Hsün-tzŭ.
25. ##. D has ## for ## and ## for ##. Yang Liang quotes HSWC as ##, but Lu Wên-ch`ao thinks ## is a mistake for ##. I follow Lu in emending ## to ## as in Hsün-tzŭ, where Yang Liang defines it as ## "rely on." I have been unable ot find a source (older than Hsün-tzŭ, where it is also introduced as an "ancient saying") for this enigmatic remark. The variant in Chia-yü is the most intelligible: ## "Nor other, nor I, [ever] cheat you."
26. Although none of the other versions interposes ## to make this remark revert to Tzŭ-lu, Hsün-tzŭ at least repeats ## (where HSWC has ##), and it is best taken as a further objection on Tzŭ-lu's part.
27. Yang Liang defines ## as ##.
28. ##. Hsün-tzŭ has ##, certainly a better reading than "inconvenient." Hsün-tzŭ here adds ## 。 ## "Hence if his behavior is not disciplined within his family, it is his own fault. If outside he is not known for his good qualities, it is the fault of his friends."
29. Shih 18 No. 10/3.
30. From LSCC 14.4b-5a. Lieh-tzŭ 5.7a tells about Po-ya and Chung Tzŭ-ch`i, without mentioning Po-ya's behavior on the death of the latter, which is included in Fêng-su t'ung-i 6.8a-b. SY 8.9b-10a follows LSCC.
31. Supply ## before ## after the quotation in Liu Hsiao-piao's com. on Shih-shuo hsin-yü 3A.11b. The other versions all have ##. (Chao.)
32. Liu Hsiao-piao's com. has ##; SY, LSCC: ##. Fêng-su t'ung-i: ##. All express the idea of "in a short while." (Chao.)
33. LNC 5.20b-21a gives a fuller account of this episode.
34. In B.C. 225. (Chou.)
35. ##, below referred to as ## kung-tzŭ, a term applied to the sons of a feudal lord other than the designated heir apparent.
36. Supply ## with CHy from LNC.
37. According to LNC the kung-tzŭ also died: ##.
38. For the ## cf. Li Ki 1.291 (Legge 1.226).
39. Shih 39 No. 26/3.
40. This is reminiscent of Analects 288 (14/36): "Someone said, `What do you say concerning the principle that injury should be recompensed with kindness?' The Master said, `With what then will you recompense kindness? Recompense injury with justice, and recompense kindness with kindness.' "
41. ##: lit., "advancing or retreating" as necessary.
42. For ## read ## with B, C; likewise below, where all texts write ##. (Chou, Chao 216.)
43. Shih 80 No. 49/1.
44. ##: read ## for ## with CHy after Shih k`ao 7b.
45. Abridged from YTCC 7.3b-4b; 1.6a-b gives a variant account. Hsin hsü 6.3a-4a is primarily based on YTCC, but twice uses a phrase which otherwise appears only in HSWC.
46. Cf. Mencius 127 (1A/2.1): ##.
47. Supply ## with CHy from Hsin hsü; likewise YTCC. (Chao 216.)
48. Not quite four feet. A ## was .231 m. in Han times; cf. Dubs, HFHD, loc. cit.
49. ##: paraphrased from Shih 85 No. 52/3 (also quoted at the end).
51. This exchange of pleasantries is probably intended as a specimen of Wei-yen ## "insinuations," for which cf. Shih chi 46.9b-10b (Mém. hist. 5.246-9).
52. Analects 340 (19/3).
53. Ibid. 251 (12/2), 301 (15/23).
54. ##. In Tzŭ-kung's answer there is a pun on ## "abrupt, rude," and ## "bind, wrap"; cf. Analects 208 (8/2.1): ## "straightforwardness, without li, becomes rudeness." These same lines occur in the exchange between Tsou chi and Ch`un-yü K`un in Shih chi, loc. cit.
55. ##. In Tzŭ-kung's answer there is a pun on ## "abrupt, rude," and ## "bind, wrap"; cf. Analects 208 (8/2.1): ## "straightforwardness, without li, becomes rudeness." These same lines occur in the exchange between Tsou chi and Ch`un-yü K`un in Shih chi, loc. cit.
56. ##. In Tzŭ-kung's answer there is a pun on ## "abrupt, rude," and ## "bind, wrap"; cf. Analects 208 (8/2.1): ## "straightforwardness, without li, becomes rudeness." These same lines occur in the exchange between Tsou chi and Ch`un-yü K`un in Shih chi, loc. cit.
57. ##. In Tzŭ-kung's answer there is a pun on ## "abrupt, rude," and ## "bind, wrap"; cf. Analects 208 (8/2.1): ## "straightforwardness, without li, becomes rudeness." These same lines occur in the exchange between Tsou chi and Ch`un-yü K`un in Shih chi, loc. cit.
58. ##. In Tzŭ-kung's answer there is a pun on ## "abrupt, rude," and ## "bind, wrap"; cf. Analects 208 (8/2.1): ## "straightforwardness, without li, becomes rudeness." These same lines occur in the exchange between Tsou chi and Ch`un-yü K`un in Shih chi, loc. cit.
59. B, C, D have ## before ##.
60. Shih 91 No. 55/1.
61. An expanded version of YTCC 7.15a-b. SY 9.14b-15b follows YTCC.
62. ##. TPYL 832.6a has ## cho for ##; YTCC and SY have ## Chu-ch`u. For the several theories about the identity of the person (or persons) so designated, cf. Sun I-jang (Cha-i 2.2b-3a), Chu Ch`i-fêng (TT 1294), Ch`üan Tsu-wang (Ching-shih wên-ta 7.9b-10a) and Chao 217-8, where these and other relevant sources are quoted at length. It is sufficient to point out that ## *ti̭uk and ## *tŭk could be interchanged phonetically, but not with ## *d'ə̭ng; while ## *dz'i̭u and ## *dz'i̭u are interchangeable.
63. Supply ## with CHy from YTCC
64. Cf. Shu ching 166.
65. Shih 133 No. 80/2.
66. HFT 12.8a gives two versions of this story, and SY 14.11b-12a a third. There seems to be no direct filiation between these texts. Tso chuan 419-20 (Hsiang 3) has quite a different anecdote in which Hsieh Hu figures as the man who was recommended to a post by his enemy Ch`i Hsi ##, but died before he could take it. Chou thinks that HSWC and SY are recording a garbled version of that tale. It is probably safer to speak of variant traditions.
67. SY has ## Duke Wên of Chin and ## Uncle Fan. HFT makes ## Chien Chu the interlocutor.
68. HFT has ## Hsing for ##; SY has ## Yü Tzŭ-kao. (Chou.)
69. CHy follows TPYL 482.2a to write ## ## "Marquis Wên said, `Is he not your enemy?' He replied, `Your Highness asked about suitability, not about enemies.' Whereupon he appointed Ching Po-liu governor of Hsi-ho." SY is similar, and may have influenced the TPYL version.
70. ##. Omit ## with TPYL for better rhythm. (Chao 218.)
71. I assume it is Hsieh Hu who is praised. "Brave" ## is hardly the adjective one would expect, and it may possibly refer to Po-liu, cf. HSWC 8/6.
72. Shih 133 No. 80/2.
73. From LSCC 24.10b-11a. Hsin hsü 5.9b-10a varies slightly from LSCC and HSWC, quoting at the end from Shih 429 No. 235/3. CKCS 1.10a follows Hsin hsü.
74. For ## read ## with Chou after LSCC and Hsin hsü. Sun I-jang (Cha-i 2.3a) accounts for ## as a misreading of ##, the li-script form of ##. CKCS also has ##. (Chao 219.)
75. ##. Chou has supplied ## and ## from LSCC; they are lacking in the other editions of HSWC.
76. ##: understand ##. (Chou.)
77. ##. Read ## for ##; (Chou), also Yü Yüeh (CYTT 17.7b-8a), who would go on to emend ## to ##. He confesses that there is no similarity in either form or sound of the two words, and the two further examples from HSWC 5/4 and 10/1 rather support Chao's (219-20) contention that ## has the meaning ##, though the example he cites from Mencius 337 (4B/30.3): ## hardly strengthens his argument.
78. Shih 133 No. 80/3.
79. CHy supplies ## from TPYL 55.4a and Li Shan's com. on Wên hsüan 55.32b; likewise KTCY 3. (Chao 220.)
80. Read ## before ## as in Li Shan's com. (CHy.)
81. For ## TPYL and Li Shan's com. have ##. (CHy); likewise KTCY, but TPYL 487.7b has ##. (Chao.)
82. Supply ## from TPYL 55.4a and 688.5a, and Li Shan's com. (CHy.) KTCY has ##. (Chao.)
83. KTCY adds ## "The Ode says, `The horse from Tai rejoices in the north wide; / The flying bird soars to his old nest.' Both are symbols for not forgetting old associations." This quotation is not from the Shih. The first of the "19 Old Poems" in Wên hsüan 29.1b reads ## "The horse from the Hu [country] rejoices in the north wind; / The bird from Yüeh builds its nest on a southern branch." Li Shan's com. quotes the above line as from HSWC, with ## "perch" for ##, and ## for ##. Again, in Wên hsüan 36.3b, he quotes ## as a line from HSWC. Chao is probably right in saying that the original Shih quotation must have been early lost from HSWC, and that before the T`ang someone had supplied the lines from the "Old Poem" as especially suitable. Later on, when it was felt to be out of place, it was expunged.
84. This differs considerably from Hsün-tzŭ 1.8b: "In learning the superior man lets it enter his ears and appear in his heart, spread through his four limbs and take form in his activity. One of his least words, of his slightest movements, can be taken as a rule. The mean man, however, in learning lets it enter his ear and ejects it through his mouth. Between mouth and ears there is only four inches. How can that suffice to ameliorate a body of seven ch`ih?" ##, ## ##.
85. The meaning is clear, but the logic is bad. It might be expanded to "as in the latter case, where the body fails to benefit from the food ingested only to be vomited up again, so in the former, there is no benefit to the mind—but what is worse, the mind actually suffers from the procedure."
86. Shih 44 No. 29.
87. SY 15.8a-9b is amplified from this. Chia-yü 2.1a-2a is close to SY. Cf. also HSWC 7/25.
88. ## 。 。 。 ##, in lieu of banners: cf. I li 5.35a: ## 。 ## ## "As to flags, each [officer] has a silken banner (##). If he has not a silken banner, he uses white and red feathers combined together." (Couvreur 170.)
89. ##. The text is defective. (Chou.) SY has ## "Banners and standards fluttering and turning and coiling down to earth." Likewise Chia-yü, but with ⊙ 90 for ## and ## "in confusion" for ##.
90. For this character, see the table on p. 358.
91. ##. Chia-yü has ##, and Wang Su's com. says, "Military operations are inauspicious, hence the white cap and gown." ##. This is not a very satisfactory explanation, but I can find no better.
92. A ## was 199.7 cc. Ten ## made one ##. (Dubs, HFHD, loc. cit.)
93. Lun-yü chüan-k`ao ch`an ## (quoted in TPYL 983.2a): ##, ## "Approach the lan plant and it smells good; approach a rotten fish and it stinks."
94. ##. The text is defective. (CHy.) Chou suggests emending to ## ## "Why do you speak so humbly?"
95. ##: cf. Analects 311 (16/4): ##: "specious airs" and ## "glib-tongued."
96. Emend ## to ##. (Chou.)
97. From Tao tê ching B.4b-5a.
98. ## is not in Tao tê ching.
99. Waley, The Way and Its Power 197.
100. Tao tê ching has ## for ##. (Chou.)
101. ##. HSWC omits this line.
102. Waley, op. cit. 198.
103. ##: this line is not in Tao tê ching.
104. ##. Tao tê ching has ## for ##, and Waley translates, "No lure is greater than to possess what others want."
105. HSWC here omits the line ##.
106. Waley, loc. cit.
107. LNC 1.16a-b in recasting this anecdote has toned it down somewhat.
108. Supply ## from LNC. (CHy, Chou.)
109. The prescriptions for ascending the hall and for entering a door occur in Li chi 1.5b. I cannot locate a source for ##, etc.
110. Shih 55 No. 35/1.
111. For ## Shih-k`ao 6b has ##. (Chao.) Ch`ên Ch`iao-ts`ung believes this was the Han shih reading, but as a phonetic loan word for the ## of Mao shih.
112. Shih chi 47.13a (Mém. hist. 5.337-8) gives another version. Chia-yü 5.23a-b follows Shih chi with slight modifications. Chavannes (op. cit. 338-40, note 6) translates the HSWC passage.
113. Hsün-tzŭ 3.1a mentions Ku-pu Tzŭ-ch`ing as a famous physiognomist.
114. Shun, like Yao, had eyes with double pupils; cf. Hsün-tzŭ 3.3a: ##, and Yang Liang's com. (Chou.)
115. Hsün-tzŭ says, "Kao-yao had the appearance of a split mellon." ## ##. (Chou.)
116. ## is corrupt. (Chao 222.) Emend ## to ## after KTCY 2.1a (No.11). "One in possession of territory" is one who rules a fief, hence Chavannes' "semble quelqu'un qui doit regner" is not far off.
117. KTCY adds ##.
118. ##: see notes 3, 4 above; cf. also Huai-nan tzŭ 16.16a: ## "King Wên had a sunken chest" (Hsü Shên's com.: ##). Hsün-tzŭ 3.2b says, "Chung-ni had a small, square face" (?) (Yang Liang's com.) ##. (Chou.)
119. ## is given only for this passage by PWYF. I do not understand its force here.
120. ##: Shih chi has ##; Chia-yü ## and I take ## in that sense.
121. For ## Pei Yin's com. on Shih chi has ## "there is the mat for the sacrifice." Chou prefers that reading.
122. ##. Chavannes translates, "il a l'intention de veiller a tout (c'est-a-dire que, en l'absence de toute personne vaquant aux occupations habituelles de la famille, c'est le chien qui sent qu'il doit veiller à tout)." This makes good sense, but I do not find ## with the meaning "to watch over." If the dog "extends himself" it may come to the same thinf" it may come to the same thing, or possibly it implies that he can indulge his proclivities for taking what ordinarily is forbidden him.
123. ## is superfluous. (Chou.) KTCY lacks it, (Chao), and I omit it in the translation.
124. Here there must be a reflection of the recurring theme in Kung-yang chuan 5.3b (and passim; cf. Combined Concordances s.v. ##): ## 。 ##. "No Son of Heaven above, no overseers below, and the feudal lords of the empire destroying one another:—let anyone whose strength is enough to save them, save them; it will be all right."
125. SY 10.19a-b varies from this passage, which in part at least is in rhyme: ## *no, ## *li̭o, ## *pi̭wo; ## mi̭wər, ## *ti̭wər; ## *må, ## *sio.
126. ##. Chou has emended to ## from SY; all other texts have ##. A verb balances better with the following phrases.
127. Shih 60 No. 37/2.
128. ##: PWYF gives only this example.
129. ##: cf. Shih chi 65.16b: ##. (Chao 223.)
130. ##: or, "commoners take his place," but this gives no sense in context.
131. There seems to be a hiatus in the text after this line. Both Shih chi 129.3b and Han shu 91.4a tell of Fan Li's success in making a fortune in Ch`i, but in neither of these accounts, nor in Kuo yü, WYCC, nor Yüeh chüeh shu do I find any mention of his dwelling in a slaughter house.
132. ##: lit., a "dragon transformation"; cf. Shih chi 28.29b ##.
133. ##: lit., "sink and float."
134. Shih 166 No. 109.
135. Shih chi 44.3a-b (Mém. hist. 5.138-9) has this story in a slightly different form. SY 8.18a-b follows Shih chi, with a few locutions from HSWC. Chavannes, loc. cit., translates both the HSWC version and SY 10.10b-11a, giving yet another anecdote of an interview between T`ien Tzŭ-fang and the Heir Apparent; cf. HSWC 6/2.
136. CHy here adds ## "and that there have been those who were arrogant toward others because of [ruling] one state, and who lost [their states]" from TPYL 773.3b-4a; likewise 498.1a-b. (Chao 224.)
137. For ## CHy writes ## after TPYL 773.4a (498.1b also has ##, but with ##). It is the Sung ed. of *TPYL (773.3b) that has ##; the Pao ed. has ⊙ 138 , a vulgar form of ## "take in the hand." Yü Yüeh (CYTT 17.8a-b) remarks that ## makes no sense, as one does not walk carrying one's shoes, while ## "hand over" is still worse. He goes on to list several possible emendations, none of them very convincing. Chao (225) tentatively suggests ## as in HSWC 2/22. Shih chi has ## ## "as easily as taking off a slipper." I have followed SY: ##.
138. For this character, see the table on p. 358.
139. ##: CHy is probably right in suggesting the demonstrative ## for ##.
140. Cf. *I lin ## 12.21a: ##, ## 。 ##, ##. "On coming to water, the wild duck dives in. Happily he preens himself, and his feathers become rich and glossy."
141. Cf. Mencius 125 (1A/1.2).
142. LNC 2.24a-b is similar.
143. LNC has ## Ling Tzŭ-chung. (CHy, Chou.)
144. One ## = 244 g. in Han times. (Cf. Dubs, HFHD, loc. cit.) Unless hyperbole is intended, I suspect there must be an error in either the weight or the material. A hundred ## is more likely; cf. HSWC 2/21. LNC has ##.
145. ##. The usual cliché for an ostentatious equipage has ## for ##; cf. LNC, Shih chi 67.16a.
146. Cf. Mencius 496 (7B/34.2).
147. ##: I do not find this expression elsewhere. It might mean "skilled at [making] sandals."
148. D here has ## for ##; see note 4.
149. He has been restricted to a gruel diet.
150. Shih 209 No. 139/3.
151. HFT 3.5b-6a (Liao 1.85-8) gives a longer version of this story. SY 20.9a-10b is a modification of HFT. Shih chi 5.15b-17a (Mém. hist. 2.40-3) has another, apparently independent, version.
152. ##: cf. HSWC 5/9, note 4. CHy writes ##, which ordinarily would precede the ##. In the HFT version Yao, Shun, and Yü are discussed, but not the ##. Shih chi mentions only Huang-ti, while SY brings in the Hsia, the Shang, and the Chou.
153. ## is not a usual cliché; it is rather the ruler who ## loses his state.
154. For ## read ## with CHy after Li Shan's com. on Wên hsüan 51.19a; likewise HFT, SY, and Shih chi.
155. ##: HFT has ##, and SY adds ##. For the ruler of a pastoral people that fits well enough, but ## makes no good sense. I suspect it is a mistake for either ## or ##.
156. The other texts have ## for ##; Chou has emended from SY.
157. For this use of ## cf. HSWC 4/4, 9/29.
158. ##: TPYL 847.5b has ## "Tsêng-tzŭ fed him" (CHy); likewise Shu-ch`ao 143.6b. (Chao 226.)
159. Pun on ## lo "joy" and yüeh "music."
160. Cf. HSWC 9/3.
161. Cf. Analects 225 (9/26.3) and Legge's note on ##.
162. ## *dzi̭ung and ## *kung rhyme. I suspect that the second line is defective.
163. ## ⊙ 164 ##. CHy and Chou both take ⊙ 165 as = ##, and punctuate after ##: "I was once uncultivated in this, and all year I tilled without getting any harvest." (?) If I have correctly understood their reading, I fail to see how it fits into the argument. My translation leaves out of account the ##.
164. For this character, see the table on p. 358.
165. For this character, see the table on p. 358.
166. Shih 254 No. 165/1.
167. YTCC 8.35a applies the story to Yen-tzŭ's wife. Another version occurs in YTCC 6.43a (Forke, Yen Ying, 122).
168. CHy adds ## "on the bamboo fence" from TPYL 922.5b, which has ## ## "soaring aloft 1000 li" for ##.
169. For ## CHy has ## "the Eastern suburbs" after TPYL. (Chao 226-7.)
171. ##: TPYL has ## "revolves among the clouds." (CHy.)
172. For ## read ## with CHy after TPYL; see note 1.
173. Cf. HSWC 2/25, where the sentence is applied to Tsêng-tzŭ, and notes 3 and 4.
174. Shih 224 No. 152/4.
175. ##; properly "Beef butcher T`u." Ch`u-hsüeh chi 19.7b, TPYL 382.6b have ##. (CHy.)
176. ##: Ch`u-hsüeh chi and TPYL have ## "urged him" before ##. (CHy.)
177. For ## read ## 。 ## with CHy after TPYL and Ch`u-hsüeh chi. (Chou 227.)
178. ## is corrupt. Either invert ## and ##, or follow Ch`u-hsüeh chi to read ## for ##.
179. ## "teeth like shells in a row." Chu I-tung ## (quoted by Chao 227-8) points out that this metaphor is frequently employed of a person's beauty, and so is not appropriate here. The quotation of this line in Lu T`ien's Pei ya reads ## "insect larva" for ##, and I follow Chu to emend to that reading. Chao in adition cites TPYL 382.6b, which has ## "crab," a possible graphic error for ## *g'αng and ## *χi̭ang rhyme.
180. For ## cf. Analects 209 (8/4.3).
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