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漢 書 七
昭 紀 第 七
孝 昭 皇 帝 ， 武 帝 少 子 也 。 母 曰 趙 婕 妤 ， 本 以 有 奇 異 得 幸 ， 及 生 帝 ， 亦 奇 異 。 語在 外 戚 傳 。
武 帝 末 ， 戾 太 子 敗 ， 燕 王 旦 、 廣 陵 王 胥 行 驕嫚 ， 後 元 二 年 二 月 上 疾 病 ， 遂 立 昭 帝 為 太子 ， 年 八 歲 。 以 侍 中 奉 車 都 尉 霍 光 為 大 司 馬 大 將 軍 ， 受遺 詔 輔 少 主 。 明 日 ， 武 帝 崩 。 戊 辰 ， 太 子 即 皇 帝 位 ， 謁高 廟 。 帝 姊 鄂 邑 公 主 益 湯 沐 邑 ， 為 長 公 主 ， 共 養 省 中 。 大 將 軍 光 秉 政 ， 領 尚 書 事 ， 車 騎 將軍 金 日 磾 、 左 將 軍 上 官 桀 副 焉 。
夏 六 月 ， 赦 天 下 。 秋 七 月 ， 有 星 孛 于 東 方 。 濟 北 王 寬 有 罪 ， 自 殺 。 賜 長 公 主 及 宗 室 昆 弟 各 有 差 。 追 尊 趙 婕 妤 為 皇 太后 ， 起 雲 陵 。
冬 ， 匈 奴 入 朔 方 ， 殺 略 吏 民 。 發 軍 屯 西 河 ， 左 將軍 桀 行 北 邊 。
始 元 元 年 春 二 月 ， 黃 鵠 下 建 章 宮 太 液 池 中 。公 卿 上 壽 。 賜 諸 侯 王 、 列 侯 、 宗 室 金 錢 各 有 差 。 己 亥 ， 上 耕 于 鉤 盾 弄 田 。 益 封 燕 王 、 廣 陵 王 及 鄂 邑 長 公 主 各 萬 三 千 戶 。 夏 ， 為 太 后 起 園 廟 雲 陵 。
益 州 廉 頭 、 姑 繒 、 牂 柯 談 指 、 同 並 二 十 四 邑 皆 反。 遣 水 衡 都 尉 呂 破 胡 募 吏 民 及 發 犍 為 、 蜀 郡 奔 命擊 益 州 ， 大 破 之 。
有 司 請 河 內 屬 冀 州 ， 河 東 屬 并 州 。秋 七 月 ， 赦 天 下 ， 賜 民 百 戶 牛 酒 。 大 雨 ， 渭 橋 絕。
八 月 ， 齊 孝 王 孫 劉 澤 謀 反 ， 欲 殺 青 州 刺 史 雋 不 疑， 發 覺 ， 皆 伏 誅 。 遷 不 疑 為 京 兆 尹 ， 賜 錢 百 萬 。
九 月 丙 子 ， 車 騎 將 軍 日 磾 薨 。
閏 月 ， 遣 故 廷 尉 王 平 等 五 人 持 節 行 郡 國 ， 舉 賢 良 ， 問 民 所 疾 苦 、 冤 、 失 職 者 。 冬 ， 無 冰 。
二 年 春 正 月 ， 大 將 軍 光 、 左 將 軍 桀 皆 以 前 捕 斬 反虜 重 合 侯 馬 通 功 封 ， 光 為 博 陸 侯 ， 桀 為 安 陽 侯 。
以 宗 室 毋 在 位 者 ， 舉 茂 才 劉 辟 彊 、 劉 長 樂 皆 為 光祿 大 夫 ， 辟 彊 守 長 樂 衛 尉 。
三 月 ， 遣 使 者 振 貸 貧 民 毋 種 、 食 者 。 秋 八月 ， 詔 曰 ： 「 往 年 災 害 多 ， 今 年 蠶 麥 傷 ， 所 振 貸 種 、 食勿 收 責 ， 毋 令 民 出 今 年 田 租 。 」
冬 ， 發 習 戰 射 士 詣 朔 方 ， 調 故 吏 將 屯 田 張 掖 郡 。
三 年 春 二 月 ， 有 星 孛 于 西 北 。 秋 ， 募 民 徙 雲 陵 ， 賜 錢 田 宅 。 冬 十 月 ， 鳳 皇 集 東 海 ， 遣 使 者 祠 其 處 。 十 一 月 壬 辰 朔 ， 日 有 蝕 之 。
四 年 春 三 月 甲 寅 ， 立 皇 后 上 官 氏 。 赦 天 下。 辭 訟 在 後 二 年 前 ， 皆 勿 聽 治 。 夏 六 月 ， 皇 后 見高 廟 。 賜 長 公 主 、 丞 相 、 將 軍 、 列 侯 、 中 二 千 石 以 下 及郎 吏 宗 室 錢 帛 各 有 差 。 徙 三 輔 富 人 雲 陵 ， 賜 錢 ， 戶 十 萬 。
秋 七 月 ， 詔 曰 ： 「 比 歲 不 登 ， 民 匱 於 食 ， 流 庸 未 盡 還 ， 往 時 令 民 共 出 馬 ， 其 止 勿 出 。 諸 給中 都 官 者 ， 且 減 之 。 」
冬 ， 遣 大 鴻 臚 田 廣 明 擊 益 州 。
廷 尉 李 种 坐 故 縱 死 罪 棄 市 。
五 年 春 正 月 ， 追 尊 皇 太 后 父 為 順 成 侯 。
夏 陽 男 子 張 延 年 詣 北 闕 ， 自 稱 衛 太 子 ， 誣罔 ， 要 斬 。
夏 ， 罷 天 下 亭 母 馬 及 馬 弩 關 。
六 月 ， 封 皇 后 父 驃 騎 將 軍 上 官 安 為 桑 樂 侯 。
詔 曰 ： 「 朕 以 眇 身 獲 保 宗 廟 ， 戰 戰 栗 栗 ，夙 興 夜 寐 ， 修 古 帝 王 之 事 ， 通 保 傅 ， 傳 孝 經 、 論 語 、 尚書 ， 未 云 有 明 。 其 令 三 輔 、 太 常 舉 賢 良 各 二 人 ，郡 國 文 學 高 第 各 一 人 。 賜 中 二 千 石 以 下 至 吏 民 爵 各 有 差。 」
罷 儋 耳 、 真 番 郡 。
秋 ， 大 鴻 臚 廣 明 、 軍 正 王 平 擊 益 州 ， 斬 首捕 虜 三 萬 餘 人 ， 獲 畜 產 五 萬 餘 頭 。
六 月 春 正 月 ， 上 耕 于 上 林 。 二 月 ， 詔 有 司 問 郡 國 所 舉 賢 良 文 學 民 所 疾 苦 。 議罷 鹽 鐵 榷 酤 。
栘 中 監 蘇 武 前 使 匈 奴 ， 留 單 于 庭 十 九 歲 乃還 ， 奉 使 全 節 ， 以 武 為 典 屬 國 ， 賜 錢 百 萬 。
夏 ， 旱 ， 大 雩 ， 大 得 舉 火 。
秋 七 月 ， 罷 榷 酤 官 ， 令 民 得 以 律 占 租 ， 賣酒 升 四 錢 。
以 邊 塞 闊 遠 ， 取 天 水 、 隴 西 、 張 掖 郡 各 二 縣置 金 城 郡 。
詔 曰 ： 「 鉤 町 侯 毋 波 率 其 君 長 人 民 擊 反 者， 斬 首 捕 虜 有 功 。 其 立 毋 波 為 鉤 町 王 。 大 鴻 臚 廣 明 將 率有 功 ， 賜 爵 關 內 侯 ， 食 邑 。 」
元 鳳 元 年 春 ， 長 公 主 共 養 勞 苦 ， 復 以 藍 田益 長 公 主 湯 沐 邑 。
泗 水 戴 王 前 薨 ， 以 毋 嗣 ， 國 除 。 後 宮 有 遺 腹 子 煖， 相 、 內 史 不 奏 言 ， 上 聞 而 憐 之 ， 立 煖 為 泗 水 王。 相 、 內 史 皆 下 獄 。
三 月 ， 賜 郡 國 所 選 有 行 義 者 涿 郡 韓 福 等 五 人 帛 ，人 五 十 匹 ， 遣 歸 。 詔 曰 ： 「 朕 閔 勞 以 官 職 之 事 ， 其 務 修 孝 弟 以 教 鄉 里 。 令 郡 縣 常 以 正 月 賜 羊 酒 。 有 不 幸者 賜 衣 被 一 襲 ， 祠 以 中 牢 。 」
武 都 氐 人 反 ， 遣 執 金 吾 馬 適 建 、 龍 侯 韓增 、 大 鴻 臚 廣 明 將 三 輔 、 太 常 徒 ， 皆 免 刑 擊 之 。
夏 六 月 ， 赦 天 下 。 秋 七 月 乙 亥 晦 ， 日 有 蝕 之 ， 既 。 八 月 ， 改 始 元 為 元 鳳 。
九 月 ， 鄂 邑 長 公 主 、 燕 王 旦 與 左 將 軍 上 官 桀 、 桀子 票 騎 將 軍 安 、 御 史 大 夫 桑 弘 羊 皆 謀 反 ， 伏 誅 。 初 ， 桀、 安 父 子 與 大 將 軍 光 爭 權 ， 欲 害 之 ， 詐 使 人 為 燕 王 旦 上書 言 光 罪 。 時 上 年 十 四 ， 覺 其 詐 。 後 有 譖 光 者 ，上 輒 怒 曰 ： 「 大 將 軍 國 家 忠 臣 ， 先 帝 所 屬 ， 敢 有譖 毀 者 ， 坐 之 。 」 光 由 是 得 盡 忠 。 語 在 燕 王 、 霍 光 傳 。
冬 十 月 ， 詔 曰 ： 「 左 將 軍 安 陽 侯 桀 、 票 騎 將 軍 桑樂 侯 安 、 御 史 大 夫 弘 羊 皆 數 以 邪 枉 干 輔 政 ， 大 將軍 不 聽 ， 而 懷 怨 望 ， 與 燕 王 通 謀 ， 置 驛 往 來 相 約 結 。 燕王 遣 壽 西 長 、 孫 縱 之 等 賂 遺 長 公 主 、 丁 外 人 、 謁者 杜 延 年 、 大 將 軍 長 史 公 孫 遺 等 ， 交 通 私 書 ，共謀 令 長 公 主 置 酒 ， 伏 兵 殺 大 將 軍 光 ， 徵 立 燕 王 為 天 子 ，大 逆 毋 道 。
故 稻 田 使 者 燕 倉 先 發 覺 ， 以 告 大 司 農敞 ，敞 告 諫 大 夫 延 年 ， 延 年 以 聞 。 丞 相 徵事 任 宮 手 捕 斬 桀 ， 丞 相 少 史 王 壽 誘 將 安 入 府 門 ， 皆 已 伏 誅 ， 吏 民 得 以 安 。 封 延 年 、 倉 、 宮 、 壽 皆為 列 侯 。 」
又 曰 ： 「 燕 王 迷 惑 失 道 ， 前 與 齊 王 子 劉 澤 等為 逆 ， 抑 而 不 揚 ， 望 王 反 道 自 新 ， 今 乃 與 長 公 主及 左 將 軍 桀 等 謀 危 宗 廟 。 王 及 公 主 皆 自 伏 辜 。 其 赦 王 太子 建 、 公 主 子 文 信 及 宗 室 子 與 燕 王 、 上 官 桀 等 謀 反 父 母同 產 當 坐 者 ， 皆 免 為 庶 人 。 其 吏 為 桀 等 所 詿 誤 ， 未 發 覺在 吏 者 ， 除 其 罪 。 」
二 年 夏 四 月 ， 上 自 建 章 宮 徙 未 央 宮 ， 大 置 酒 。 賜郎 從 官 帛 ， 及 宗 室 子 錢 ， 人 二 十 萬 。 吏 民 獻 牛 酒 者 賜 帛， 人 一 匹 。
六 月 ， 赦 天 下 。 詔 曰 ： 「 朕 閔 百 姓 未 贍 ， 前 年 減 漕 三 百 萬 石 。 頗 省 乘 輿 馬 及 菀馬 ， 以 補 邊 郡 三 輔 傳 馬 。 其 令 郡 國 毋 斂 今年 馬 口 錢 ， 三 輔 、 太 常 郡 得 以 叔 粟 當 賦 。 」
三 年 春 正 月 ， 泰 山 有 大 石 自 起 立 ， 上 林 有 柳 樹 枯僵 自 起 生 。 罷 中 牟 苑 賦 貧 民 。 詔 曰 ： 「 乃 者 民 被 水 災， 頗 匱 於 食 ， 朕 虛 倉 廩 ， 使 使 者 振 困 乏 。 其 止 四年 毋 漕 。 三 年 以 前 所 振 貸 ， 非 丞 相 御 史 所 請 ， 邊 郡 受 牛者 勿 收 責 。 」
夏 四 月 ， 少 府 徐 仁 、 廷 尉 王 平 、 左 馮 翊 賈 勝 胡 皆坐 縱 反 者 ， 仁 自 殺 ， 平 、 勝 胡 皆 要 斬 。
冬 ， 遼 東 烏 桓 反 ， 以 中 郎 將 范 明 友 為 度 遼 將 軍 ， 將 北 邊 七 郡 郡 二 千 騎 擊 之 。
四 年 春 正 月 丁 亥 ， 帝 加 元 服 ， 見 于 高 廟 。賜 諸 侯 王 、 丞 相 、 大 將 軍 、 列 侯 、 宗 室 下 至 吏 民 金 帛 牛酒 各 有 差 。 賜 中 二 千 石 以 下 及 天 下 民 爵 。 毋 收 四 年 、 五年 口 賦 。 三 年 以 前 逋 更 賦 未 入 者 ， 皆 勿 收 。 令 天 下 酺 五 日 。
甲 戌 ， 丞 相 千 秋 薨 。
夏 四 月 ， 詔 曰 ： 「 度 遼 將 軍 明 友 前 以 羌 騎 校 尉 將羌 王 侯 君 長 以 下 擊 益 州 反 虜 ， 後 復 率 擊 武 都 反 氐 ， 今 破烏 桓 ， 斬 虜 獲 生 ， 有 功 。 其 封 明 友 為 平 陵 侯 。
平樂 監 傅 介 子 持 節 使 ， 誅 斬 樓 蘭 王 安 ， 歸 首 縣 北 闕， 封 義 陽 侯 。 」
五 月 丁 丑 ， 孝 文 廟 正 殿 火 ， 上 及 群 臣 皆 素 服 。 發中 二 千 石 將 五 校 作 治 ， 六 日 成 。 太 常 及 廟 令 丞 郎吏 皆 劾 大 不 敬 ， 會 赦 ， 太 常 轑 陽 侯 德 免 為 庶 人 。 六 月 ， 赦 天 下 。
五 年 春 正 月 ， 廣 陵 王 來 朝 ， 益 國 萬 一 千 戶 ， 賜 錢二 千 萬 ， 黃 金 二 百 斤 ， 劍 二 ， 安 車 一 ， 乘 馬 二 駟 。
夏 ， 大 旱 。 六 月 ， 發 三 輔 及 郡 國 惡 少 年 吏 有 告 劾 亡 者 ， 屯 遼東 。 秋 ， 罷 象 郡 ， 分 屬 鬱 林 、 牂 柯 。
冬 十 一 月 ， 大 雷 。 十 二 月 庚 戌 ， 丞 相 訢 薨 。
六 年 春 正 月 ， 募 郡 國 徒 築 遼 東 玄 菟 城 。 夏 ， 赦 天下 。 詔 曰 ： 「 夫 穀 賤 傷 農 ， 今 三 輔 、 太 常 穀 減 賤， 其 令 以 叔 粟 當 今 年 賦 。 」 右 將 軍 張 安 世 宿 衛 忠 謹 ， 封 富 平 侯 。
烏 桓 復 犯 塞 ， 遣 度 遼 將 軍 范 明 友 擊 之 。
元 平 元 年 春 二 月 ， 詔 曰 ： 「 天 下 以 農 桑 為 本 。 日者 省 用 ， 罷 不 急 官 ， 減 外 繇 ， 耕 桑 者 益 眾， 而 百 姓 未 能 家 給 ， 朕 甚 愍 焉 。 其 減 口 賦 錢 。 」有 司 奏 請 減 什 三 ， 上 許 之 。
甲 申 ， 晨 有 流 星 ， 大 如 月 ， 眾 星 皆 隨 西 行 。 夏 四 月 癸 未 ， 帝 崩 于 未 央 宮 。 六 月 壬 申 ，葬 平 陵 。
贊 曰 ： 昔 周 成 以 孺 子 繼 統 ， 而 有 管 、 蔡 四 國 流 言之 變 。孝 昭 幼 年 即 位 ， 亦 有 燕 、 盍 、 上 官 逆 亂 之謀 。 成 王 不 疑 周 公 ， 孝 昭 委 任 霍 光 ， 各 因 其 時 以 成 名 ，大 矣 哉 ！
承 孝 武 奢 侈 餘 敝 師 旅 之 後 ， 海 內 虛 耗 ， 戶 口 減半 ， 光 知 時 務 之 要 ， 輕 繇 薄 賦 ， 與 民 休 息 。 至 始 元 、 元 鳳 之 間 ， 匈 奴 和 親 ， 百 姓 充 實 。 舉 賢 良 文學 ， 問 民 所 疾 苦 ， 議 鹽 鐵 而 罷 榷 酤 ， 尊 號 曰 「 昭 」 ， 不亦 宜 乎 ！
Translation and Notes
The Seventh [Imperial Annals]
The Annals of [Emperor Hsiao]-Chao
Emperor Hsiao-chao was the youngest son of Emperor Wu. His mother was entitled the Favorite Beauty [née] Chao. She had originally secured [Emperor Wu's] favor because about her there had been extraordinary and strange [portents]; when she bore the [future] Emperor, there was also an extraordinary and strange [circumstance]. 1 A discussion is in the "Memoir of the [Imperial] Relatives by Marriage."
At the end of Emperor Wu's [reign], his Heir-apparent Li, [Liu Chü, had revolted and] had been defeated; and [Liu] Tan(4a), King of Yen, and [Liu] Hsü, King of Kuang-ling, [other sons of Emperor Wu], had been arrogant and disrespectful in their conduct. 2 [Consequently] when, in [the period] Hou-Yüan, the second year, the second month, the Emperor was sick, he thereupon set up [the future] 3 Emperor Chao, who was in his eighth year, as his Heir-apparent. He made the Palace Attendant and Chief Commandant Custodian of Imperial Equipages, Ho Kuang, the Commander-in-chief and General-in-chief, and had [the latter] receive a testamentary edict [directing him] to act as assistant to the young ruler. On the next day, Emperor Wu died 4 and, on [the day] mou-ch'en, the Heir-apparent took the imperial throne and was presented in the [ancestral] Temple of [Emperor] Kao. The [new] Emperor's eldest [half]-sister, the Princess of O-yi, [who was given the income of] additional private estates and became the Elder Princess, served and cared for [the young Emperor] in the Inner Apartments [of the imperial palace]. The General-in-chief, [Ho] Kuang, controlled the government and was Intendant of Affairs of the Masters of Writing. The General of Chariots and Cavalry, Chin Mi-ti, and the General of the Left, Shang-kuan Chieh, assisted him.
In the summer, the sixth month, an amnesty [was granted to] the Empire. In the autumn, the seventh month, a comet appeared in the eastern quarter, 5 and the King of Chi-po, [Liu] K'uan, who had committed crimes, killed himself. 6 [Imperial] grants were made to the Elder Princess, [the Princess of O-yi], and to members of the imperial house of the same generation [as the Emperor], to each proportionately. The Favorite Beauty [née] Chao was posthumously honored and made the Empress Dowager, and the Yün Tomb was built [for her].
In the winter, the Huns entered So-fang [Commandery], killing and kidnapping officials and common people, and an army was mobilized to encamp in n borders.
In [the period] Shih-Yüan, the first year, in the spring, the first month, 7 a yellow swan came down upon the T'ai-yi Pond of Chien-chang Palace. 8 The high ministers presented their con marquises, and the [members of] the imperial house, to each proportionately. On [the day] chi-hai, the Emperor plowed [the sacred field] in the Amusement Fields of the Intendant of [Imperial Palace] Parks. 9 He increased the fiefs of the King of Yen, [Liu Tan(4a)], and of the King of Kuang-ling, [Liu Hsü], together with [that of] the Elder Princess of O-yi, each by thirteen thousand households. In the summer, a funerary park and temple were built for the [deceased] Empress Dowager [née Chao] at Yün-ling.
Twenty-four towns revolted, [including] Lien-t'ou and Ku-tseng of Yi-chou [Commandery] and T'anchih and T'ung-pan of Tsang-k'o [Commandery. The Emperor] sent the Chief Commandant of Waters and Parks, Lü P'o-hu, to levy officials and people [for the army], and to mobilize the emergency troops of Chien-wei and Shu Commanderies. 10 He attacked [the rebels in] Yi Province and routed them severely.
A high official begged that Ho-nei [Commandery] should belong to Chi Province and Ho-tung [Commandery] to Ping Province. 11 In the autumn, the seventh month, an amnesty [was granted] to the empire and [every] hundred households of the common people were granted an ox and wine. There was a great rain and the Wei [River] Bridge broke.
In the eighth month, after it had become known that Liu Tsê(5c), the grandson of King Hsiao of Ch'i, [Liu Chiang-lü], had plotted to rebel, intending to kill Ch'üan Pu-yi, the Inspector of Ch'ing Province, [Lin Tsê(5c)] and all [the conspirators] suffered execution. [Ch'üan] Pu-yi was promoted to be Governor of the Capital and was granted a million cash. 12
In the ninth month, on [the day] ping-tzu, the General of Chariots and Cavalry, Chin Mi-ti, died.
In the intercalary month, the former Commandant of Justice, Wang P'ing, and others, five persons [in all], were sent with credentials to inspect the commanderies and kingdoms, to recommend capable and good [persons], to ask the common people about what they suffered from and were distressed by and about those who had lost their occupations because of Winter wrongs done to them. In the winter, there was no ice.
In the second year, in the spring, the first month, because the General-in-chief, [Ho] Kuang, and the General of the Left, [Shang-kuan] Chieh, had both previously distinguished themselves in capturing and decapitating the rebel caitiffs, [the Palace Attendant Supervisor, Ma Ho-lo, 13 and] the Marquis of Chung-ho, Ma T'ung; [Ho] Kuang was enfeoffed as Marquis of Po-lu and [Shang-kuan] Chieh [was enfeoffed] as Marquis of An-yang.
Because no members of the imperial house held [official] positions, Liu Pi-ch'iang(b) and Liu Chang-lo were recommended as Accomplished Talents, and were both made Imperial Palace Grandees. [Liu] Pi-ch'iang(b) [was appointed] Acting Commandant of the Palace Guard at Ch'ang-lo [Palace]. 14
In the third month, messengers were sent to assist and lend to those poor people who had no seed or food. In the autumn, the eighth month, an imperial edict said, "In the past [few] years there have been many visitations and calamities; this year the silk and wheat have been injured. Do not collect their debts from those who have been assisted or loaned seed and food. Let it not be ordered that the people shall pay this year's land tax on cultivated fields." 15
In the winter, trained fighting-men and archers were mobilized and sent to So-fang [Commandery]. 16 Retired officers were selected to command the agricultural garrisons in Chang-yi Commandery.
In the third year, in the spring, the second month, a comet appeared in the northwest. 17 In the autumn, common people were solicited to move to Yün-ling, and [those who did so] were to be granted money, fields, and residences. In the winter, the tenth month, phoenixes perched in Tung-hai [Commandery] and messengers were sent to sacrifice at that place. In the eleventh month, on [the day] jen-ch'en, the first day of the month, there was an eclipse of the sun. 18
In the fourth year, in the spring, the third month, on [the day] chia-yin, the Empress née Shang-kuan was established [as Empress], an amnesty [was granted] to the empire, and accusations and legal cases [which dated from] before the second year of [the period] Hou-[Yüan 19 were ordered] all to be dismissed. In the summer, the sixth month, the Empress [née Shang-kuan] was presented in the Temple of [Emperor] Kao and grants of money and silk were made to the Elder Princess, [the Princess of O-yi], the Lieutenant Chancellor, [T'ien Ch'ien-ch'iu], the generals, the marquises, [officials ranking at] fully two thousand piculs and under, together with Gentlemen, officials, and [members of] the imperial house, to each proportionately. Rich people from the three capital commanderies were moved to Yün-ling and each household was granted a hundred thousand cash.
In the autumn, the seventh month, an imperial edict said, "For successive years there have not been good harvests and the common people have been lacking in food, [so that] those who have moved away [from their homes] to take employment have not yet all returned [home]. In the past, it was ordered that the common people should by groups contribute horses [to the government]. Let [this practise] be stopped, [so that] they shall not [be required to] contribute [horses, and let] those who have been contributing them for the offices at the imperial capital have [the number required from them] temporarily reduced."
In the winter, the Grand Herald, T'ien Kuang-ming, was sent to attack [the rebels in] Yi Province.
The Commandant of Justice, Li Chung, was sentenced for having purposely set free [persons who had committed] capital crimes, and was publicly executed.
In the fifth year, in the spring, the first month, [Father Chao], the father of the Empress Dowager [née Chao], was posthumously honored and made Marquis of Shun-ch'eng.
A man of Hsia-yang, Chang Yen-nien, came to the northern Portal [of the Palace] and called himself the Heir-apparent [whose mother was née] Wei, [Liu Chü. He was attempting to] deceive and mislead [the emperor, consequently he was executed by being] cut in two at the waist.
In the summer, the communes (t'ing) [for the raising of] mares were abolished [all over] the empire, together with the barriers [for preventing the exportation of] horses and cross-bows. 20
In the sixth month, [the Emperor] enfeoffed the father of the Empress [née Shang-kuan], the General of Agile Cavalry, Shang-kuan An, as Marquis of Sang-lo.
An imperial edict said, "We, with our insignificant person, have obtained [the opportunity] to protect the [imperial] ancestral temples. Tremblingly and circumspectly we have risen early and gone to bed late [in order to] cultivate [Ourself] in the practises of the ancient lords and kings. [Although We] have been made acquainted with the Classic of Filial Piety, the Analects, and the Book of History, through the teaching of [Our Grand] Guardian and [Grand] Tutor, [yet We can]not say that [We] have any perfect understanding [of them]. Let it be ordered that the Three Adjuncts and the Grand Master of Ceremonies should each recommend two Capable and Good [persons] and that the commanderies and kingdoms should each [recommend] one Literary Scholar of high standing [for appointment in the imperial government]." Noble ranks were granted to [officials ranking at] fully two thousand piculs on down to the [low] officials and the common people, to each proportionately.
The commanderies of Tan-erh and Chen-p'an were disestablished. 21
In the autumn, the Grand Herald, [T'ien] Kuang-ming, and his Chief of the Army, Wang P'ing, attacked [the rebels in] Yi Province, cutting off heads and taking captives [to the number of] more than thirty thousand persons, and capturing more than fifty thousand head of domestic animals. 22
In the sixth year, in the spring, the first month, the Emperor plowed [a Sacred Field] in Shang-lin [Park]. In the second month, an imperial edict [ordered that] the [high] officials should ask the Capable and Good [persons] and the Literary Scholars who had been recommended by the commanderies and kingdoms about what the common people suffered from or were distressed by. There was a discussion concerning the abolition of the salt and iron [monopoly] and the [government] monopoly dealing [in fermented drinks]. 23
The Superintendent of [the Stable] Among the Plum Trees, Su Wu, who had previously been sent [as an envoy] to the Huns and had been held at the court of the Shan-Yü to the nineteenth year [of his captivity], was moreover [now allowed to] return. He had upheld [the dignity of] an envoy and had preserved his credentials, [hence Su] Wu was made Director of Dependent States and was granted one million cash.
In the summer, there was a [great] drought and great sacrifices for rain [were held, during which] the lighting of fires was not allowed. 24
In the autumn, the seventh month, the offices of the [government] monopoly dealing in [fermented drinks] were abolished, 25 and it was ordered that the common people should be allowed to testify to [their assessment for] the tax [on the right to sell liquor] in accordance with [the provisions concerning assessments in the legal] code, and should [be allowed to] sell wine at four cash per sheng. 26
Because the barrier at the borders was distant and far-removed, two prefectures were taken from each of T'ien-shui, Lung-hsi, and Chang-yi Commanderies, and [out of them] there was established Chin-ch'eng Commandery.
An imperial edict said, "The Marquis of Kou-t'ing, Wu Po, has distinguished himself by leading his chiefs and people in attacking the rebel [southwestern barbarians] and by cutting off heads and taking captives. Let Wu Po be established as the King of Kou-t'ing. The Grand Herald, [T'ien] Kuang-ming, has distinguished himself as a general and leader; [let] him be granted the rank of Kuan-nei Marquis with the income of an estate." 27
In [the period] Yüan-feng, 28 the first year, in the spring, [because] the Elder Princess, [the Princess of O-yi], had served and cared for [the young Emperor] and had toiled and suffered, the private estate of the Elder Princess was again increased [by the addition of Lan-t'ien [Prefecture].
King Tai of Szu-shui, [Liu Ho(4a)], had previously died; because he was not [said to have] had any heirs, his kingdom had been disestablished. [But a lady of his] harem had given birth to his posthumous child, [Liu] Huan, [about whom the deceased king's] Chancellor and Prefect of the Capital had not memorialhim, [so he] set up [Liu] Huan as the King of Szu-shui; the Chancellor and the Prefect of the Capital were both sent to prison.
In the third month, grants of fifty bolts of silk were made to each of those who had been selected by the commanderies and kingdoms as having [shown good] conduct and laudable [deeds, viz.:] to Han Fu from Cho Commandery and others, five persons [in all. They were then] sent home. An imperial edict said, "We are saddened [at the thought] that they should be made to toil at the affairs of official position. Let them apply themselves to the cultivation of filial devotion and brotherly respectfulness in order to instruct their districts and hamlets. [Let it be] ordered that the commanderies and prefectures shall regularly grant them, in the first month, a sheep and wine, and, when the [final] untoward event happens [to them, let them be] granted a complete suit of [burial] clothes and [let] a ram and a boar be sacrificed to them." 29
The Ti [barbarians] in Wu-tu [Commandery] rebelled; [the Emperor] sent to attack [the rebels] the Chief of Palace Police in the Capital, Ma-shih Chien, the Marquis of Lung-lo, Han Tseng, and the Grand Herald, 30 [T'ien] Kuang-ming, leading convicts [from the districts under the control of] the Three Adjuncts and the Grand Master of Ceremonies, all of which [convicts] were freed from punishment.
In the summer, the sixth month, an amnesty [was granted] to the empire. In the autumn, the seventh month, on [the day] chi-hai, 31 the last day of the month, there was an eclipse of the sun and it was total. In the eighth month, [the Emperor] changed [the year-period] Shih-Yüan to be Yüan-feng.
In the ninth month, the Elder Princess of O-yi and the King of Yen, [Liu] Tan(4a), who had plotted rebellion with the General of the Left, Shang-kuan Chieh, [with] the son of [Shang-kuan] Chieh, the General of Agile Cavalry, [Shang-kuan] An, and with the Grandee Secretary, Sang Hung-yang, all suffered execution. Previously, [Shang-kuan] Chieh and [Shang-kuan] An, father and son, had contested for power with the General-in-chief, [Ho] Kuang. They wished to kill him, so had falsely caused someone to write a petition from the King of Yen, [Liu] Tan(4a), to the Emperor, telling of [Ho] Kuang's crimes. At that time the Emperor was in his fourteenth year, 32 [but] he had perceived its falsity. Later, when someone had slandered [Ho] Kuang, the Emperor had immediately become angry and said, "The General-in-chief, [Ho Kuang], is [the most] faithful minister of the government and was the one to whom the late Emperor [Wu] entrusted [the empire]; whoever dares to slander or speak evil of him shall be sentenced [to punishment]." From that [time on, Ho] Kuang had been able [to carry out] completely [whatever his sense of] loyalty [prompted]. A discussion is in the "Memoirs of the King of Yen, [Liu Tan(4a)]," and "of Ho Kuang."
In the winter, the tenth month, an imperial edict said, "The General of the Left, the Marquis of An-yang, [Shang-kuan] Chieh, the General of Agile Cavalry, the Marquis of Sang-lo, [Shang-kuan] An, and the Grandee Secretary, [Sang] Hung-yang, have all sought several times to assist in the government with evil and crooked [intentions]; when the Generalin-chief, [Ho Kuang], did not listen [to them], they cherished grudges and discontentment against him. They communicated and plotted with the King of Yen, [Liu Tan(4a)], established post relays going and coming, and made a mutual covenant and agreement with the King of Yen, [Liu Tan(4a)], who sent Shou-hsi Ch'ang, Sun Tsung-chih, and others to bribe and offer presents to the Elder Princess, to Ting Wai-jen, to the Internuncio Tu Yen-nien(b), to the Chief Clerk of the General-in-chief, Kung-sun Yi, and to others. They interchanged secret letters and plotted together to have the Elder Princess [of O-yi] hold a feast [at which] soldiers should be ambushed, [with the purpose of] murdering the General-in-chief, [Ho] Kuang, and summoning and setting up the King of Yen, [Liu Tan(4a)], as the Son of Heaven. It was treason and an inhuman crime.
"The former Commissioner for the Rice Fields, Yen Ts'ang, first detected [the plot] and thereupon informed the Grand Minister of Agriculture, [Yang] Ch'ang. [Yang] Ch'ang told the Grandee Remonstrant, [Tu] Yen-nien(a). [Tu] Yen-nien reported it, and the Lieutenant Chancellor's Consultant, Jen Kung, [with his own] hand captured and beheaded [Shang-kuan] Chieh. The Lieutenant Chancellor's Junior Clerk, Wang [Shan]-shou, induced and led [Shang-kuan] An to enter the gate of [the Lieutenant Chancellor's] yamen. All [of the conspirators] have already suffered execution and the officials and common people have thereby secured peace. [Let Tu] Yen-nien, [Yen] Ts'ang, [Jen] Kung, and [Wang Shan]-shou all be enfeoffed as marquises."
It also said, "The King of Yen, [Liu Tan(4a)], was deluded and lost the [right] Way. He had formerly committed treason with Liu Tsê(5c), the [grand]-son of the King of Ch'i, [Liu Chiang-lü], and others, [which matter] was repressed and not made public, hoping that the King would mend his ways and reform himself. But now he, with the Elder Princess, the General of the Left, [Shang-kuan] Chieh, and others, plotted to endanger the [imperial] ancestral temples. The King and the Princess have both [caused] themselves to suffer for their crimes. Let the King's Heir-apparent, [Liu] Chien(4d), the son of the Princess, [Wang] Wen-hsin, together with the young people of the imperial house who plotted rebellion with the King of Yen, [Liu Tan(4a)]. Shang-kuan Chieh, and the others, and their fathers, mothers, brothers, and sisters, who ought to be sentenced [with them], be all dismissed [from their noble ranks and official positions in lieu of execution] and become commoners. Let the crimes of those officials who have been deluded and misled by [Shang-kuan] Chieh and the others, which have not yet become known [so as to come] into [the hands of] the officials, be expunged."
In the second year, in the summer, the fourth month, the Emperor removed from Chien-chang Palace to Wei-yang Palace. He held a great feast and granted silk to his Gentlemen and his personal attendants and two hundred thousand cash to each son [among members] of the imperial house. To each official or common person who offered an ox and wine he granted one bolt of silk.
In the sixth month, an amnesty [was granted] to the empire and an imperial edict said, "We pity [Our] subjects [because] they have not enough [food]. In previous years [We] have lessened the water transport [of grain] by three million piculs and have reduced considerably the horses [required] for [Our] carriages and conveyances, together with the horses of [the imperial] pastures, in order to supply transport horses for the border commanderies and for the three capital commanderies. Let it be ordered that the commanderies and kingdoms shall not collect this year's poll-[tax] in cash on horses and that [the people in] the commanderies [under the charge of] the Three Adjuncts and the Grand Master of Ceremonies shall be allowed to use beans or cereals in [payment] of the military taxes [instead of cash]. 33
In the third year, in the spring, the first month, in T'ai-shan [Commandery], there was a large stone that rose and stood upright of itself and in Shang-lin [Park] a willow tree that had been withered and had fallen down rose up of itself and came to life. 34 Chung-mou Park was abolished and [its land] was distributed among the poor people. An imperial edict said, "Recently the common people have suffered from calamities of water and are sorely lacking in food. We will empty the granaries and storehouses 35 and send messengers to relieve the suffering and indigent. Let it be ordered that in the fourth year [of Yüan-feng] there shall be no [water] transport [of grain] and [let there be] no collection of debts from those who were [given] relief or loans in the third year [of Yüan-feng] and earlier, except those in the border commanderies [for whom] the Lieutenant Chancellor or [Grandee] Secretary begged that they should receive oxen." 36
In the summer, the fourth month, the Privy Treasurer, Hsü Jen, the Commandant of Justice, Wang P'ing, and the Eastern Supporter, Chia Sheng-hu, were all sentenced for having [purposely] freed a rebel. 37 [Hsü] Jen committed suicide; [Wang] P'ing and [Chia] Sheng-hu were both cut in two at the waist.
In the winter, the Wu-huan of Liao-tung [Commandery] rebelled. 38 The General of the Gentle-men-of-the-Household, Fan Ming-yu, was made the General Who Crosses the Liao [River], and, leading two thousand cavalry from each of the seven commanderies at the northern border, he attacked [the Wu-huan]. 39
In the fourth year, in the spring, the first month, on [the day] ting-hai, the Emperor put on the bonnet of virility 40 and was presented in the Temple of [Emperor] Kao. He granted to the vassal kings, to the Lieutenant Chancellor, [T'ien Ch'ien-ch'iu], to the General-in-chief, [Ho Kuang], to the marquises, to the [members of the] imperial house, on down to the officials and common people, money, silk, oxen, and wine, to each proportionately. He granted to [officials ranking at] fully two thousand piculs and lower, together with the common people of the empire, noble ranks. [He ordered that] the poll-money for the fourth and fifth years [of Yüan-feng] should not be collected 41 and that [from] all those who had avoided [payment in lieu of] military service or whose military taxes for the third year [of Yüan-feng] or earlier had not yet been paid, [these payments] should not be collected. 42 He ordered that the whole empire should [be allowed to] drink during five days.
On [the day] chia-hsü, 43 the Lieutenant Chancellor, [T'ien] Ch'ien-ch'iu, died.
In the summer, the fourth month, an imperial edict said, "Formerly the General Who Crosses the Liao [River, Fan] Ming-yu, as the Chief Commandant of Ch'iang Cavalry, led the Ch'iang King, marquises, baronets, chiefs, and their subordinates to attack the rebellious caitiffs of Yi Province; later he again led them to attack the rebellious Ti [barbarians] of Wu-tu [Commandery]; he has now routed the Wu-huan, cutting off the heads of the caitiffs and taking prisoners alive, 44 [thus] distinguishing himself. Let [Fan] Ming-yu be enfeoffed as Marquis of P'ing-ling.
"The Superintendent of the P'ing-lo [Stables], Fu Chieh-tzu, as an envoy with credentials, has executed and beheaded the King of Lou-lan, An-kuei, whose head has been hung at the North Portal [of the imperial Palace. Let] him be enfeoffed as the Marquis of Yi(4)-yang(a)."
In the fifth month, on [the day] ting-ch'ou, 45 the main hall in the Temple of [Emperor] Hsiao-wen burnt. The Emperor, together with his courtiers, all wore plain [mourning] robes. He mobilized the officials [ranking at] fully two thousand piculs, leading the five managers, to [re]build and repair it; on the sixth day, it was completed. 46 The Grand Master of Ceremonies, together with the Prefect, the Assistant, the Gentlemen, and the officials of the Temple, were all impeached as having been extremely disrespectful. It happened that there was an amnesty, [so] the Grand Master of Ceremonies, the Marquis of Liao-yang, [Chiang] Tê, was [merely] dismissed and became a commoner. 47 In the sixth month, an amnesty [was granted] to the empire.
In the fifth year, in the spring, the first month, the King of Kuang-ling, [Liu Hsü], came to pay court; his kingdom was increased by eleven thousand families and he was granted twenty million cash, two hundred catties of actual gold, two swords, one comfortable carriage with seats, and two quadriga of horses.
In the summer, there was a great drought. In the sixth month, the evil young people about whom the officials had been informed and who had been accused, but had absconded, were sent out from the three capital commanderies together with the [other] commanderies and kingdoms to the encampments in Liao-tung [Commandery]. In the autumn, Hsiang Commandery was abolished and [its territory] was divided and incorporated in Yü-lin and Tsang-k'o [Commanderies]. 48
In the winter, the eleventh month, there were great [bursts of] thunder; in the twelfth month, on [the day] keng-hsü, the Lieutenant Chancellor, [Wang] Hsin, died.
In the sixth year, in the spring, the first month, convicts of the commanderies and kingdoms were solicited to build city walls in Liao-tung and Hsüan-t'u [Commanderies]. In the summer, an amnesty [was granted] to the empire. An imperial edict said, "Verily, when grain is cheap, it injures agriculture. Now the grain [in the districts of] the Three Adjuncts and the Grand Master of Ceremonies is getting lower and cheaper [in price]. Let it be ordered that beans and cereals may be used to take the place of this year's military taxes. The General of the Right, Chang An-shih, has constantly been on guard and has been loyal and diligent; [let him] be enfeoffed as the Marquis of Fu-p'ing."
The Wu-huan again violated the frontier; the General Who Crosses the Liao [River], Fan Ming-yu, was sent to attack them.
In [the period] Yuan-p'ing, the first year, in the spring, the second month, an imperial edict said, "The empire considers agriculture and sericulture to be the fundamental [activities]. Recently [We] have lessened [Our] expenses, have abolished those offices that are not urgently necessary, and have reduced the corvée labor [at places] away from [peoples' homes]. Those who plow and cultivate silkworms have become increasingly many, yet our subjects have not yet been able to have sufficient [food and clothing even] for their homes. We are very solicitous for them. Let the poll-money be reduced." The high officials memorialized, begging that it be reduced three-tenths and the Emperor permitted it. 49
On [the day] chia-shen, at dawn, there was a meteor as large as the moon with a crowd of stars following it and traveling westwards, 50 and in the summer, the fourth month, on [the day] kuei-wei, the Emperor died in Wei-yang Palace. In the sixth month, on [the day] jen-shen, he was buried in the P'ing Tomb. 51
In eulogy we say: Anciently [King] Ch'eng of the Chou [dynasty] succeeded to the dynastic line as a child and there occurred the vicissitudes [brought about by] the circulating rumors [spread by the King's Uncles of] Kuan and of Ts'ai in [the rebellion of] the four states; 52 [Emperor] Hsiao-chao took the throne while [still] a youth and there likewise occurred the conspiracy and treasonable rebellion of [the King of] Yen, the [Elder Princess of O-yi, whose husband was the Marquis of] Kai, and Shang-kuan [Chieh and his son, Shang-kuan An]. King Ch'eng did not doubt the Duke of Chou; [Emperor] Hsiao-chao had confidence in and put [the government] in charge of Ho Kuang. Each took advantage of the circumstances of their time and thereby made for themselves a fame that is great indeed.
[Emperor Hsiao-chao] inherited the evils of extravagance and indulgence remaining from [the rule of Emperor] Hsiao-wu and his military expeditions. [The country] within the [four] seas was depopulated and exhausted, the population was reduced by half. 53 [Ho] Kuang understood the important necessities of the period, so lightened the required public service and reduced the taxes, [thus] giving the people rest and repose. During [the periods] Shih-Yüan and Yüan-feng, the Huns made peace and friendship and the people became opulent. The Capable and Good and the Literary Scholars were recommended [to the imperial court, 54 the government sent to] inquire about what the people suffered from or were distressed by, 55 the [abolition of the government] salt and iron [monopolies] was discussed, 56 and the [government] monopoly dealing in [fermented drinks] was abolished. 57 [The Emperor] was honored with the title Chao (brilliant). Was this not indeed appropriate?
1. This circumstance was an abnormally long period of gestation. Cf. Glossary sub Chao, Favorite Beauty née.
2. Emperor Wu had six sons; the remaining two: Liu Hung, King Huai of Ch'i, and Liu Po, King Ai of Ch'ang-yi, had died in 110 and 89 B.C., respectively.
3. Cf HS 6:39a.
4. Cf HS 6: 39a.
5. P. H. Cowell and A. C. D. Crommelin calculate with a fair degree of certainty that this was an appearance of Halley's comet. They calculate perihelion for Aug. 15. P. Hoang lists the seventh month as Aug. 10 to Sept. 8, julian. Cf. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, vol. 68, 1907-8, p. 668.
6. He was sentenced for incest and black magic. Cf. Glossarysub voce.
7. The text reads "second month," but the events recorded for this month, the congratulations by the high ministers and presents to nobles and members of the imperial house, are most naturally understood to refer to the great court reception at the beginning of the year, in the first month. The day chi-hai recorded in this month is moreover listed by P. Hoang only in the first month, not the second. Hence I have emended this date.
8. Fu Tsan (fl. ca. 275) writes, "At that
time, the Han [dynasty] was using the virtue of earth [as its ruling element]
and in the color of its robes it esteemed yellow. The color of all swans is
white, and the fact that this [one] changed to yellow was considered an
auspicious omen concerning the virtue of earth, hence was recorded." (The
present text says, not "the virtue of earth," but "the virtue of the Emperor."
Wang Hsien-ch'ien approves the emendation in the Official ed. of 上 to 土.) Yen
Shih-ku (581-645) writes, "The yellow swan is a great bird which in one stretch
[flies] a thousand li; it is not a white swan."The Hsi-ching Tsa-chi (vi cent.) 1.4b,
says, "In the first year [of the period] Shih-Yüan, a yellow swan came down
into the T'ai-yi Pond and Emperor [Chao] composed a song, which runs:
9. For the significance of this plowing, cf. ch. IV, app. II. Ying Shao explains, "At this time the Emperor was in his ninth year and so was not yet able in person to plow the imperial sacred field." For these amusement fields, cf. Glossary, sub Intendant of the Imperial Palace Parks.
10. Su Lin explains, "These are all the names of different tribes among the southwestern barbarians."Ying Shao (ca. 140-206) writes, "In former times commanderies and kingdoms all had skilled soldiers and cavalrymen for attending promptly to urgent difficulties. Now the barbarians revolted and the regular troops were insufficient to chastize them, hence, as a measure of expediency, they selected and chose skilled braves who, when they heard [the general's] order, would eagerly run [to assist] 聞命奔走, hence they were called emergency troops (pen-ming 奔命)." Li Fei (prob. iii cent.) adds, "Those who were mobilized were ordinarily from their twentieth year to their fiftieth year and constituted the militia 甲卒. The present persons were over their fiftieth and below their sixtieth year, hence constituted the emergency troops (pen-ming). [The use of the term] pen-ming means that it was an emergency." But Hu San-hsing (1230-1287) calls attention to the fact that the Tso-chuan (Legge, p. 36217; Couvreur II, 65) says, "Tzuch'ung and Tzu-fan thereupon in one year [met] seven emergencies (pen-ming)." He remarks, "Pen-ming are troops who assist in an emergency; they would certainly not all be [restricted to those] over fifty and under sixty." Yü Yüeh (1821-1906) adds, "The skilled soldiers and cavalrymen are like the present regularly levied troops; the emergency troops were skilled braves selected and chosen in a crisis, like the present levied braves 募勇. This [practise] already existed in Han [times]." Thus the pen-ming were specially impressed soldiers.
11. Yen Shih-ku says, "They probably had [previously] been a territorial division of the capital [districts under the inspectorate of the Colonel] Director of the Retainers." This office had been established in 89 B.C.; at the end of the Former Han period and in the Later Han period, this official inspected seven commanderies, including the two mentioned here; cf. Glossary, sub voce; HS 28 Ai: 60b; HHS, Tr. 19: 1a. This change was merely a redistribution of the territory whose administration was inspected by the Colonel Director of the Retainers, which change was later annulled.
12. For this attempt to instigate rebellion and dethrone Emperor Chao, cf. Glossary, sub Liu Tan(4a).
13. The present text lacks the words in brackets; Han-chi 16: 2a (by Hsün Yüeh, 148-209) reads them; where this incident is recorded in HS 6: 38b, both brothers are also mentioned; the accounts of this affair in the memoirs of Chin Mi-ti and Ho Kuang (HS 68: 2a, 19b) likewise mention both brothers. Ma T'ung was choked to death by Chin Mi-ti; it would be surprising if Ma Ho-lo, in whose arrest Ho Kuang and Shang-kuan Chieh could alone have distinguished themselves, were not mentioned in the citation of their deeds. In the citation in 18: 11a, b, Ma Ho-lo alone is mentioned. Hence the words in brackets have evidently dropped out of the HS text; Wang Nien-sun (1744-1832) suggests their reinsertion.
14. Ch'ang-lo Palace was the residence of the Empress Dowager, but there was no Empress Dowager at this time. Ho Kuang was seeking to show the imperial house that he had no intention of repeating the usurpation attempted previously by the Lü clan; cf. 3: 5b ff. Members of the imperial clan were not ordinarily permitted to hold official positions, although exceptions were made. The Superintendent of the Imperial House was always a member of the imperial clan; the other position was purely honorary. Cf. 36: 4b; Glossary, sub Liu Pi-ch'iang and sub the Superintendent of the Imperial House.
15. Ho Ch'uo (1661-1722) remarks, "He was cultivating somewhat [the principles of] government used by [Emperors] Wen and Ching, and the empire therefore became tranquil again."
16. In the Discourse on Salt and Iron, 7: 5b, ch. 38, the Capable and Good say, "At present the horsemen and armed gentlemen from east of the mountains who are garrisoned in the border commanderies are separated [from their families] by a vast distance. Their bodies are among the Hu and the Yüeh, [but] their hearts and spirits are with their elders and mothers." Since Sang Hung-yang defends the government policy in the Discourse on Salt and Iron, ch. 38, Shen Ch'in-han concludes that this order was perhaps due to Sang Hung-yang.
17. This is no. 37 in Williams, Observations of Comets.
18. For this and other eclipses, cf. App. II.
19. This date was the year Emperor Chao began his reign. Chou Shou-ch'ang (1814-1884) says that the omission of the word "Yüan" is merely an abbreviation, taking the use of this word on p. 1a as proof. But cf. 6: n. 38.1.
20. A commune or t'ing was an administrative division; cf. HFHD I, 29, n. 3.The phrase ma nu 馬弩 might very well be read "horse-crossbows." Ying Shao writes, "Emperor Wu many times sent military expeditions against the Huns and twice [sent them] to attack Ferghana (Ta-Yüan), [so that] his horses had almost all died. Thereupon he ordered the various communes in the empire to rear mares with the intention of making [horses] multiply and breed. He also instituted barriers for the crossbow trigger mechanisms [used] upon horseback 作馬上弩機關. Now they were all abolished." Meng K'ang (ca. 180-260) says, "Formerly horses five feet six inches tall whose teeth were not yet smooth [an order of 146 B.C., cf. 5: 6b] and crossbows of ten piculs' [strength] and over were all not allowed to go out of the barriers. Now this was not prohibited." Yen Shih-ku says that Ying Shao is correct about the mares and communes and Meng K'ang about the barriers for horses and crossbows (or horse-crossbows). Chia Yi (200-168 B.C.) in his Hsin-shu 3: 8b, "Yi-t'ung," mentions the barriers for prohibiting the exportation of horses.Whether horse-crossbows were used this early is not certain. The HHS, An. 8: 11a, under the date of 184 A.D. days, "An imperial edict [ordered] the highest ministers to contribute ma-nu." The T'ung-tien (by Tu Yu 735-812), 149: 13a (p. 781 of the Com. Press one vol. ed.) says, "Today there are . . . crossbows drawn tight by hand which shoot three hundred paces, used in fighting on foot, and horse-crossbows (ma-nu), which shoot two hundred paces and are used in cavalry fighting. Crossbows are drawn [only] slowly and, when the enemy are near, they can only be shot one or two times, so that it is not convenient to use crossbows when fighting in battle-line; it is not that crossbows are not effective in fighting, but it is because of the general's [poor] use of his crossbows." There is thus ample evidence that the Chinese used crossbows in cavalry fighting, something that does not seem to have been done in Europe; but we cannot be sure that these light crossbows for cavalry were used in Han times. Mr. Martin Wilbur has illustrated and described various kinds of crossbows in "The History of the Crossbow," Annual Report of the Smithsonian Institution, 1936, pp. 427-438.
21. HHS, Mem. 75: 9b2 states that in this year Lin-t'un Commandery was also abolished and that its territory and that of Chen-p'an Commandery were united with those of Lo-lang and Hsüan-t'u Commanderies. The commandery of Tan-erh was located in Hainan; the commanderies of Chen-p'an and Lin-t'un were in Korea (cf. Glossary, sub vocibus); unnecessary administrative divisions were being disestablished, possibly because these regions were poor and had reverted to their former semi-independent condition.
22. HS 95: 5b states that more than fifty thousand captives and heads and more than a hundred thousand domestic animals were taken.
23. The discussions developed and presented by Huan K'uan in the Discourses on Salt and Iron were held at this time. Dr. E. M. Gale has translated the first 28 chapters of that book under the above title and (together with P. A. Boodberg and T. C. Lin) additional chapters in the Jour. N. C. Br. Royal As. Soc'y, vol. 65, (1934) pp. 73-110. Cf. p. xxxi of that translation. Tu Yen-nien(a) first suggested that these discussions be held; cf. Glossary, sub voce.
24. HS 27 Ba: 24b says, "There was a great drought." Wang Hsien-ch'ien remarks that the word 大 is omitted in this clause to avoid repetition, for it is used in the next clause. Fu Tsan remarks, "[The reason] they were not allowed to light fires [was that they thus] suppressed [the principle] yang and aided [the principle] yin."
25. This monopoly had been established in Mar.-Apr. 98 B.C.; cf. 6: 34b. The Discourses on Salt and Iron, ch. 41, ad fin. say that the high officials (Ch'ê Ch'ien-ch'iu and Sang Hung-yang, according to HS 24 B: 20b) "memorialized [the throne], saying, `The Capable and Good and the Literary Scholars do not understand the affairs of the imperial government, alleging that the salt and iron [monopoly] is disadvantageous; we beg that there may temporarily be abolished the [government] monopoly dealing in [fermented drinks] in the commanderies and kingdoms, and the offices for the iron [monopoly] within Kuan-[chung].' The memorial was allowed." The monopoly of salt and iron was abolished in 44 and restored in 41 B.C., because revenue was needed.
26. Ju Shun explains, "[According to] the Code, for those who must testify (chan 占) to [their assessment] for the tsu 租 (tax), each head of a family must in person testify (chan) [the value of] his goods. If his testimony is not in accordance with the facts, or if the head of the family does not himself in person have it written down, in all [such cases] he is fined [the equivalent of] two catties of gold, and whatever goods have not been testified to in person are confiscated and paid in and their value in cash is brought to the imperial government." Yen Shih-ku says, "chan means privately to estimate one's wealth and to fix it in written words. . . . Further on [the text] also speaks of testifying (chan) to one's name and [cadastral] amount. These meanings are both the same. At present one moreover speaks of disputations 辨 in legal cases and calls them chan (testimony). Both [these things are among] the [word's] meanings." Liu Pin adds, " `To testify (chan) [to their assessment for] the tsu (tax) in accordance with the code' means that it was ordered that the common people could sell liquor and testify (chan) concerning the profit which they made and then pay their tsu (tax). . . . The tsu was the tax 稅 for selling liquor." HS 15 A: 22b records that Liu Yin, Marquis of Pang-kuang, was dismissed from his marquisate for not testifying his taxes and for taking illegal interest. Cf. HS 24 B: 13b.
27. This edict is repeated in 95: 5b with slight additions.
28. Ying Shao writes, "In the third year [84 B.C.; cf. p. 3b], phoenixes (feng-huang) had repeatedly come down in Lo District of Hai-hsi [Prefecture] in Tung-hai [Commandery]; hence he used [the word feng] to cap the year-period." This title was not given until Sept./Oct.; cf. p. 6a.
29. Yen Shih-ku writes, "Hsing 幸 is to be fortunate and escape calamity, hence death is called pu-hsing 不幸. One hsi 一襲 is a complete suit of clothes 一稱, just as today they say 一副. A chung-lao 中牢 is a 少牢; it means a ram and a boar."
30. Wang Hsien-ch'ien says that "Grand Herald" is here an error; according to 19 B: 27b, in 83 B.C., T'ien Kuang-ming had been promoted from Grand Herald to Commandant of the Palace Guard. His expedition is also noted in 95: 5b, where, however, he is also entitled Grand Herald.
31. I have emended the 乙 of the text to 己, following 27 Cb: 14b. Cf. App. II, ii.
32. Since Emperor Chao was in his eighth year in 87 B.C. (cf. p. 1a), this event happened a year before the execution of the conspirators. This event is recounted in 68: 3b-4b; cf. Glossary, sub Ho Kuang.
33. Wen Ying (fl. ca. 196-220) says, "In former times [whoever] had horses paid taxes in cash [in accordance with their number]. Now it was dispensed with." Ju Shun (fl. dur. 189-265) says, "This is what is meant by `taxation even on domestic animals'." Shen Ch'in-han adds, "Emperor Wu ordered the communes to rear horses [cf. 24 B: 18b], hence taxed the people, making them pay cash for the expenses of the market and the expense of hay and feed."Yen Shih-ku says, "All those who had to pay the military taxes 賦, the poll-taxes (suan 算), the land-tax 租, or [other] taxes 稅 were permitted to use beans or cereals to take the place of cash or [other] articles." Ku Yen-wu (1613-1682) adds, "In Han times the land tax on cultivated fields was originally [paid in] these beans and cereals. Now together with the poll-tax and various taxes which [were paid in] cash, it was ordered that beans or cereals were to be accepted in place of [money]. This was only done in the commanderies of the Three Adjuncts and Grand Master of Ceremonies, not merely because grain was cheap [and for fear of] injuring agriculture; it was also [done] because the water-transport [of grain] had been reduced three million piculs and it was feared that the stores and stocks [of grain] might be exhausted." Shen Ch'in-han adds, "Since later on in the sixth year [cf. p. 10a], it was also ordered that they should take beans or cereals in place of taxes, it was not a regular decree [that such commutation should be allowed]." Chou Shou-ch'ang adds, "[It was] because [those places] were near the imperial domain and it was convenient to transport [grain]; if [this commutation had been allowed] in other commanderies, they would have been too distant." Ho Ch'uo remarks that this payment in kind was in accord with the conceptions in the account of the imperial domain found in the "Tribute of Yü" (Book of History, III, i, ii, iv, 18; Legge, p. 144), hence it was derived from that account.
34. The details of these portents are given in 27 Ba: 29a and 75: 1a, b. Kuei Hung interpreted them as fortelling the arising of a new emperor who was a commoner. He was executed for his pains. These portents were later considered to have been fulfilled by the elevation of Emperor Hsüan, who had been a commoner.
35. Yen Shih-ku writes, "The ts'ang 倉 were the places were new grain is stored; the lin 廩 were the places whence grain is paid out [to those who need it] and taken in [by the government]."
36. Ying Shao writes, "Emperor Wu first opened the three borders and transported people to colonize agricultural garrisons. They were all given oxen for plowing. Later the Lieutenant Chancellor and [Grandee] Secretary again at various times begged [that they should be given oxen]. Now it is ordered that what had been granted and given from the Emperor should not be collected as a debt; [but] what the Lieutenant Chancellor [and Grandee Secretary] had begged is however ordered to be considered and taxed."
37. The "rebel" was Hou-shih Wu; cf. Glossary, sub Tu Yen-nien(a).
38. The Wu-huan (q.v. in Glossary) had dug up the graves of buried Hun Shan-Yü and the Huns attacked the Wu-huan; when Ho Kuang sent Fan Ming-yu to intercept the Huns, the Huns withdrew, whereupon Fan Ming-yu attacked the friendly Wu-huan with great success. Cf. 94 A: 29a; de Groot, Die Hunnen, p. 191.
39. HS 94 A: 29a7 says that he had 20,000 cavalry, so that either ten commanderies contributed or some commanderies contributed more than their quota of soldiers.
40. Emperor Chao was in his eighteenth year. Yen Shih-ku explains that 元 means head, so that the cap of virility 冠 is the Yüan-fu 元服. He points out that the versified table of contents in 100 B: 11b says, "Emperor [Wu] corrected his Yüan-fu," and the account in 50: 10a, b, shows plainly that this phrase refers to the Emperor's head-gear.The text of the ceremony for the capping of Emperor Chao is given in the Ta-Tai-li, ch. 79 (translated in R. Wilhelm, Li Chi, p. 338).Shen Ch'in-han notes that Ch'iao Chou (201-270) said that King Ch'eng of the Chou dynasty (1115-1079 B.C.) was capped in his fifteenth year; Duke Hsiang of Lu (572542 B.C.) was capped in his twelfth year, on which occasion the Marquis of Chin remarked, "He is in his twelfth year then; that is a full decade of years, the period of a revolution of Jupiter. The ruler of a state may have a son when he is in his fifteenth year. It is the rule that he should be capped before he begets a son." (Legge, Tso-chuan, p. 441). Emperor Ho (89-105) was capped in his thirteenth year; Emperor An (107-125) in his sixteenth year, Emperor Shun (126-144) in his fifteenth year. All of them were first capped and later married; Emperor Chao was however married six years before he was capped. Shen Ch'in-han remarks that this fact indicates, "His great officials were not educated and the ministers of the court did not remonstrate [with them] for their fault, which is astounding." The learned Confucian, Wang Mang, however also married his daughter to Emperor P'ing before the latter had been capped. Confucian principles did not outweigh clear advantages.Dr. Duyvendak writes, "元 is a `sacred' word for `head'; cf. Li-chi, ch. I, pt. ii, art. iii, 10 (Couvreur, I, p. 101; Legge, XXVII, p. 117) for the expression 一元大武, `one head great tracks' as the `sacred' term for a sacrificed ox (Couvreur's translation is not very exact). This passage contains several other `sacred' circumlocutions for animals that are sacrificed, which constitute a kind of `priest language,' such as one finds among many so-called `primitive tribes.' Cf. also Yi-li, Couvreur, p. 533, 596, for similar expressions."
41. HS 72: 13a reports that Kung Yü petitioned Emperor Yüan to the effect that "anciently the common people had no military taxes 賦 or the poll-tax (suan) 算. The poll-money (k'ou-ch'ien) 口錢 [first] arose when Emperor Wu made military expeditions against the barbarians of the four [quarters] and made the military taxes heavy upon the common people. When a commoner has a child and it is in its third year, then he [has to] pay the poll-money [for it]. Hence the common people are doubly distressed, so that when a child is born, they immediately kill it, which is very lamentable. It is proper that it should be ordered that [since] children lose their [first] teeth in their seventh year, the poll-money should then [first] be paid [for them]; when they are in their twentieth year, they should then [first pay] the poll-tax."Ju Shun, speaking of times after Emperor Yüan, says, "The comment in the Han-[chiu]-yi [by Wei Hung, fl. dur. 25-57; B: 5b, says] `Common people [from] their seventh year to their fourteenth year pay the poll-money (k'ou-fu-ch'ien 口賦錢), 23 [cash] per person. Twenty cash are used for the income of the Son of Heaven. The [other] three cash were poll-money 口錢 that Emperor Wu added to provide horses for the chariots and cavalry.' " But cf. note 10.1.
42. Cf. App. I.
43. Both this passage and 19 B: 29a date this death on a chia-hsü day; but P. Hoang has no chia-hsü day in the first month of this year. The fact that both recordings agree would seem to eliminate any mistake in the transmission of the text. Yet the same difficulty occurs with the date of the fire below (cf. n. 9.3); so that it may have been possible that one recording was erroneous and the other was corrected to agree with it. The only serviceable emendation seems to be chia-ch'en, which was Mar. 14. On 11: 8a, ch'en is mistakenly written for hsü; cf. 11: App. II, ii. If we suppose that P. Hoang is mistaken in putting the intercalary month in the preceding instead of this year, then the just preceding date, that of the Emperor's capping, is impossible. The death could not have taken place on chia-hsü of the second month, for that was Apr. 12 and ch. 19 records the appointment of T'ien Ch'ein-ch'u's successor on Apr. 3.
44. Yen Shih-ku points out that this passage makes clear that 獲 means to take prisoners. Cf. 6: n. 7.8.
45. There is here the same difficulty as that with the date for the death of T'ien Ch'ien-ch'iu. ting-ch'ou is impossible in the fifth month, according to P. Hoang, yet it is found both here and in 27 A: 14a. The repeated mention of "the fifth month" in that passage seems to assure the correctness of the month. Then either Hoang is mistaken in his calendar or one recording of this event became erroneous and somebody corrected the other to agree. Hsin-ch'ou seems to be the only serviceable emendation; it was July 8.
46. HS 19 A: 22b, 23a lists altogether eight hsiao-wei (colonels) with whom Wang Yi (1321-137ing to do with building. HS 19A: 18b lists five managers (hsiao) subordinate to the Court Architect, viz., the Left, Right, Front, Rear, and Central Managers, with whom Hu San-hsing identifies these persons.
47. HS 19 B: 28b states that Chiang Tê was sentenced and dismissed because the Gentlemen of the Temple were drinking at night and allowed the Temple to catch on fire. It is possible that the words "became a commoner" are an interpolation or are due to a misunderstanding on the part of the author, for the "Table" (17: 25a) records that in 75 B.C. Chiang Tê's son succeeded him in the marquisate, which would not happen unless the title had been restored to him; but titles were not usually restored, for that would be a confession of an imperial mistake; a dismissed marquis, if he deserved the honor, was usually given a new marquisate.
48. Hsiang Commandery was established in 214 B.C. by the First Emperor; at the collapse of his empire it presumably became part of the kingdom of Nan-Yüeh; when Nan-Yüeh was conquered and made into commanderies, there is no mention of any Hsiang Commandery among those established; cf. 6: 23a. H. Maspero asserts that the Hsiang Commandery was among the seventeen unnamed new ones established in 111 B.C., after the conquest of Nan-Yüeh, according to the SC (Mh III, 596), because this commandery is mentioned in the Mou-ling-shu (quoted in a note to HS 1B; 4a), which book was composed shortly after the conquest; cf. T'oung Pao 23 (1925), 375-389.Yü-lin was in the present southeastern Kuangsi and Tsang-k'o was in north central Kweichow; between the two there was abundant territory for another commandery. Wang Hsien-ch'ien quotes the "Treatise" in the T'ang History as saying that Hsiang Commandery took its name from a Mt. Hsiang; the Shina Rekidai Chimei Yoran, p. 274 lists several such mountains, one of which is in Hsiang 象 Hsien, in the Ch'ing dynasty's Liu-chou Fu, central Kwangsi, and another one was north of the present Ting-fan 定番 in the Ch'ing dynasty's Kuei-yang Fu, south central Kweichow; it is possible that this Hsiang Commandery was in that territory. Shen Ch'in-han suggests that since the Ch'in dynasty's Hsiang Commandery was said to have been located where the Han dynasty located its Ho-p'u Commandery, that Ho-p'u Commandery was disestablished at this time.
49. If the poll-money was 23 cash in the time of Wei Hung (cf. note 8.7) and was now reduced three-tenths, then it had previously been 33 cash. But in 8: 20a the poll-money is again reduced, so that before this time it must have been more than 33 cash.
50. This event was probably a fireball that exploded, sending out a shower of luminous trails. It was taken as a presage of the emperor's death.
51. Forty-nine days elapsed between his death and burial.
52. Cf. Glossary, sub Kuan. Yen Shih-ku says that the "four states" in rebellion were Kuan, Ts'ai, Shang, and Yen; but Book of History V, xiv, 21 (Legge, p. 461) states that after King Ch'eng came from Yen he mitigated the penalty of the "four states," so that Yen, altho rebelling at the same time, was not one of the "four states."
53. Condemnation of Emperor Wu could hardly be more severe than this statement! The statement about the population is taken from the "Memoir of Hsia-hou Sheng." Cf. Glossarysub voce.
54. Cf. 7: 3a.
55. Cf. 7: 3a, 5a.
56. Cf. 7: 5a.
57. Cf. 7: 5a.
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