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曾 子 仕 於 莒 ， 得 粟 三 秉 ， 方 是 之 時 ， 曾 子 重 其 祿 而輕 其 身 ； 親 沒 之 後 ， 齊 迎 以 相 ， 楚 迎 以 令 尹 ， 晉 迎 以 上卿 ， 方 是 之 時 ， 曾 子 重 其 身 而 輕 其 祿 。 懷 其 寶 而 迷 其 國者 ， 不 可 與 語 仁 ； 窘 其 身 而 約 其 親 者 ， 不 可 與 語 孝 ； 任重 道 遠 者 ， 不 擇 地 而 息 ； 家 貧 親 老 者 ， 不 擇 官 而 仕 。 故君 子 橋 褐 趨 時 ， 當 務 為 急 。 傳 云 ： 不 逢 時 而 仕 ， 任 事 而敦 其 慮 ， 為 之 使 而 不 入 其 謀 ， 貧 焉 故 也 。 詩 云 ： 「 夙 夜在 公 ， 實 命 不 同 。 」
傳 曰 ： 夫 行 露 之 人 許 嫁 矣 ， 然 而 未 往 也 ， 見 一 物不 具 ， 一 禮 不 備 ， 守 節 貞 理 ， 守 死 不 往 ， 君 子 以 為 得 婦道 之 宜 ， 故 舉 而 傳 之 ， 揚 而 歌 之 ， 以 絕 無 道 之 求 ， 防 汙道 之 行 乎 ！ 詩 曰 ： 「 雖 速 我 訟 ， 亦 不 爾 從 。 」
孔 子 南 遊 ， 適 楚 ， 至 於 阿 谷 之 隧 ， 有 處 子 佩 瑱 而浣 者 。 孔 子 曰 ： 「 彼 婦 人 其 可 與 言 矣 乎 ！ 」 抽 觴 以 授 子貢 ， 曰 ： 「 善 為 之 辭 ， 以 觀 其 語 。 」 子 貢 曰 ： 「 吾 、 北鄙 之 人 也 ， 將 南 之 楚 ， 逢 天 之 暑 ， 思 心 潭 潭 ， 願 乞 一 飲， 以 表 我 心 。 」 婦 人 對 曰 ： 「 阿 谷 之 隧 ， 隱 曲 之 氾 ， 其水 載 清 載 濁 ， 流 而 趨 海 ， 欲 飲 則 飲 ， 何 問 婦 人 乎 ？ 」 受子 貢 觴 ， 迎 流 而 挹 之 ， 奐 然 而 棄 之 ， 促 流 而 挹 之 ， 奐 然而 溢 之 ， 坐 、 置 之 沙 上 ， 曰 ： 「 禮 固 不 親 受 。 」 子 貢 以告 。 孔 子 曰 ： 「 丘 知 之 矣 。 」 抽 琴 去 其 軫 ， 以 授 子 貢 ，曰 ： 「 善 為 之 辭 ， 以 觀 其 語 。 」 子 貢 曰 ： 「 嚮 子 之 言 ，穆 如 清 風 ， 不 悖 我 語 ， 和 暢 我 心 。 於 此 有 琴 而 無 軫 ，願借 子 以 調 其 音 。 」 婦 人 對 曰 ： 「 吾 ， 野 鄙 之 人也 ， 僻 陋而 無 心 ， 五 音 不 知 ， 安 能 調 琴 。 」 子 貢 以 告 。 孔 子 曰 ：「 丘 知 之 矣 。 」 抽 絺 紘 五 兩 ， 以 授 子 貢 ， 曰 ： 「 善 為 之辭 ， 以 觀 其 語 。 」 子 貢 曰 ： 「 吾 、 北 鄙 之 人 也 ， 將 南 之楚 。 於 此 有 絺 紘 五 兩 ， 吾 不 敢 以 當 子 身 ， 敢 置 之 水 浦 。」 婦 人 對 曰 ：「 客 之 行 ， 差 遲 乖 人 ， 分 其 資 財 ， 棄 之 野 鄙 。 吾 年 甚 少， 何 敢 受 子 ， 子 不 早 去 ， 今 竊 有 狂 夫 守 之 者 矣 。 」 詩 曰：「 南 有 喬 木 ， 不 可 休 思 。 漢 有 遊 女 ， 不 可 求思 。 」 此之 謂 也 。
哀 公 問 孔 子 曰 ： 「 有 智 壽 乎 ？ 」 孔 子 曰「 然 。人 有 三 死 而 非 命 也 者 ， 自 取 之 也 ： 居 處 不 理 ， 飲 食 不 節， 勞 過 者 ， 病 共 殺 之 。 居 下 而 好 干 上 ， 嗜 慾 不 厭 ， 求 索不 止 者 ， 刑 共 殺 之 。 少 以 敵 眾 ， 弱 以 侮 強 ， 忿 不 量 力 者， 兵 共 殺 之 。 故 有 三 死 而 非 命 者 ， 自 取 之 也 。 」 詩 云 ：「 人 而 無 儀 ， 不 死 何 為 ！ 」
傳 曰 ： 在 天 者 、 莫 明 乎 日 月 ， 在 地 者 、 莫 明 於 水火 ， 在 人 者 、 莫 明 乎 禮 儀 。 故 日 月 不 高 ， 則 所 照 不 遠 ；水 火 不 積 ， 則 光 炎 不 博 ： 禮 義 不 加 乎 國 家 ， 則 功 名 不 白。 故 人 之 命 在 天 ， 國 之 命 在 禮 。 君 人 者 、 降 禮 尊 賢 而 王， 重 法 愛 民 而 霸 ， 好 � 炎 不 博 ： 禮 義 不 加 乎 國 家 ， 則 功 名 不 白。 故 人 之 命 在 天 ， 國 之 命 在 禮 。 君 人 者 、 降 禮 尊 賢 而 王， 重 法 愛 民 而 霸 ， 好 利 多 詐 而 危 ， 權 謀 傾 覆 而 亡 。 詩 曰： 「 人 而 無 禮 ， 胡 不 遄 死 ！ 」
君 子 有 辯 善 之 度 ， 以 治 氣 養 性 ， 則 身 後 彭祖 ； 修身 自 強 ， 則 名 配 堯 禹 ； 宜 於 時 則 達 ， 厄 於 窮 則 處 ， 信 禮者 也 。 凡 用 心 之 術 ， 由 禮 則 理 達 ， 不 由 禮 則 悖 亂 。 飲 食衣 服 ， 動 靜 居 處 ， 由 禮 則 知 節 ， 不 由 禮 則 墊 陷 生 疾 。 容貌 態 度 ， 進 退 移 步 ， 由 禮 則 夷 國 。 政 無 禮 則 不 行 ， 王 事無 禮 則 不 成 ， 國 無 禮 則 不 寧 ， 王 無 禮 則 死 亡 無 日 矣 。 詩曰 ： 「 人 而 無 禮 ， 胡 不 遄 死 ！ 」
傳 曰 ： 不 仁 之 至 忽 其 親 ， 不 忠 之 至 倍 其 君 ，不 信之 至 欺 其 友 。 此 三 者 、 聖 王 之 所 殺 而 不 赦 也 。 詩 曰 ： 「人 而 無 禮 ， 不 死 何 為 ！ 」
王 子 比 干 殺 身 以 成 其 忠 ， 柳 下 惠 殺 身 以 成 其 信 ，伯 夷 叔 齊 殺 身 以 成 其 廉 ， 此 三 子 者 ， 皆 天 下 之 通 士 也 ，豈 不 愛 其 身 哉 ！ 為 夫 義 之 不 立 ， 名 之 不 顯 ， 則 士 恥 之 ，故 殺 身 以 遂 其 行 。 由 是 觀 之 ， 卑 賤 貧 窮 ， 非 士 之 恥 也 ；天 下 舉 忠 而 士 不 與 焉 ， 舉 信 而 士 不 與 焉 ， 舉 廉 而 士 不 與焉 ， 三 者 存 乎 身 ， 名 傳 於 世 ， 與 日 月 並 而 息 ， 天 不 能 殺， 地 不 能 生 ， 當 桀 紂 之 世 不 之 能 汙 也 ， 然 則 非 惡 生 而 樂死 也 ， 惡 富 貴 好 貧 賤 也 ， 由 其 理 ， 尊 貴 及 己 而 仕 也 不 辭也 。 孔 子 曰 ： 「 富 而 可 求 ， 雖 執 鞭 之 士 吾 亦 為 之 。 」 故阨 窮 而 不 憫 ， 勞 辱 而 不 苟 ， 然 後 能 有 致 也 。 詩 曰 ：「 我心 匪 石 ， 不 可 轉 也 ， 我 心 匪 席 ， 不 可 卷 也 。 」 此 之 謂 也。
原 憲 居 魯 ， 環 堵 之 室 ， 茨 以 蒿 萊 ， 蓬 戶 甕 牖 ， 桷桑 而 無 樞 ， 上 漏 下 濕 ， 匡 坐 而 絃 歌 。 子 貢 乘 肥 馬 ， 衣 輕裘 ， 中 紺 而 表 素 ， 軒 不 容 巷 ， 而 往 見 之 。 原 憲 楮 冠 黎 杖而 應 門 ， 正 冠 則 纓 絕 ， 振 襟 則 肘 見 ， 納 履 則 踵 決 。 子 貢曰 ： 「 嘻 ！ 先 生 何 病 也 ！ 」 原 憲 仰 而 應 之 曰 ： 「 憲 聞 之： 無 財 之 謂 貧 ， 學 而 不 能 行 之 謂 病 。 憲 、 貧 也 ， 非 病 也。 若 夫 希 世 而 行 ， 比 周 而 友 ， 學 以 為 人 ， 教 以 為 己 ， 仁義 之 匿 ， 車 馬 之 飾 ， 衣 裘 之 麗 ， 憲 不 忍 為 之 也 。 」 子 貢逡 巡 ， 面 有 慚 色 ， 不 辭 而 去 。 原 憲 乃 徐 步 曳 杖 ， 歌 商 頌而 反 ， 聲 淪 於 天 地 ， 如 出 金 石 。 天 子 不 得 而 臣 也 ，諸 侯不 得 而 友 也 。 故 養 身 者 忘 家 ， 養 志 者 忘 身 ， 身 且 不 愛 ，孰 能 忝 之 。 詩 曰 ： 「 我 心 匪 石 ， 不 可 轉 也 ； 我 心 匪 席 ，不 可 卷 也 。 」
傳 曰 ： 所 謂 士 者 ， 雖 不 能 盡 備 乎 道 術 ， 必 有 由 也； 雖 不 能 盡 乎 美 者 ， 必 有 處 也 。 言 不 務 多 ， 務 審 所 行 而已 ， 行 既 已 尊 之 ， 言 既 已 由 之 ， 若 肌 膚 性 命 之 不 可 易 也。 詩 曰 ： 「 我 心 匪 石 ， 不 可 轉 也 ； 我 心 匪 席 ， 不 可 卷 也。 」
傳 曰 ： 君 子 潔 其 身 而 同 者 合 焉 ， 善 其 音 而 類 者 應焉 。 馬 鳴 而 馬 應 之 ， 牛 鳴 而 牛 應 之 ， 非 知 也 ， 其 勢 然 也。 故 新 沐 者 必 彈 冠 ， 新 浴 者 必 振 衣 ， 莫 能 以 己 之 皭 皭 ，容 人 之 混 汙 然 。 詩 曰 ： 「 我 心 匪 鑑 ， 不 可 以 茹 。 」
荊 伐 陳 ， 陳 西 門 壞 ， 因 其 降 民 使 脩 之 ， 孔 子 過 而不 式 。 子 貢 執 轡 而 問 曰 ： 「 禮 、 過 三 人 則 下 ， 二 人 則 式。 今 陳 之 脩 門 者 眾 矣 ， 夫 子 不 為 式 ， 何 也 ？ 」 孔 子 曰 ：「 國 亡 而 弗 知 ， 不 智 也 ； 知 而 不 爭 ， 非 忠 也 ； 亡 而 不 死， 非 勇 也 。 脩 門 者 雖 眾 ， 不 能 行 一 於 此 ， 吾 故 弗 式 也 。」 詩 曰 ： 「 憂 心 悄 悄 ， 慍 于 群 小 。 」 小 人 成 群 ， 何 足 禮哉 ！
傳 曰 ： 喜 名 者 必 多 怨 ， 好 與 者 必 多 辱 ， 唯 滅 跡 於人 ， 能 隨 天 地 自 然 ， 為 能 勝 理 ， 而 無 愛 名 ； 名 興 則 道 不用 ， 道 行 則 人 無 位 矣 。 夫 利 為 害 本 ， 而 福 為 禍 先 ， 唯 不求 利 者 為 無 害 ， 不 求 福 者 為 無 禍 。 詩 曰 ：「 不 忮 不 求 ， 何 用 不 臧 。 」
傳 曰 ： 聰 者 自 聞 ， 明 者 自 見 ， 聰 明 則 仁 愛 著 而 廉恥 分 矣 。 故 非 道 而 行 之 ， 雖 勞 不 至 ； 非 其 有 而 求 之 ， 雖強 不 得 。 故 智 者 不 為 非 其 事 ， 廉 者 不 求 非 其 有 ， 是 以 害遠 而 名 彰 也 。 詩 云 ： 「 不 忮 不 求 ， 何 用 不 臧 。 」
傳 曰 ： 安 命 養 性 者 ， 不 待 積 委 而 富 ； 名 號 傳 乎 世者 ， 不 待 勢 位 而 顯 ； 德 義 暢 乎 中 而 無 外 求 也 。 信 哉 ！ 賢者 之 不 以 天 下 為 名 利 者 也 。 詩 曰 ： 「 不 忮 不 求 ， 何 用 不臧 。 」
古 者 、 天 子 左 五 鐘 ， 將 出 ， 則 撞 黃 鐘 ， 而 右 五 鐘皆 應 之 ， 馬 鳴 中 律 ， 駕 者 有 文 ， 御 者 有 數 ， 立 則 磬 折 ，拱 則 抱 鼓 ， 行 步 中 規 ， 折 旋 中 矩 ， 然 後 太 師 奏 升 車 之 樂， 告 出 也 。 入 則 撞 蕤 賓 ， 以 治 容 貌 ， 容 貌 得 則 顏 色 齊 ，顏 色 齊 則 肌 膚 安 ， 蕤 賓 有 聲 ， 鵠 震 馬 鳴 ， 及 介 之 蟲 ，無 不 延 頸 以 聽 ， 在 內 者 皆 玉 色 ， 在 外 者 皆 金 聲 ， 然 後 少師 奏 升 堂 之 樂 ， 即 席 告 入 也 。 此 言 音 樂 有 和 ， 物 類 相 感， 同 聲 相 應 之 義 也 。 詩 云 ：「 鐘 鼓 樂 之 。 」 此 之 謂 也 。
枯 魚 銜 索 ， 幾 何 不 蠹 ！ 二 親 之 壽 ， 忽 如 過● ； 樹木 欲 茂 ， 霜 露 不 凋 使 ； 賢 士 欲 成 其 名 ， 二 親 不 待 。 家 貧親 老 ， 不 擇 官 而 仕 。 詩 曰 ：「 雖 則 如 燬 ， 父 母 孔 邇 。 」 此 之 謂 也 。
孔 子 曰 ： 「 君 子 有 三 憂 ： 弗 知 ， 可 無 憂 與 ！ 知 而不 學 ， 可 無 憂 與 ！ 學 而 不 行 ， 可 無 憂 與 ！ 」 詩 曰 ： 「 未見 君 子 ， 憂 心 惙 惙 。 」
魯 公 甫 文 伯 死 ， 其 母 不 哭 也 。 季 孫 聞 之 ， 曰 ： 「公 甫 文 伯 之 母 、 貞 女 也 。 子 死 不 哭 ， 必 有 方 矣 。 」 使 人問 焉 。 對 曰 ： 「 昔 、 是 子 也 ， 吾 使 之 事 仲 尼 ， 仲 尼 去 魯， 送 之 ， 不 出 魯 郊 ， 贈 之 ， 不 與 家 珍 。 病 、 不 見 士 之 視者 ； 死 、 不 見 士 之 流 淚 者 ； 死 之 日 ， 宮 女 縗 絰 而 從 者 ，十 人 。 此 不 足 於 士 ， 而 有 餘 於 婦 人 也 。 吾 是 以 不 哭 也 。」 詩 曰 ： 「 乃 如 之 人 兮 ， 德 音 無 良 」 。
傳 曰 ： 天 地 有 合 ， 則 生 氣 有 精 矣 ； 陰 陽 消 息 ， 則變 化 有 時 矣 ； 時 得 則 治 ， 時 失 則 亂 。 故 人 生 而 不 具 者 五： 目 無 見 ， 不 能 食 ， 不 能 行 ， 不 能 言 ， 不 能 施 化 。 三 月微 的 ， 而 後 能 見 ； 七 月 而 生 齒 ， 而 後 能 食 ； 年 髑 就 ，而 後 能 行 ； 三 年 腦 合 ， 而 後 能 言 ； 十 六 精 通 ， 而 後 能 施化 。 陰 陽 相 反 ， 陰 以 陽 變 ， 陽 以 陰 變 。 故 男 、 八 月 生 齒， 八 歲 而 齠 齒 ， 十 六 而 精 化 小 通 。 女 、 七 月 生 齒 ， 七 歲而 齔 齒 ， 十 四 而 精 化 小 通 。 是 故 陽 以 陰 變 ， 陰 以 陽 變 。故 不 肖 者 、 精 化 始 具 ， 而 生 氣 感 動 ， 觸 情 縱 欲 ， 反 施 化， 是 以 年 壽 亟 夭 ， 而 性 不 長 也 。 詩 曰 ： 「 乃 如 之 人 兮 ，懷 婚 姻 也 ， 太 無 信 也 ， 不 知 命 也 。 」 賢 者 不 然 ， 精 氣 闐溢 ， 而 後 傷 時 不 可 過 也 。 不 見 道 端 ， 乃 陳 情 欲 ， 以 歌 道義 。 詩 曰 ： 「 靜 女 其 姝 ， 俟 我 乎 城 隅 ， 愛 而 不 見 ， 搔 首踟 躕 。 瞻 彼 日 月 ， 悠 悠 我 思 ， 道 之 云 遠 ， 曷 云 能 來 。 」急 時 辭 也 ， 是 故 稱 之 日 月 也 。
楚 白 公 之 難 ， 有 仕 之 善 者 ， 辭 其 母 ， 將 死 君 。 其母 曰 ： 「 棄 母 而 死 君 ， 可 乎 ？ 」 曰 ： 「 聞 事 君 者 、 內 其祿 而 外 其 身 。 今 之 所 以 養 母 者 ， 君 之 祿 也 ， 請 往 死 之 。」 比 至 朝 ， 三 廢 車 中 。 其 僕 曰 ： 「 子 懼 、 何 不 反 也 ？ 」曰 ： 「 懼 、 吾 私 也 ， 死 君 、 吾 公 也 。 吾 聞 君 子 不 以 私 害公 。 」 遂 死 之 。 君 子 聞 之 曰 ： 「 好 義 哉 ！ 必 濟 矣 夫 ！ 」詩 云 ： 「 深 則 厲 ， 淺 則 揭 。 」 此 之 謂 也 。
晉 靈 公 之 時 ， 宋 人 殺 昭 公 。 趙 宣 子 請 師 於 靈 公 而救 之 。 靈 公 曰 ： 「 非 晉 國 之 急 也 。 」 宣 子 曰 ： 「 不 然 。夫 大 者 天 地 ， 其 次 君 臣 ， 所 以 為 順 也 。 今 殺 其 君 ， 所 以反 天 地 、 逆 人 道 也 ， 天 必 加 災 焉 。 晉 為 盟 主 而 不 救 ， 天罰 懼 及 矣 。 詩 云 ： 『 凡 民 有 喪 ， 匍 匐 救 之 。 』 而 況 國 君乎 ！ 」 於 是 靈 公 乃 與 師 而 從 之 。 宋 人 聞 之 ， 儼 然 感 說 ，而 晉 國 日 昌 ， 何 則 ？ 以 其 誅 逆 存 順 。 詩 曰 ： 「 凡 民 有 喪， 匍 匐 救 之 。 」 趙 宣 子 之 謂 也 。
傳 曰 ： 水 濁 則 魚 喁 ， 令 苛 則 民 亂 ， 城 削 則崩 ， 岸削 則 陂 。 故 吳 起 削 刑 而 車 裂 ， 商 鞅 峻 法 而 支 解 。 治 國 者譬 若 乎 張 琴 然 ， 大 絃 急 ， 則 小 絃 絕 矣 。 故 急 轡 御 者 、 非千 里 之 御 也 。 有 聲 之 聲 ， 不 過 百 里 ， 無 聲 之 聲 ， 延 及 四海 。 故 祿 過 其 功 者 削 ， 名 過 其 實 者 損 ， 情 行 合 名 ， 禍 福不 虛 至 矣 。 詩 云 ： 「 何 其 處 也 ？ 必 有 與 也 。 何 其 久 也 ？必 有 以 也 。 」 故 惟 其 無 為 ， 能 長 生 久 視 ， 而 無 累 於 物 矣。
傳 曰 ： 衣 服 容 貌 者 ， 所 以 說 目 也 ， 應 對 言 語 者 、所 以 說 耳 也 ， 好 惡 去 就 者 、 所 以 說 心 也 。 故 君 子 衣 服 中， 容 貌 得 ， 則 民 之 目 悅 矣 ； 言 語 遜 ， 應 對 給 ， 則 民 之 耳悅 矣 ； 就 仁 去 不 仁 ， 則 民 之 心 悅 矣 。 三 者 存 乎 身 ， 雖 不在 位 ， 謂 之 素 行 。 故 中 心 存 善 而 日 新 之 ， 雖 獨 居 而 樂 ，德 充 而 形 。 詩 曰 ： 何 其 處 也 ？ 必 有 與 也 。 何 其 久 也 ？ 必有 以 也 。 」
仁 道 有 四 ： 磏 為 下 。 有 聖 仁 者 ， 有 智 仁 者 、 有 德仁 者 ， 有 磏 仁 者 。 上 知 天 ， 能 用 其 時 ； 下 知 地 ， 能 用 其財 ； 中 知 人 ， 能 安 樂 之 ； 是 聖 仁 者 也 。 上 亦 知 天 ， 能 用其 時 ； 下 知 地 、 能 用 其 財 ； 中 知 人 ， 能 使 人 肆 之 ； 是 智仁 也 。 寬 而 容 眾 ， 百 姓 信 之 ； 道 所 以 至 ， 弗 辱 以 時 ； 是德 仁 者 也 。 廉 潔 直 方 ， 疾 亂 不 治 、 惡 邪 不 匡 ； 雖 居 鄉 里， 若 坐 塗 炭 ； 命 入 朝 廷 ， 如 赴 湯 火 ； 非 其 民 、 不 使 ， 非其 食 、 弗 嘗 ； 疾 亂 世 而 輕 死 ， 弗 顧 弟 兄 ， 以 法 度 之 ， 比於 不 詳 ， 是 磏 仁 者 也 。 傳 曰 ： 山 銳 則 不 高 ， 水 徑 則 不 深， 仁 磏 則 其 德 不 厚 ， 志 與 天 地 擬 者 、 其 人 不 祥 ， 是 伯 夷、 叔 齊 、 卞 隨 、 介 子 推 、 原 憲 、 鮑 焦 、 袁 旌 目 、 申 徒 狄之 行 也 ， 其 所 受 天 命 之 度 ， 適 至 是 而 亡 ， 弗 能 改 也 ， 雖枯 稿 弗 捨 也 。 詩 云 ： 「 亦 己 焉 哉 ！ 天 實 為 之 ， 謂 之 何 哉！ 」 磏 仁 雖 下 ， 然 聖 人 不 廢 者 、 匡 民 隱 括 ， 有 在 是 中 者也 。
申 徒 狄 非 其 世 ， 將 自 投 於 河 。 崔 嘉 聞 而 止之 ， 曰： 「 吾 聞 聖 人 仁 士 之 於 天 地 之 間 也 ， 民 之 父 母 也 ， 今 為儒 雅 之 故 ， 不 救 溺 人 ， 可 乎 ？ 」 申 徒 狄 曰 ： 「 不 然 。 桀殺 關 龍 逢 、 紂 殺 王 子 比 干 ， 而 亡 天 下 。 吳 殺 子 胥 ， 陳 殺泄 冶 、 而 滅 其 國 。 故 亡 國 殘 家 ， 非 無 聖 智 也 ， 不 用 故 也。 」 遂 抱 石 而 沉 於 河 。 君 子 聞 之 ， 曰 ： 「 廉 矣 ！ 如 仁 歟？ 則 吾 未 之 見 也 。 」 詩 曰 ： 「 天 實 為 之 ， 謂 之 何 哉 ！ 」
鮑 焦 衣 弊 膚 見 ， 挈 畚 持 蔬 ， 遇 子 貢 於 道 。 子 貢 曰： 「 吾 子 何 以 至 於 此 也 ？ 」 鮑 焦 曰 ： 「 天 下 之 遺 德 教 者、 眾 矣 ， 吾 何 以 不 至 於 此 也 ！ 吾 聞 之 ： 世 不 己 知 而 行 之不 已 者 、 爽 行 也 ； 上 不 己 用 而 干 之 不 止 者 、 是 毀 廉 也 。行 爽 毀 廉 ， 然 且 弗 舍 ， 惑 於 利 者 也 。 」 子 貢 曰 ： 「 吾 聞之 ： 非 其 世 者 、 不 生 其 利 ； 汙 其 君 者 、 不 履 其 土 。 非 其世 而 持 其 蔬 ， 詩 曰 ： 『 溥 天 之 下 ， 莫 非 王 土 。 』 此 誰 有之 哉 ？ 」 鮑 焦 曰 ： 「 於 戲 ！ 吾 聞 賢 者 重 進 而 輕 退 ， 廉 者易 愧 而 輕 死 。 」 於 是 棄 其 蔬 而 立 槁 於 洛 水 之 上 。 君 子 聞之 ， 曰 ： 「 廉 夫 ！ 剛 哉 ！ 夫 山 銳 則 不 高 ， 水 徑 則 不深 ，行 磏 者 德 不 厚 ， 志 與 天 地 擬 者 ， 其 為 人 不 祥 。 鮑 焦 可 謂不 祥 矣 ！ 其 節 度 淺 深 ， 適 至 於 是 矣 ！ 」 詩 云 ： 「 亦 已 焉哉 ！ 天 實 為 之 ， 謂 之 何 哉 ！ 」
昔 者 、 周 道 之 盛 ， 邵 伯 在 朝 ， 有 司 請 營 邵 以 居 。邵 伯 曰 ： 「 嗟 ！ 以 吾 一 身 ， 而 勞 百 姓 ， 此 非 吾 先 君 文 王之 志 也 。 」 於 是 ， 出 而 就 蒸 庶 於 阡 陌 隴 畝 之 間 ， 而 聽 斷焉 。 邵 伯 暴 處 遠 野 ， 廬 於 樹 下 ， 百 姓 大 悅 ， 耕 桑 者 倍 力以 勸 ， 於 是 歲 大 稔 ， 民 給 家 足 。 其 後 在 位 者 驕 奢 ， 不 恤元 元 ， 稅 賦 繁 數 ， 百 姓 困 乏 ， 耕 桑 失 時 。 於 是 詩 人 見 召伯 之 所 休 息 樹 下 ， 美 而 歌 之 。 詩 曰 ： 「 蔽 茀 甘 棠 ， 勿 剪勿 伐 ， 召 伯 所 茇 。 」 此 之 謂 也 。
Tsêng-tzŭ held office in Chü, 2 receiving as salary three ping3 of grain. At that time Tsêng-tzŭ valued his pay but held lightly his person. After his parents had died, Ch`i invited him to be minister, and Ch`u and Chin each invited him to be prime minister. At that time Tsêng-tzŭ valued his person but held lightly to his pay. With one who "keeping his jewel in his bosom, leaves his country to confusion," 4 it is not possible to speak of jên; with one who, distressing his person, stints his parents [by not holding office], it is not possible to discuss filial duty. One whose "burden is heavy and whose course is long" 5 is not particular about the place where he rests; one whose family is poor and whose parents are old is not particular about the office he will fill. Truly, the superior man will anxiously 6 hasten after the opportunity, considering the present business to be urgent. 7 As the saying goes, if a man takes office without meeting with the proper time, or is overconscientious in discharging his duties, or serves another without entering into his schemes, 8 the reason is poverty. The Ode says, 9
Tradition tells about the woman in the "hsing-lu" [Ode]. 12 She had been promised in marriage, but as yet had not gone [to her husband's house]. Seeing one present missing, one rite not perfect, she preserved her chastity and kept her principles pure, and would sooner have died 13 than go. The superior man regards her as having attained that which is fitting to a woman's duty, 14 and so he uses her as an exemplar and makes a song to disseminate it. Thereby he does away with improper seeking and prevents immoral acts. The Ode says,
Confucius was traveling south on his way to Ch`u when he came to the declivity 17 of A-ku, where a maiden who wore a semi-circle of jade 18 at her belt was washing clothes. Confucius said, "No doubt yonder woman can be approached?" He drew out a cup 19 and handed it to Tzŭ-kung saying, "Address her politely, 20 that we may see what she says."
Tzŭ-kung said to the woman, "I, a humble northerner on my way south to Ch`u, find the weather hot. Ardently I think of you; I wish to beg a drink to demonstrate my feelings." The woman replied, "This declivity of A-ku [holds] a winding stream, whose water is alternately clear and turbid as it flows on its way to the sea. If you wish to drink, then drink. Why ask a woman?" She took Tzŭ-kung's cup, went to the stream and dipped it in against the current; then she threw out the water with a splash and dipped it in again with a splash, following the current, 21 and filled it to overflowing. Kneeling she placed it on the sand and said, "According to etiquette (li) it must not be handed over directly." 22
Tzŭ-kung reported this, and Confucius said, "I knew it." Drawing out a lute, he removed its pegs and handed it to Tzŭ-kung saying, "Address her politely, that we may see what she says."
Tzŭ-kung said, "The words you have just spoken are soothing as a pure breeze, 23 not contradicting what I said; they have harmonized and made easy my mind. Here is a lute without pegs; I would like you to tune it for me. The woman replied, "I am a rustic person, uncultivated and ignorant. 24 Not knowing the five tones, 25 how could I tune your lute?"
Tzŭ-kung reported this, and Confucius said, "I knew it." He drew out five liang of hemp, 26 which he handed to Tzŭ-kung, saying, "Address her politely, that we may see what she says."
Tzŭ-kung said, "I am a man from a northern rustic town on my way south to Ch`u. Here I have five liang of hemp. Though I dare not consider it worthy of yourself, I shall venture to place it by the bank of the stream."
The woman replied, "Your behavior is wrong . . . 27 dividing up property and casting it away on a rustic person. I am too young— how would I dare receive it from you? 28 If you do not take it away immediately. . . ." 29 The Ode says, 30
This is illustrated in the above [story].
Duke Ai asked Confucius, "Does the possessor of knowledge live out his span?"
Confucius said, "Certainly. There are three ways in which a man dies that are not determined by fate, but are of his own choosing. Those whose residence is not taken care of, those who are immoderate in eating and drinking, those who in toil and idleness go to excess 32 will all of them be killed off by sickness. Those who, occupying an inferior position, like to oppose their superiors; those whose desires are insatiable; and those who seek incessantly will all of them be killed by the law. Those who with a few oppose the many, who with weakness insult the strong, who in anger do not take stock of their strength will all of them be killed in war. Thus there are three ways in which a man dies that are not determined by fate, but are of his own choosing." The Ode says, 33
There is a traditional saying: "In the heavens nothing is brighter than sun and moon; on earth nothing is brighter than water and fire; in man nothing is brighter than li and i." Now when the sun or moon is not high it does not illuminate what is distant; and when fire or water is not brought together in a mass, its rays are not extensive; and when li and i are not used in a state, then its fame is not clear. Just as human fate depends on heaven, the destiny of a state depends on li. If a ruler esteems 35li and honors sages, he will reign as a True King. If he lays emphasis on law and loves the people, he will rule as a hegemon. If he loves profit and practices many deceits, he will be in danger. If he plots in an opportunist manner to overthrow [other states], he will perish. The Ode says, 36
The superior man has the capacity of universal 38 aptitude. If he uses it to regulate breathing and nourish his vitality, 39 his body will follow after P`êng-tsu; 40 if he uses 41 it to put in order his person and strengthen himself, his fame will match that of Yao and Yü. If he is suited to the times, then he will come through; if he is in a precarious position from being in straits he will be at ease. 42 This is so because he truly is one who practices li. In general, as for the art of applying the mind, if li is followed, order will prevail; 43 if li is not followed, the result will be confusion and disorder. If in food and drink, in clothing, in activity and rest, and in dwelling, a person follows li, he will be at peace; 44 if he does not follow li, he will become feeble and develop illnesses.' 45 If in appearance and behavior, in activity and movements, 46 a person follows li he will be courteous; if he does not follow li, he will be rude and vulgar. 47 Government without li will not be effective; royal affairs without li will not be complete; a state without li will not be peaceful, and a king without li is not far removed from the day of his destruction. 48 The Ode says, 49
There is a traditional saying: "The extreme of a lack of jên is to neglect 51 one's parents. The extreme of disloyalty is to rebel against one's prince. The extreme of untrustworthiness is to cheat one's friends." Those guilty of these three [crimes] are the ones a saintly ruler puts to death without mercy. The Ode says, 52
The Prince Pi-kan sacrificed himself and thus completed his loyalty. Liu-hsia Hui sacrificed himself and thus completed his trustworthiness. 55 Po-i and Shu-ch'i sacrificed themselves and thus completed their integrity. These four 56 sages were all of them the empire's gentlemen of understanding. 57 Nor is there any question of their not valuing their persons. If i is not established and his fame not apparent, a gentleman is ashamed; this is why they sacrificed themselves and so brought to perfection their [ideal of] conduct. Viewed in this light, it is not low condition or poverty that a gentleman is ashamed of. [What a gentleman should be ashamed of is] 58 that when the world holds up loyalty he does not partake of it, and when it honors trustworthiness he does not partake of it, and when it honors integrity he does not partake of it. If these three [qualities] are preserved in a person, his fame is transmitted to [later] generations; 59 he ranks together with sun and moon, [un]resting. 60 Heaven cannot kill him, nor can earth bury him; 61 in the time of a Chieh or a Chou, he cannot be sullied. So it is not that, hating life, he rejoices in death, or 62 hating riches and honor, he loves poverty and low condition. Through the true principle, when honor comes to him, he serves in office without refusing. Confucious said, "If the search for riches is sure to be successful, though I should become a groom with whip in hand to get them, I will do so." 63 Truly, "though harassed to extremity, they were not downcast"; and though toiling to degradation, they did not act improperly. Only then was there perfection. 64 The Ode says, 65
This is illustrated above.
Yüan Hsien dwelt in Lu in a house only one tu on a side; 67 it was thatched with grasses; the door was a mat, and the window the mouth of a broken pot; 68 a bent mulberry tree served as door support; 69 above, [the roof] leaked, and below [the floor] was wet. After seating himself correctly, he would play the lute and sing. Tzŭ-kung came to see him, with fat horses to his carriage and wearing light furs, 70 deep purple inside 71 and undyed outside. Since his high chariot could not get into the lane, he walked up to call upon him. Yüan Hsien answered the door, [wearing] a cap of ch`u72 bark and carrying a wooden staff. He straightened his cap and the string broke; he adjusted the lapel of his gown and his elbows came out; he put on his shoes and the heels burst.
Tzŭ-kung said, "Eh, sir, what ails you?"
Yüan Hsien looking up answered, "I have heard that to be without property is termed poverty, and that to be unable to put into practice what one has studied is termed ailing. I am poor; I am not ailing. Now acting with an eye to public opinion, making friends on a partisan basis, studying for the sake of others 73 and teaching for one's own sake, 74 so that jên and i are concealed, so that horse and carriage are ostentatious, so that clothes and furs are elegant—I cannot bear to practice the like."
Tzŭ-kung drew back, his face colored with shame, and he left without saying farewell. Whereupon Yüan Hsien returned with slow steps, trailing his stick and singing the Sacrificial Odes of Shang. 75 The sound merged with Heaven and Earth, as though it issued from metal and stone [musical instruments]. The emperor had no way of getting him as minister and the feudal lords had no way of getting him for a friend. Truly he who is cultivating his person forgets his family, and he who cultivates his will forgets his person. Since he does not love even his person, who can dishonor him? The Ode says, 76
Traditionally, as for one who is termed a gentleman, though he may not be able to perfect himself in the methods of right conduct, certainly there is that which he follows, and though he may be unable to complete himself in the good, 78 certainly there is that wherein he abides. He does not try to say a great deal, he is simply careful about what he does. Having done a thing, he holds to it, 79 and having promised a thing, he fulfills his words, no more able to change in that than in the flesh of his body or his life. The Ode says, 80
According to tradition, when the superior man purifies himself, his peers associate with him. When he refines his speech, 82 those of his class respond to him. When horses neigh, [other] horses respond; when cattle low, [other] cattle respond; this is not the result of knowledge, but it is their nature makes it thus. Truly, "one who has newly washed his hair will dust off his cap, and one who has newly bathed will shake out his clothing." No one 83 would subject his own cleanliness to another's filthiness. 84 The Ode says, 85
When Ching attacked Ch`ên, the western gate of [the capital of] Ch`ên was broken down. Afterwards the people who had surrendered were sent to repair it. Confucius passed by without bowing. 87 Tzŭ-kung, who was holding the reins, asked, "According to etiquette (li), on passing three persons one descends [from the chariot], and on passing two persons one bows. Now there is a crowd of Ch`ên natives repairing the gate; why is it you did not bow?"
Confucius said, "Not to know when a state is perishing is not to be wise. To know it but not fight is not to be loyal. To fight 88 but not die is not to be brave. Although there is a crowd of those repairing the gate, they are unable to put into practice a single one of these [precepts]. That is why I did not bow."
The Ode says, 89
Mean men, however many, are not worth treating with etiquette (li).
There is a traditional saying: "Those who like getting 91 must be subject to many resentments, and those who love giving must steal much." Only by obliterating one's traces among men can one conform to the naturalness of Heaven and Earth; only 92 by being able to rise above desire 93 will one not have a love for fame. If fame rise up, then the Way is not being used. If the Way is in operation, then for men there is no rank. Now profit is the root of injury; and prosperity is the precursor of calamity. Only he who does not seek profit will escape injury, and he who does not seek prosperity will escape calamity. The Ode says, 94
There is a traditional saying: "The man with good hearing hears for himself, and the one with good sight observes for himself." 96 If hearing and sight are good, then jên and love will be manifest, and integrity and shame will be distinguished. Thus if a thing is done that is not in conformity with the right way, it will not succeed, even with great efforts. If a thing to which one has no right 97 is sought after, if will not be got, even though strength be employed. For this reason the wise person does not do a thing not appropriate to himself, and the man of integrity does not seek that to which he has no right. In this way harm is kept away and fame is exhibited. The Ode says, 98
There is a traditional saying: "He who is content with his lot and nourishes his vitality need not wait to collect and garner to be rich." He whose name is spread in the world is eminent not only after he has a position of power. As moral power and i permeate him inside, there is nothing he need seek outside. How true it is that the sage does not try to get fame and profit from the world. The Ode says, 99
In antiquity the Son of Heaven had five gongs on his left [and right] 101 sides. When he was about to go out, the huang-chung102 was struck, and the five gongs on the right echoed to it. The horses' neigh fit the pitch [of the huang chung]. The chariots were in the pattern [of the music]; the drivers were in the number [of the music]. [The officials] stood up and then bowed respectfully. 103 They folded their hands and then [held their arms as though] grasping drums. When they walked, they went exactly; when they turned back, they went correctly. 104 After that the Grand Music Master 105 offered up the music of mounting the chariot, thereby announcing that [the Son of Heaven] was going out. When he [was about to] re-enter the palace, the jui pin was struck 106 to [let him] prepare his bearing. When he had achieved [the proper] bearing, his countenance was in harmony. When his countenance was in harmony, his features 107 were in repose. When the jui pin sounded, herons flapped their wings, horses neighed, and even of creatures of the lower order none but stretched out their necks to listen. All the inmates of the palace had the color of jade; 108 outside all had voices of metal. After that the Inferior Music Master 109 offered up the music of ascending the hall and went to his seat, thereby announcing that [the Son of Heaven] was returning. This expresses the idea of music being harmonious, of things being moved, and of [objects with] similar tones responding. 110 The Ode says, 111
This is illustrated in the above.
When a fish out of water 114 [is hung up by] a thread in its mouth, it is not long before it is worm-eaten. The term of life of [a man's] two parents is brief as [a galloping horse] passing a crack. 115 A tree wishes to grow luxuriant, but frost and dew do not allow it, 116 and the worthy gentleman wishes to make his name, but his two parents will not tarry. [Truly] 117 "one whose family is poor and whose parents are old is not particular about the office he will fill." The Ode says, 118
The above is a development of this.
Confucius said, 121 "The superior man has three worries: That he does not know—can he not but worry? That he knows but does not study 122 [what he knows]—can he not but worry? That he studies but does not practice what he has studied—can he not but worry? The Ode says, 123
When Kung-fu Wên-po of Lu died, his mother did not weep. Chi-sun, hearing of this, said, "Kung-fu Wên-po`s mother is a virtuous woman. If she does not weep at her son's death, there must be a reason." He sent a man to make inquiries. [The mother] replied, "Formerly I had this son of mine serve Chung-ni. When Chung-ni left Lu, in sending him off [my son] did not go beyond the suburbs of the capital of Lu; in making him presents, he did not give him the family's precious objects. 125 When [my son] was sick I did not see any gentleman come to visit him, 126 and when he died I did not see any shed tears for him. But on the day of his death there were ten of his female attendants who, putting on sackcloth and white mourning clothes, followed him [to the grave.] 127 This shows that toward gentlemen he was lacking, and toward women too generous. This is why I did not weep," The Ode says: 128
There is a traditional saying: "When Heaven and Earth are united, the generative force achieves its quintessence; when yin and yang wane and wax, [respectively], transformations are seasonable." If the time is right, the result is order; if the time is wrong, the result is confusion. Now man at birth is incomplete in five respects: his eyes are without sight, he cannot eat, or walk, or speak, or reproduce. By three months he can focus his eyes, 130 and then he can see; by eight 131 months he grows teeth, and then he can eat; by one year his kneecap is formed, 132 and then he can walk; by three years his skull has grown together, 133 and then he can speak; by sixteen the semen passes and then he can reproduce.
Yin and yang revert from one to the other. 134Yin is linked in its transformations to yang, and yang is linked to yin. Now a boy grows teeth at eight months; he loses his milk teeth at eight years; at sixteen the semen develops and to some extent passes. A girl grows teeth at seven months; she loses her milk teeth at seven years, and at fourteen her fluids develop and to some extent flow. Thus in their transformations yang is linked to yin and yin is linked to yang.135
Now when in an unworthy person sexual change is complete, the generative force is stimulated; his sexual feelings are excited, and he gives free rein to his desires, going against and upsetting his reproductive activities, 136 and so dying prematurely, fails to enjoy long life. The Ode says, 137
It is not thus with the sage. When his sexual vitality is overflowing, he thinks of getting posterity. He regrets that the occation cannot be taken advantage of, 138 but if he has no regular way out, he then gives vent to his feelings and desires in singing of the Way and of i. The Ode says, 139
These are words referring to an urgent occasion. This is why it speaks of the sun and moon.
When the Governor of Po, of Ch`u, was in difficulty, 142 there was a certain Chuang Chih-shan, 143 who took leave of his mother to go die for his prince. 144
His mother said, "Is it right to leave your mother to die for your prince?"
He said, "I have heard that in serving his prince, a man takes pay for his own family but devotes his person to someone outside his family. Now what I use to support my mother is the salary I get from my prince. I beg to go die for him."
On the way to the court he thrice fell down in his chariot. His servant said, "If you are afraid, why not turn back?"
He said, "Fear is my personal feeling. To die for my prince is my public duty. I have heard that the superior man does not let personal feelings interfere with his public duty." Then he went and died for him. 145
When the superior man hears of this he says, "Who really loves his duty (i) must, alas, carry it out." The Ode says, 146
This is illustrated in the above [story].
At the time of Duke Ling of Chin the people of Sung killed [their] Duke Chao. 148 Chao Hsüan-tzŭ asked Duke Ling for an army to aid [those loyal to] the Duke. Duke Ling said, "This is not the concern of the state of Chin."
Hsüan-tzŭ said, "That is not so. The most important thing is [the relation between] Heaven and Earth; next comes [that between] prince and subject. [These relations] are the means whereby accord is brought about. Now they have killed their prince, and in so doing have turned against [the relation between] Heaven and Earth and have acted contrary to the Way of man. Certainly Heaven will visit them with calamity. If Chin, as Executor of the Covenant, does not go to the rescue, it is to be feared that Heaven's punishment will come to us. The Ode says, 149
How much the more should one do so when it is the ruler of a state]!" Thereupon Duke Ling followed his advice by raising an army. When the people of Sung heard of it they gravely rejoiced, and the state of Chin daily became more prosperous. How was this? It came from their punishing the rebellious and preserving the accordant. The Ode says, 150
Chao Hsüan-tzŭ is an example of this.
There is a traditional saying: "When the water is muddy the fish come to the surface for air; when orders are harsh, the people fall into disorder; if the city walls are [too] steep, they will [be sure to] 152 collapse; if the bank is [too] steep it is [sure to] cave in." Hence Wu Ch`i, who made harsh criminal law, was torn to pieces between chariots; 153 Shang Yang, who made the laws severe, was torn limb from limb. 154 The governing of a state may be compared to tuning a lute. When the large strings are too tight, the small strings break. Truly, "he who tightens bridle and bit is not a thousand-li charioteer." The sound that has sound does not go beyond a hundred li; the sound without sound spreads to the ends of the world. 155 Thus one whose pay exceeds his services is pared down, and one whose reputation exceeds the reality suffers loss. When feelings and actions are in accord with reputation, disaster and prosperity do not arrive without cause. The Ode says, 156
Truly, only when there is inaction is one no longer hampered by the external world, 157 even though he prolongs his life.
There is a traditional saying: "Clothes and appearance are what delight the eyes; repartee and speech are what delight the ears; likes and dislikes, rejection and retention are what delight the mind." Thus the superior man is moderate in dress and correct in appearance, so that the eyes of the people are delighted. His speech is humble and his repartee apt, so that the ears of the people are delighted. He retains jên and rejects what is not jên, so that the people's minds are delighted. With these three [faculties] preserved in himself, even if he does not take office, his will be called fitting conduct. 159 Thus if [a man] preserves the good in his heart and daily renews it, then dwelling alone he is happy, and replete with virtue he acts. 160 The Ode says, 161
The types of jên are four, the least of which is that of scrupulousness. There is the jên of the saint, of the wise man, of the virtuous man, and of the scrupulous man. Above, he knows Heaven and is able to use its proper seasons; 162 below, he knows Earth and is able to use its produce; in the middle he knows man, and is able to make him happy and at his ease: this is the jên of the saint. Above, he likewise knows Heaven and is able to use its seasons; below, he knows Earth and is able to use its produce; in the middle he knows man, and is able to cause others to let him do as he likes: this is the jên163 of the wise man. Being broad-minded, he is tolerant of the masses 164 and [so inspires] the trust of the people; the way he achieves this end is not to hamper them in their seasons: this is the jên of the virtuous man. He is scrupulous, clean, upright, and correct. He hates disorder, but will not put it to rights; he loathes depravity, but he does not rectify it. Though he may live in a village, [for him] it is like sitting in dirt and ashes. 165 He may be ordered to enter the court, but to him it is like going through hot water and fire. He will not command a people whom he does not esteem 166 or taste food of which he does not approve. Although he hates a time of disorder he thinks nothing of dying. Paying no attention to family ties, he reduces things to rule to an inauspicious degree. Such is the jên of the scrupulous man.
There is a traditional saying: 167 "If the mountain is [merely] a pinnacle, it cannot be high, and if the water flows straight, then it cannot be deep." [In the same way,] if jên is scrupulous, then its efficacy is not great.
One who aspires to rank with Heaven and Earth—that person's case is not auspicious. Such was the conduct of Po-i, Shu-ch`i, Pien-sui, Chieh Tzŭ-t`ui, Yüan Hsien, Pao Chiao, Yüan Ching-mu, 168 and Shên-t`u Ti. The measure of Heavenly Mandate which they received brought them only so far. 169 They were unable to change it. 170 Even though they should wither away, they did not rid themselves of it. The Ode says: 171
Although the jên of the scrupulous man is inferior, still the Saint does not despise it, because the means of rectifying the people lies therein.
Shên-t`u Ti 174 thought he was born out of his time, 175 and was about to cast himself into the River. Ts`ui Chia learning of this stopped him, saying, "I have heard that [the function of] the saintly man and the humane gentleman between Heaven and Earth 176 is to be father and mother to the people. Now is it right not to come to the rescue of a drowning man by reason of [fearing] wet feet?" 177
Shên-t`u said, "Not so. [Of old] 178 Chieh by putting Kuan Lung-fêng to death, and Chou by killing the Prince Pi-kan, lost their empires. Wu by killing Tzŭ-hsü, and Ch`ên by killing Hsieh Yeh, had their states destroyed. Therefore the loss of a state or the destruction of a family is not [caused by] a lack of saints and sages, but it is the result of not using them." Whereupon embracing a stone, he sank into the River.
When the superior man hears of this he says, "He was scrupulous indeed, but as to his being jên, this I have yet to see." 179 The Ode says, 180
Pao Chiao's clothes were so worn his skin showed through; he was holding a basket and gathering vegetables 182 when he met Tzŭ-kung on the road. Tzŭ-kung said, "My dear sir, what has brought you to this?"
Pao Chiao said, "In the empire there are a host of teachers who have abandoned virtue. How could I not have come to this? I have heard that the man who keeps on acting when the world does not know him is acting wrongly, 183 and he who persists in taking part when his superiors do not use him is spoiling his integrity. If his conduct is wrong and his integrity spoiled, and even so he does not desist, it is because he is deluded by profit."
Tzŭ-kung said, "I have heard that one who finds fault with the time should not make his living on profit derived therefrom, and one who thinks his prince is impure should not walk in his territory. 184 [Now you, sir, thinking your prince impure, still walk in his territory], 185 and finding fault with the times, you still gather vegetables produced therein. The Ode says. 186
Whose are these?" 187
Pao Chiao said, "Alas, I have heard that the sage is reluctant to take office but quick to withdraw, and that the scrupulous man is easily ashamed but thinks lightly of dying." Whereupon, casting away his vegetables, he forthwith stiffened in death on the bank of the Lo River. 188
When the superior man hears of this he says, "He was scrupulous indeed and unyielding."
Now "if a mountain is [merely] a pinnacle, it cannot be high, and if the water flows straight, it cannot be deep"; if one's conduct is scrupulous, its efficacy is not great. One who aspires to rank with Heaven and Earth—that person's case is not auspicious. 189 It may be said of Pao Chiao's case that it was inauspicious. His limitations and endowments were just enough to bring him to this [end]. 190 The Ode says, 191
Formerly when the [Kingly] Way of the Chou was flourishing, the Chief of Shao was at court. The officials asked permission to summon the people of Shao. 193 The Chief of Shao said, "Alas, for me alone to put the people to toil—this was not the intention of our former ruler, King Wên."
Whereupon he came out and betook himself to the people, hearing cases and giving out judgments between the paths and dikes of the fields. 194 The Chief of Shao made his dwelling under a tree in an exposed place in far-off fields, and the people greatly rejoiced. The tillers of the fields and those who tended the silkworms doubled their strength to encourage him. Whereupon the harvest was great, so that the people had enough and each family had plenty.
Later on there were arrogant, extravagant officials in power who did not sympathize with the masses. Taxes and levies became frequent and numerous. The people were in distress. The seasons for plowing and caring for the silkworms were missed. At that time a poet saw the tree under which the Chief of Shao used to rest and sang in his praise, as the Ode says, 195
This is illustrated above.
1. This paragraph is translated by Legge in Shih, Prolegomena 87.
2. For ##, Tsêng Tsao's Lei shuo ## (Ssu-k`u ch`üan-shu MS. copy deposited in the Wen Yüan Ko ##), ch. 36, quotes this passage with ## "was born in the State of Lu." ## is certainly a mistake, but ## may well be the correct reading. (I owe this reference to Mr. Wang Li-ch`i.)
3. ##: a grain measure containing 16 hu ##. In Han times a hu was equivalent to about 20 liters. Cf. Dubs, History of the Former Han Dynasty 1.279.
4. Analects 317-8 (17/1.2).
5. Ibid. 210 (8/7.1).
6. ##: for ## CHy has ## "bridge," which makes no sense. Chou suggests ## in the meaning of "straw sandals." Yü Yüeh, CYTT 17.1a, objects to this and says that both readings are phonetic equivalents (phonetic group ##). He identifies ## (*g'ât) with ## (*g'i̭at), and quotes the binom ## from Wên hsüan 9.12b, where Hsü Yüan's com. explains it as "the mind given free rein," and also mentions a variant ## in the Ch`u-tz`ŭ. Yü Yüeh interprets the phrase as "being anxious to go to a place" ##, treating ## as an inversion of chieh-chiao. Chao (1-2) adds an example from Chuang-tzŭ 4.27b: ##, where Ts`ui Chuan's com. says ## means "unquiet in mind" ## (## *k'i̭êt). I have followed Yü Yüeh, although Chao Yu-wen prefers Chou's emendation as continuing the theme of poverty.
7. I. e., the support of his parents; cf. Mencius 476 (7A/46.1).
8. PWYF quotes only this example of ##, which should mean "burdened by his cares." The whole passage is probably corrupt; one would expect a negative before this phrase to balance ##, with the meaning "takes office without assuming its cares." (I am indebted to Mr. Wang Li-ch`i for this suggestion.) Chao Yu-wen proposes to suppress the ## by treating it as a "particle" (##) with the same purpose of making the two phases parallel. This is certainly a more drastic and less likely emendation. My translation of the text as it stands is forced.
9. Shih 31 No. 21/1.
10. ##: here as in Shih 22 No. 13/3 and 26 No. 17/1. Cf. K`ung Ying-ta's com. on Shih ching 2.32b. But cf. Karlgren, "The Book of Odes," BMFEA 16 (1944). 176, note (a) under Ode 13.
11. For a similar passage cf. LNC 4.1b-2a. Legge translates this paragraph, Shih, Proleg. 87.
12. Shih 27 No. 17.
13. LNC has ## for ##, which latter is unusual, and Chou would change to ##. The ## may have come from the preceding phrase ##.
14. ##, lit., "the proper way of a woman."
15. HSWC has ## for the ## of Shih and LNC. (CCSI 1b.)
16. Cf. LNC 6.11a-12a.
17. ##: Shu-ch`ao 159.4a has ##, likewise below. As Lei-chü 9.10a and TPYL 74.5a, 826.8b, write ##, it would seem to be a scribal emendation. (Chao 2.) Wang Chao-yüan (LNC pu chu 6.9a) defines ## as ## "path."
18. ## is defined by Shuo wên 151 as a jade ear plug; likewise Mao's com. on Shih ching 4.7b. Lei-chü, loc. cit., TPYL 819.10b, 577.8a, 826.8b have ## for ##. Shuo wên 136 defines ## as "a semicircle of jade," and Mao's com. on Shih ching 7.19a includes it in a list of other girdle ornaments. I take ## as the better reading, but Shu-ch`ao, loc. cit., TPYL, 74.5a, and Jung-chai sui-pi, II 8.4a, all write ##. (Chao 3.)
19. CHy says the ordinary editions of his time omitted the remainder of this story. However, it is not omitted in the Yüan edition.
20. ##: cf. Analects 187 (6/7). ##: LNC has ##. Wang Chao-yüan, loc. cit., thinks both are phonetic borrowings for ## "fiery." Chao (3) agrees.
21. Read ## for ## with LNC to complete the parallel with the preceding phrase. (CHy).
22. Cf. Li ki 1.29 (1A/3.31), also Mencius 307 (4A/17.1).
23. Cf. Shih 545 No. 260/8.
24. ##: not in its usual (later) meaning of "irresponsible, unconscious."
25. Cf. Mém. hist. 3.240-1 for a discussion of their symbolism. Erh ya 5.19b gives an alternative list.
26. ##: cf. Shih 42 No. 27/4, where they are defined respectively as fine and coarse cloth made of dolichos fiber. ## is a variant of ##, and CHy writes the latter. A liang was equal to about 15 g. in Han times; cf. Dubs, op. cit. 280.
27. ##. The text is corrupt. (CHy). The Yüan ed. has ## for ## and ## for ##. LNC has ##, likewise TPYL 819.10b, with ## for ##. On the basis of these variants the last three characters in Text A could be emended to ##: "Your behavior is wrong for all time," but the sense is feeble.
28. ## or "How would I dare accept you?" TPYL, loc. cit., is an easier reading: ## "How dare I take it?" (Chao 5.)
29. ##: The text seems to be corrupt. LNC is also unintelligible: ## probably would be a humble term for husband as in LNC 6.10a: ##, and by emending ## as in LNC the whole passage might be construed, "You did not come soon enough, and now I have a husband who looks after me." (Wang Li-ch`i.)
30. Shih 15. No. 9. Chou and CHy quote K`ung-ts`ung-tzŭ 1.79b-80a: "The Prince of P`ing-yüan asked Tzŭ-kao, `I have heard that when your late master . . . traveled south to A-ku, he exchanged words with a washerwoman. Could it have been really so?' He replied, `. . . the A-ku story is of recent origin, probably concocted by those who use that sort of thing to give currency to their ideas.' "
31. Cf. SY 17.9b-10a; Chia-yü 1.28b; Wên-tzŭ 4.3b.
32. ##: I follow KTCY A.3a: ##; SY interchanges ## and ##, and Chia-yü has ##. CHy thinks HSWC should be expanded to one of these readings, and Chao (6) agrees.
33. Shih 84 No. 52/1.
34. Cf. Hsün-tzŭ 11.18b-19a.
35. Hsün-tzŭ has ## for ##, and both Chou and CHy would follow Hsün-tzŭ. Yü Yüeh (CYTT 17.1b) thinks ## *kông (?klông) is a phonetic borrowing for ##, *gliong, as Shuo-wên 2692 puts them in the same phonetic group, and they also occur as alternative readings in CKT 4.32a: ##, and Fêng-su t`ung-i 8.6a, where the same line occurs with ##.
36. Shih 85 No. 52/3.
37. Cf. Hsün-tzû 1.14b-15a.
38. ##: Hsün-tzŭ has ##, and the commentators have taken it as meaning "to make a distinction." Wang Nien-sun, however, equates it with ##, of which ## is an old form; and so in my translation. (Chao 8.)
39. ##: both CHy and Chou would follow Hsün-tzŭ and read ##. Chao (8) says the emendation is unnecessary, as the two words are interchangeable and quotes as evidence LSCC 1.4a: ##, where Kao Yu's com. says ## means ##. For these techniques as practiced by Taoists, cf. H. Maspero, "Les procédés de `Nourrir le principe vital' dans la religion taoïste ancienne," JA 229 (1937) .197252, 353-430.
40. ##: Yang Liang paraphrases "then he will not live so long as P`êngtsu." ##. Lu Wên-ch`ao disagrees: "##—hence he will live for a very long time" ##.
41. Chao (9) agrees with Wang Yin-chih that ## should be supplied before this phrase to make it parallel with the preceding. Hsün-tzŭ has ##.
42. Hsün-tzŭ has ##, and Wang Yin-chih says, "## also means ##. The meaning is: although he would properly dwell in success, he also profits from dwelling in poverty. . . . The HSWC . . . not understanding the meaning of ##, has expanded and changed the text. I believe it has missed the sense." Wang gives examples of ## as ## from Chuang-tzŭ 1.13a, where ## = ##, and from Shih 438, No. 237/3: ##, where ## is used for ##. (Chao 9.)
43. For ## Hsün-tzŭ has ##, and ## should here be read for ##. Chu Ch`i-fêng (TT 41) quotes these passages and remarks, "To avoid a taboo, in the T`ang ## was frequently changed to ## or ##, so that ## was written ## and ## was written ##." (Chao 9.)
44. For ## Hsün-tzŭ has ##, explained as "at peace" ## by WangHsiench`ien; I follow CHy and emend to this.
45. ##: I follow Chao (10) and emend ## to ## as in Tso chuan 360 (Ch`êng 6): ## "In their misery the people will become feeble and distressed," where ## is defined as ## "weak." "Fall into a snare" does not make good sense.
46. ##: CHy writes ## "rapid steps." Chao (10) supports this emendation.
47. ##: Hsün-tzŭ has ##, where Yang Liang defines ## as ## "rude," and ## as ## "vulgar." Chou thinks the characters ## have dropped out of the text. In the translation I follow CHy and Hsün-tzŭ taking ## as a mistake for ##.
48. In the Yüan ed. the words ## are printed in small type, making a gloss on ##. The result is a smoother reading.
49. Shih 85 No. 52/3.
50. Legge translates this paragraph in Shih, Proleg. 88. Cf. also Mencius 469 (7A/34).
51. ##: Yü Yüeh (CYTT 17.1b) thinks this is a mistake for ##, "be cruel to," but Chao Yu-wen, ibid. 105 quotes evidence to the contrary.
52. Shih 84 No. 52/1.
53. B, C, D incorrectly have ## for ##; likewise the Yüan ed.
54. Cf. SY 4.1b-2b.
55. SY has Wei Shêng ## for Liu-hsia Hui, for whom there seems to be no tradition of self-immolation. But from the point of view of a Ch`ing Confucian such as CHy, Wei Shêng died under such questionable circumstances (cf. CKT 9.5a; Yen Shih-ku's com. on Han shu 65.1b) that he ought not to be included in a list of Confucian worthies. Yü Yüeh (CYTT 17.2a-b) however, defends the SY reading on the basis of numerous texts that associate Wei Shêng with Po-i, Shu-ch`i, et al. (Cf. Shih chi 69.19a, 56.3b; Han shu 65.1b-2a; Chung-tzŭ 9.39a.)
56. For ## read ## with the Yüan ed. and SY.
57. ##: cf. Hsün-tzŭ 2.9a: "If above one can honor his prince and below can love the people; if when things come to hand he can adapt himself to them, and when situations arise he can discriminate, in that case he can be termed a gentleman of understanding."
58. SY interpolates ##. (Chao 12.)
59. SY reads ## for ##.
60. Chou and CHy follow SY to read ## for ##.
61. ## "earth is unable to give him life" is possible but does not make very good sense. I follow Chao Yu-wen, op. cit., 105 and emend ## to ## after the otherwise identical pair of phrases in Hsün-tzŭ.
62. CHy follows SY and prefixes ##. Chao also puts ## after ## to balance the phrase.
63. Analects 198 (7/11).
64. This sentence, with ## for ##, occurs in LNC 4.5a. The phrase ## is from Mencius 207 (2A/9.2), 371 (5B/1.3).
65. Shih 39 No. 26/3.
66. Cf. Chuang-tzŭ 8.4b; Hsin hsü 7.8b-9a. R. H. van Gulik, The Lore of the Chinese Lute 155, translates a version of this story taken from an encyclopedia, where it is attributed to Chia yü. The citation does not give the ch. number, and I am unable to locate the story in my edition of Chia yü. Shih chi 67.16a briefly describes the encounter between Yüan Hsien and Tzŭ-kung.
67. ##: cf. Li Ki 2.608.
68. ##: Li Ki, loc. cit. K`ung Ying-ta (Li chi 59.6b) says ## means a door made of woven p`êng; also a door stopped up with p`êng is called a ##.
69. ##: The Yüan ed. has ## for ##. Mr. Wang Li-ch`i suggests ## "pull over" for ##. The sense would then be close to the reading in Hsin-hsü 7.8b: ##.
70. Cf. Analects 185 (6/3.2). For Tzŭ-kung as the prosperous disciple of Confucius cf. Shih chi 129.5a and Han shu 91.4b (N. L. Swann, Food and Money in Ancient China, pp. 427-8).
71. Cf. ibid. 230 (10/6.1): "The superior man does not use a deep purple."
72. ##: a tree related to the mulberry.
73. I. e., for show and not for self-improvement; cf. Analects 285 (14/25), "In ancient times, men learned with a view to their own improvement. Now-a-days men learn with a view to the approbation of others."
74. I. e., for the salary.
75. Cf. Shih 631-46 Nos. 301-5 for the ##.
76. Shih 39 No. 26/3.
77. Cf. Hsün-tzŭ 20.14b-15a; TTLC 1.5b-6a; Chia-yü 1.23b-24a.
78. I follow CHy and emend ## to ##, after Hsün-tzŭ; Chao (15) agrees.
79. For ## read ## with Yü Yüeh (CYTT 17.2a). (Chao 15.)
80. Shih 39 No. 26/3.
81. Cf. Hsün-tzŭ 2.6a-b.
82. For ## read ## with Hsün-tzŭ. (Chao 16.)
83. ##: Hsün-tzŭ has ##, Ch`u-tz`ŭ 7.2a ("Yü fü") has ##; both easier readings. (Chao.)
84. ##: Chao emends to ## to parallel the ## above. Hsün-tzŭ has ## (which Wang Hsien-ch`ien makes = ## or ##), and Ch`u-tz`ŭ 7.2a has ##. This whole passage occurs in Ch`ü Yüan's reply to the fisherman, Shih chi 84.4b, and is probably a proverbial expression; cf. K`un-hsüeh chi-wên 10.9a.
85. Shih 38 No. 26/2. For the reading of the 2nd line cf. Karlgren, Book of Odes 1.79.
86. Cf. SY 4.2b-3a. Legge translates this passage in Shih, Proleg. 88.
87. ## used for ##. Literally, to bow forward to the crossbar of the chariot.
88. I follow Chao (17) and emend ## to ##, as better fitting the development of the argument. Chao suggests the ## may have come from the ## above.
89. Shih 40 No. 26/4.
90. Cf. Huai-nan tzŭ 14.9a; Wên-tzŭ 4.9a.
91. Huai-nan tzŭ has ## for ##. Chao (18) thinks this should be adopted here, in the meaning of ## "take," so as to bring out the parallel with the ## below. I also emend ## to ## as in Huai-nan tzŭ.
92. ## for ## as in Huai-nan tzŭ.
93. ##: translated after Hsü Shên's comment.
94. Shih 52 No. 33/4.
95. Cf. SY 17.8b-9a.
96. Cf. Chuang-tzŭ 4.9b (Wang Yu-wên 106).
97. ##: cf. Mencius 468 (7A/33).
98. Shih 52 No. 33/4.
99. Shih 52 No. 33/4.
100. Cf. SSTC 2.4a-5a.
101. Add ## after ## as in Shu-ch`ao 108.4a, Ch`u hsüeh chi 16.13a, TPYL 565.2a. SSTC reads ##. (Chao 19.)
102. ##: the first of the six ##, listed in SSTC. Cf. Mém. hist. 3.314-5; Po hu t`ung 3.12a-15a.
103. ##: to bend the body to the angle made by the musical stone ch`ing; cf. Li Ki 1.70.
104. ##: cf. Li Ki 1.707: ## "When turning round, he made a complete circle; when turning in another direction, he did so at a right angle." (Legge 2.18), where the emperor seems to be the topic. That here it refers to the officers is clear in SSTC, which reads ##, and above has ##. These lines also occur in SY 19.3b.
105. ##: cf. Analects 163 (3/23).
106. SSTC adds ## "and the five gongs on the left echoed to it." Chao (19) thinks this should be added to the HSWC text, but as he remarks, TPYL 565.2a also omits it.
107. ##: lit., "flesh."
108. ##: cf. Li Ki 1.722, said of the warrior.
109. ##: cf. Analects 338 (18/9.5).
110. ##: cf. Po-hu t'ung 2.14a.
111. Shih 4 No. 1/3.
112. ##: Mao shih has ##; cf. Ch`ên Ch`iao-ts`ung (I-shuo k`ao 1.5a).
113. Cf. HSWC 1/1, 7/8, where Tsêng-tzŭ is the person involved. Shuo yüan 3.3b-4a and Chia-yü 2.8a-b both attribute it to Tzŭ-lu.
114. ##. The context requires a dry fish rather than a dried one. Cf. Hsün-tzŭ 1.
115. ##: an ellipsis for the cliché ## or one of its several variants (cf. TT 2587-8).
116. ##: I follow Chou and CHy in deleting the ##, which makes no sense here. SY also lacks it.
117. From HSWC 7/7 I insert ##. SY has ##. (Chao 21.)
118. Shih 18 No. 10/3.
119. "The royal House is like a blazing fire," demanding service. Shih-k`ao 4a-b would have Han shih read ## as quoted by a Hou-Han shu commentary instead of ## as in Mao shih and present texts of HSWC. The two characters are only variants, and both occur in Han dynasty texts when quoting Mao shih.
120. Cf. Li chi 43.6b (Legge 2.166).
121. Not in Analects.
122. ## is inadequately rendered by "study"; it is the process that, applied to knowledge as well as experience and instruction, results in understanding. Cf. Hsin hsü 5.1b-2a: ##; also Po hu t`ung 4.16b.
123. Shih 23 No. 14/2. The quotation is connected with the preceding through the words ## and ##.
124. Cf. Li chi 9.24b-25a (Legge 1.176); Kuo yü 5.13a-b; CKT 6.59a; KTT 1.18b-19a.
125. TPYL 441.5b adds ## "Moreover I have heard that the superior man values what is right and despises profit." (CHy.)
126. Read ## before ##: with TPYL, loc. cit.
127. Or "followed him [in death]." CKT reads ## ## (for ##) "When he died of illness, two women committed suicide for him in their apartments." KTT says, ## "Two women from the inner apartments followed him in death." But Li chi says merely that "those of the inner apartments all wept until they lost their voices." Likewise Chia-yü. Kuo yü gives a quite different interpretation: "When Kung-fu Wên-po died, his mother cautioned his concubines, `I have heard that women die for the man who loves his household, and that gentlemen die for the one who cares for outside affairs. Now my son has died before his time, and I would dislike him to have the reputation of loving his household, to the shame of you women. As you go out together to sacrifice to him, please do not have a careworn appearance, or weep, or beat your breast, or show grief. Wear diminished mourning rather than extra mourning. Follow the rites but be quiet. Thus you will glorify my son.' " CHy thinks that in HSWC at least there is no question of their dying for him.
128. Shih 45 No. 29/3.
129. Cf. SY 18.9a-10a; Chia-yü 6.11a-b; TTLC 13.3a-6b. Ma Kuo-han (Mu kêng t`ieh 14.9a) says, "Liu Hsiang's SY . . . also records this passage with minor variants in wording. The Chuan quoted by Han Ying should be the com. on the Lu shih. In the refinement of its discussion it resembles a passage in the TTLC."
130. ##. SY has ##; Chia-yü has ##; TTLC has ##. Chu Ch`i-fêng (TT 674) reduces these all to the meaning of "turn the eyes." (Chao 22-3.)
131. Following CHy, who emends ## to ## to agree with the text below: ##. TTLC, SY, Chia-yü, all have ##. CHy also deletes ## after ##, to balance with the phrases immediately preceding and following.
132. ##: "the skull is formed." SY, TTLC have ## "grows a kneecap." I follow Chou and emend to ##, a variant of ##.
133. ##: I follow Chao (23) and emend to ##. Shuo wên 4639 defines ## as "the suture in the head that covers the brain."
134. ##: SY is clear: ##.
135. This phrase is not repeated in SY. The above passage is translated by M. Granet, with interesting remarks on the significance of the ages mentioned, in "Le dépôt de l'enfant sur le sol," Rev. Arch. 14.339 (note 1) and 340.
136. ## Chou, CHy add the ## from SY.
137. Shih 84 No. 51/3.
138. For ## read ## with SY.
139. Shih 68 No. 42/1.
140. Shih 52 No. 33/3.
141. Cf. Hsin hsü 8.4a-b.
142. For this event cf. Chavannes, Mém. hist. 4.381-2. For the use of ## as a title in Ch`u, see ibid. 2.335, note 1.
143. ##: Hsin-hsü has ##. CHy follows this and emends to ##. Chao (26) approves and quotes Ch`ên Ch`iao-ts`ung (I shuo k`ao 2.12a): "The ku-chin-jên-piao in the Han shu lists a Yen Shan in the second middle fifth rank, who is the same as the Chuang Chih-shan in [HS]WC. To avoid the tabooed name of Han Ming Ti, ## has been changed to ##. Hsin hsü . . . correctly writes Chuang Shan, but without the ##. That common editions of [HS]WC write ## is because formerly ## and ## were used interchangeably, and ## is a corruption of ##. CHy . . . is right in correcting it from Hsin hsü." TPYL 429.6a has ##. Lei-chü 22.2a has ##; TPYL 299.6a has ##; both ## and ## seem to be misprints for ##. (Chao 26.)
144. TPYL 429.6b and Lei-chü, loc. cit., have ## after ##. Chao thinks this gives a better reading: "because his prince was in trouble."
145. ##: TPYL, loc. cit., has ## after ##, and Chao thinks it should be added here. CKCS 2.11a also has ##, but Lei-chü, loc. cit., lacks it. (Chao 26.)
146. Shih 53 No. 34/1.
147. Cf. Kuo yü 11.3a-b.
148. For this event cf. Tso chuan 275 (Wên 16).
149. Shih 57 No. 35/4.
150. Shih 57 No. 35/4.
151. Cf. SY 7.2b; Huai-nan tzŭ 10.12a.
152. SY and Huai-nan tzŭ both have ##, and Chao (28) thinks it should be added here to make a five-character phrase to balance the first two.
153. CKT ascribes this end to Shang Yang. For Wu Ch`i cf. Shih chi 65, where it says he was shot by rebels as he took refuge behind the corpse of the late king.
154. Cf. Shih chi 79.19b, where Ts`ai Tsê says of Wu Ch`i, "His merit was established, and yet he ended by being torn limb from limb." There is the same confusion of the traditional deaths of the two men in Huai-nan tzŭ. SY omits these two sentences.
155. Cf. Li Ki 2.393 ff. on ##, of which this is reminiscent.
156. Shih 60 No. 37/2.
157. Cf. Tao tê ching 2.11b.
158. Cf. SY 19.4a-b.
159. For ## cf. Li Ki 2.438. ##, where ## is explained as ##.
160. ##: Cf. Lieh-tzŭ 5.3a: ##, where Chang Chan's com. says ## ##.
161. Shih 60 No. 37/2.
162. For ## cf. Mencius 208 (2/1.1).
163. Chao (28) would add ## after ## to keep the phrases parallel. (CCSI 2b.)
164. ##: cf. HSWC 2/31, note 6.
165. Cf. Mencius 369 (5B/1.1): "He considered his being in the same place with a villager, as if he were to sit amid mud and coals with his court robes and court cap."
167. CHy says that old editions began a new section here. For the following saying cf. HSWC 1/27 and Hsin hsü 7.15a.
168. ##: Chu Ch`i-fêng (TT 2204) lists variants of this name from Lieh-tzŭ 8.6a; LSCC 12.5b, Hsin hsü 7.14a, and Hou-Han shu 59.5b. (Chao 29.)
169. ##: Emend ## to ## with Chou. Chao disagrees and proposes ##, quoting a similar passage from HSWC 1/27: ## as evidence. But the parallel passage from Hsin hsü 7.15a has ##, which supports Chou's emendation.
170. ## I suspect the protasis for this phrase that paralleled the following ## has dropped out of the text.
171. Shih 65 No. 40/1.
172. ##: Mao shih lacks ##. (CCSI 2b.)
173. Cf. Hsin hsü 7.13b-14a.
174. Po t`ieh 2.40a, Ch`u hsüeh chi 6.13a have ## for ##. Both are read t`u. (Chao 30.)
175. ##: Po t`ieh 2.41a has ##.
176. I. e., in the world.
177. Emend ## to ## as in Hsin hsü and TPYL 61.3b (CHy); Ch`u hsüeh chi, loc. cit., likewise, with ## for ## before ##. Chou and Chao agree. In discussing this passage, Chu Ch`i-fêng (TT 2271) mentions another quotation (Lei-chü 8.11b) which has ##. (Chao.)
178. CHy adds ## from TPYL, Ch`u hsüeh chi, loc. cit. Lei-chü, loc. cit., also has ##, and Hsin hsü has ##.
179. Cf. Analects 276 (14/2.2).
180. Shih 65 No. 40/1.
181. Cf. Hsin hsü 7.14b-15a.
182. Following Yü Yüeh (CYTT 17.3b), I emend ## to ##. TPYL 426.3a has ##. Chao (31-2) agrees it should be ##.
183. Before ## add ## from TPYL 426.3b and Hsin hsü. (CHy, Chao.)
184. Chang Shou-chieh's com. on Shih chi 83.2b-3a quotes as ## ## "I have heard that one who disapproves of a government should not walk in its territory; and one who thinks his prince is impure should not accept any advantage from him." (Chao 32.)
185. ##: CHy and Chou add this phrase from Hsin hsü. TPYL 746.3a has ##, and the com. on Shih chi, loc. cit., quotes as ## ## "Now is it right that you should walk on his land and eat what is produced from it?" Chao thinks the sentence makes better sense ending with the interrogative ## "is it proper?"
186. Shih 360 No. 205/2.
187. ##: CHy inverts to ##. Chao (33) cites TPYL 426.3a, which has ##.
188. The com. on Shih chi, loc. cit., quotes as ##. Li Hsien's com. on Hou-Han shu 52.8a has ## in place of ##. (Chao.) ## occurs in a similar context in HSWC 9/3. The more usual expression is ##, for which cf. HSWC 1/25 and TT 1455, where 15 examples are collected. It shows a range of meanings, from "withered, dry" as applied to vegetation (Han shu 8.22a: ##) through "wrinkled, dried up" of a person's appearance (Ch`u-tz`ŭ 7.1b: ## ##) to the present idea of "stiff [in death]" (Chuang-tzŭ 6.1a: ## ## "This is what gentlemen who betake themselves to the hills and valleys, who are always blaming the world, and who wither [by starvation] or throw themselves into deep pools, are fond of." [Legge 1.363]). ## can hardly be "stand until withered," especially in its occurrence in HSWC 9.3: ##. I am here supplying ## as necessary to the sense after Hsin hsü and the line just quoted.
189. Cf. HSWC 1/25.
190. Hsin hsü adds ##. (Chou.)
191. Shih 65 No. 40/1.
192. Cf. SY 5.1a-b.
193. For ## "asked to build [a palace] in Shao where he might live," read ## as in the quotation in Liu Hsiao-piao's com. on Shih-shu hsin-yü 2B.45b and Lei chü 87.13a, TPYL 973.4a. (Wang Li-ch`i.)
194. Liu Hsiao-piao's com., loc. cit., quotes as ## "Then he dwelt exposed under a t`ang tree and heard lawsuits." (Chao.) This is similar to Chêng Hsüan's com. on Mao shih: "The Chief of Shao heard lawsuits of men and women. Without adding to the labors of the common people, he resided under a small t`ang tree and heard cases there. The people of the country enjoyed his influence and rejoiced in his benefits; they thought of the man and payed respect to the tree." (Chou.)
195. Shih 26 No. 16.
196. ##: Mao shih has ##.
197. ##: Ch`ên Ch`iao-ts`ung (I-shuo k`ao 1.18a) thinks an original ## in Han shih has been changed to agree with Mao shih. The quotation by Liu Hsiao-piao, loc. cit., agrees with present texts. (Chao 34.)
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