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論者以為“隆隆”者，天怒呴籲之聲也。此便於罰過，不宜於取龍。罰過，天怒可也；取龍，龍何過而怒之？如龍神， 天取之，不宜怒。如龍有過，與人同罪，殺而已，何為取也？殺人，怒可也。取龍，龍何過而怒之？殺人不取；殺龍取之。人龍之罪何別？而其殺之何異？然則取龍之說既不可聽，罰過之言複不可從。 何以效之？
且雷之擊也，“折木壞屋”，“時犯殺人”，以為天怒。時或徒雷，無所折敗，亦不殺人，天空怒乎？人君不空喜怒，喜怒必有賞罰。 無所罰而空怒， 是天妄也。妄則失威，非天行也。
且天之用心，猶人之用意。人君罪惡，初聞之時，怒以非之；及其誅之，哀以憐之。故《論語》曰：“如得其情， 則哀憐而勿喜。”紂至惡也，武王將誅，哀而憐之。故《尚書》曰：“予惟率夷憐爾。”人君誅惡，憐而殺之；天之罰過，怒而擊之。是天少恩 而人多惠也。
說雨者以為天施氣。天施氣，氣渥為雨，故雨潤萬物，名曰澍。人不喜，不施恩。天不說，不降雨。謂雷，天怒；雨者，天喜也。 雷起常與雨俱，如論之言，天怒且喜也。人君賞罰不同日，天之怒喜不殊時，天人相違，賞罰乖也。且怒喜具形，亂也。惡人為亂，怒罰其過 ；罰之以亂，非天行也。
世又信之，莫謂不然。如復原之，虛妄之象也。夫雷，非聲則氣也。聲與氣，安可推引而為連鼓之形乎？如審可推引， 則是物也。相扣而音鳴者，非鼓即鍾也。夫隆隆之聲，鼓與鍾邪？如審是也，鐘鼓不〔而〕空懸，須有筍虡，然後能安，然後能鳴。 今鐘鼓無所懸著，雷公之足，無所蹈履，安得而為雷？
雷者火也，以人中雷而死，即詢其身，中頭則鬚髮燒燋，中身則皮膚灼焚，臨其屍上聞火氣，一驗也。道術之家，以為雷燒石， 色赤，投於井中，石燋井寒，激聲大鳴，若雷之狀，二驗也。人傷於寒，寒氣入腹，腹中素溫，溫寒分爭，激氣雷鳴，三驗也。 當雷之時，電光時見大，若火之耀，四驗也。當雷之擊，時或燔人室屋，及地草木，五驗也。
《論語》所指，《禮記》所謂，皆君子也。君子重慎，自知無過，如日月之蝕，無陰暗食人以不潔清之事， 內省不懼，何畏於雷？審如不畏雷，則其變動不足以效天怒。何則？不為己也。如審畏雷，亦不足以效罰陰過。何則？雷之所擊， 多無過之人。君子恐偶遇之，故恐懼變動。夫如是，君子變動，不能明雷為天怒，而反著雷之妄擊也。妄擊不罰過，故人畏之。如審罰過， 有過小人乃當懼耳，君子之人無為恐也。
Chapter XXII. On Thunder and Lightning (Lei-hsü).
In midsummer thunder and lightning rapidly following each other, split trees, demolish houses, and occasionally kill men. Common people are of opinion that, when the lightning strikes a tree, or demolishes a house, Heaven fetches a dragon, whereas, when a man is killed, they say that it is for his hidden faults. If in eating and drinking people use impure things, Heaven becomes angry, and strikes them dead. The deep rolling sound is the expression of Heaven's anger like the breathing and gasping of angry men. Every one, no matter whether intelligent or stupid, says so. But if we look into the matter, taking human nature as a basis, we find that all this is nonsense.
By a thunder-stroke one fluid is set in motion, and one sound produced. 1 A tree is hit, and a dwelling damaged, and at the same time a man may be killed. When a man is slain, a tree may be struck, and a house damaged also. But they assert that, when a tree is struck, and a house damaged, Heaven fetches a dragon, whereas, when it kills a man, it punishes him for his hidden guilt. In that case something inauspicious would clash with the auspicious fetching of the dragon. 2 That both things should happen at the same moment, and with the same sound, would not be proper.
It has been argued that the rolling is the sound of Heaven's growling. That would be appropriate for the punishment of the guilty, but out of place for fetching dragons. In meting out punishment, Heaven may be angry, but, when it fetches a dragon, what fault has it, that it should be irritated like that? Provided that the dragon be a spirit, then Heaven in fetching it, ought not to be angry. If, however, a dragon has faults, which are to be atoned for like those of man, Heaven would kill it, but why must it still fetch it? While destroying a man, Heaven may be in wrath, but, when it fetches a dragon, what wrong has the dragon done, that Heaven should be so enraged at it? Having smitten a man, Heaven does not fetch him. If under the same circumstances it does so with a dragon, what difference is there between human guilt and that of dragons? If both are put to death, where does a difference come in? We can no more accept the assertion that Heaven fetches dragons, than approve of the idea that the guilty meet with their dues for the following reasons:
When the thunder instantaneously follows upon the lightning, and a man falls to the ground dead, the rolling sound is close above his head, which brings about his death. But is the rolling really Heaven's anger? If so, in its wrath, it would kill a man by the angry breath of its mouth. But how can the angry breath of a mouth kill a man? On examining the body of a man, who has been struck by a thunderbolt, one discovers traces of burning. Provided that Heaven used its mouth in its anger, could its angry breath become fiery then?
Moreover, the mouth is connected with the body, and its movements must be the same as those of the body. When lightning strikes, the sound is on the earth, and, when the work of destruction is done, it is again in the sky. Now, the moment, when the sound is on the earth, the mouth must approach it, and the body do the same. But, if at a thunder-clap we look up to Heaven, we do not see it descending. Since we do not see it come down, the rolling sound cannot be the expression of Heaven's anger.
Heaven's anger cannot be different from that of man. When an angry person comes near anybody, his voice sounds loud, when he is for off, his voice seems low. Now, Heaven's voice is near, but its body far away. Therefore, anger is out of the question.
When the peals of thunder rapidly succeed one another, the sound may be in the East, the West, the North or the South. Provided that Heaven be angry and move its body, then, if its mouth is in an eastern, western, northern, or southern direction, looking up we ought to see Heaven in one of these directions likewise.
Some one might object that Heaven really was in one of these directions, but could not be seen by man owing to the obscurity, caused by the clouds and the rain. Yet over a distance of a thousand Li there are not the same winds, and within a hundred Li there is not the same tempest. As the Yiking has it:---"A hundred Li are frightened by the concussion." 3 The region where the thunderstorm is raging, is darkened by the thunder-clouds and the rain, but beyond a hundred Li, where no rain is falling, one ought to see Heaven moving eastward, westward, north- or southward. The mouth being joined to Heaven, Heaven must follow it. Whenever the mouth moves, the entire Heaven must shift its place also, and it is not only where the tempest rages, that Heaven follows the movements of its mouth.
And who is it, whom we believe to be angry? The Spirit of Heaven or the dark blue sky? If we say, the Spirit of Heaven, an angry spirit can give no sound, and, if we say, the dark blue sky, its body cannot become angry, for anger requires a mouth.
Heaven and Earth are like husband and wife, they are father and mother of mankind. Now, let a son have committed a fault, and his father in a fit of passion beat him to death, would not his mother weep for him? When Heaven in its wrath slays a man, Earth ought also to cry over him, but one only hears of Heaven's anger, and never of Earth's crying. If Earth cannot shed tears, Heaven cannot be angry either.
Furthermore, anger must have its counterpart in joy. Men have hidden faults, but they have also latent virtues. Hidden faults in a man call forth Heaven's anger, which prompts it to kill him, but in case of latent virtues Heaven ought also to requite him with good. If the rolling sound is regarded as an expression of Heaven's anger, Heaven, when pleased, ought to give a hearty laugh.
Men are pleased or angry, therefore the same is said of Heaven. We try to get a conception of Heaven by ascribing human qualities to it. The source of this knowledge of Heaven is man. If man would feel no anger, there is no reason either, why Heaven should. Since our knowledge of Heaven is derived from that of man, human nature in its entirety must be taken as basis. A man, when angry, breathes heavily, when pleased, he sings and laughs. We much less often hear of Heaven's joy, than of its anger, and much more seldom see it reward, than punish. Is Heaven always irritated and never content? Does it mete out punishment pretty freely, but is rather sparing of its rewards? How does its anger and vindictiveness become manifest, whereas there are no instances of its joy and liberality?
When lightning strikes, it hits a tree, damages a house, and eventually kills a man. This is looked upon as Heaven's anger. But not unfrequently a thunder-clap is without effect, causing no damage, and destroying no human life. Does Heaven in such a case indulge in useless anger? A sovereign's joy and anger are not in vain. Being pleased or angry, he will certainly reward or punish. Useless anger without punishment would be unbecoming in Heaven. Doing something unseeming, it would lose its dignity thereby. That is not Heaven's way.
The writers on government hold that cold and heat coincide with joy and anger. When the sovereign is pleased, ths weather is mild, when he is angry, it is cold. Then on the day of a thunderstorm the temperature ought to be cold.
Before Han Kao Tsu was born, Dame Liu4 while sleeping on the banks of a big pond had intercourse with a spirit in her dream. At that time there was thunder and lightning, and a great darkness. Heaven was just then emitting its fluid, and ought to have been pleased, 5 why was it irritated and thundering?
If striking and breaking is construed as a sign of Heaven's anger, and not striking or breaking as a sign of Heaven's joy, the rolling noise would not be appropriate in both cases. 6 Man expresses joy and anger by different sounds, if Heaven used the same sound for two different purposes, there would be a fundamental difference between him and man. From what circumstance then could we infer Heaven's anger?
To give other persons impure things to eat is a small offence. For Heaven to chastise such small offenders in person with its own most precious body, would be derogatory to its majesty. Exalted persons do not punish personally, therefore does the emperor not execute the criminals with his own hand. Heaven is more exalted than the emperor. If it punished small misdemeanours itself, its virtue would be inferior to that of the emperor.
Heaven's sentiments must be similar to man's feelings. When a prince punishes the wicked, he upon first hearing of their crime, becomes furious and condems them, but when it comes to taking their lives, he commiserates and pities them. Therefore the Analects say "When you have found out the truth, be grieved and pity them, and do not feel joy." 7Chou was utterly depraved, yet, when Wu Wang was going to put him to death, he deplored and pitied him. Thus in the Shuking he says:---"I commanded the wild tribes, but I am sorry for you." 8 A sovereign puts the bad to death, but with a feeling of commiseration, whereas Heaven in punishing misdemeanours, strikes people dead in its rage. Thus Heaven would be less merciful than man.
Rain is believed to be a fluid emitted by Heaven. Put forth by Heaven, it becomes moistened, and gives the rain. When the rain saturates everything, one speaks of timely showers. Unless he be in good humour, man does not show kindness, and unless it be pleased, Heaven does not pour down rain. If thunder be taken for an expression of Heaven's anger, then rain must be a sign of its joy. When there is thunder, it is always accompanied by rain. One must suppose, therefore, that Heaven is at the same time grumbling and laughing. A sovereign does not mete out rewards and punishments on the same day. Should Heaven's anger and joy coincide in time, Heaven and man would not be in harmony, and their ways of rewarding and punishing quite different. Moreover, anger and joy are both fitful. To fly into a fit of passion out of disgust at man's conduct, to punish him for his offence, and, in doing so, to be guided by passion, would be unwortly of Heaven.
Regarding a thunderstorm in winter, people assert that the Yang fluid has lost its force. When it thunders in spring, they say, it comes out, but when there is a tempest in summer, instead of owning that then the fluid has its greatest force, they speak of Heaven's anger. Of course that is nothing but idle talk.
Man is a creature between Heaven and Earth. Other creatures are likewise creatures. What other creatures eat and drink, Heaven does not know, and it should be aware of what man eats and drinks? All beings are to Heaven like children. The kindness and love of father and mother to all their children are the same. Why then does Heaven watch the nobler and more intelligent being so closely, but takes no heed of the humbler and less gifted ones? Why does it pry into all that man does, but ignores other creatures?
Dogs and pigs eat human excrements, yet Heaven does not kill them for that. Provided that Heaven restricts only man on account of his superiority, then, if rats contaminate his drink or food, and man unwittingly eat it by mistake, Heaven does not destroy the rats. If Heaven can pardon the rats, it can do the same for man. Man may by mistake give others impure things to eat, and those unaware of it, may eat them. But they will never offer rotten things on purpose. Should they do so, the others would not take them.
The Empress Lü Hou9 cut off Lady Ch`i's hands, tore out her eyes, and placed her in a privy as a human swine. Then she called people, and showed them her victim. All felt sick at heart. When the emperor Hui Ti saw her, he fell sick, and did not rise again. 10Lü Hou acted on purpose, but Heaven did not punish her. If on the other hand Heaven strikes people dead for a mere inadvertence without mercy or regard for the faults, its government is tyrannical.
When men eat something impure, they do not discover it by the taste. If they feel it, after having swallowed it, they call it a pollution of their bowels. When Lady Ch`i was put into the cess-pool, her whole body was disgracefully soiled, which is nothing else than impurity, for the body does not differ from the bowels. To care for the intestines, but disregard the body, to resent impurity, but not to feel the afore-mentioned horrible disgrace, would not be like Heaven.
The news that anybody has eaten something unclean does not disturb people's minds, whereas all that saw Lady Ch`i felt sick at heart. Man being hurt, Heaven must feel pity too. Commiserating Lady Ch`i, it must hate Lü Hou. Notwithstanding, when Lü Hou died, she was not struck by a thunderbolt.
The Taoist Liu Ch`un made a fool of the king of Ch`u, Ying, and caused him to eat some dirty stuff. Liu Ch`un died later on, but it needed no lightning to make him die.
In the 6th month of summer of the year 79 a.d.Chin Chuan of K`uei-chi11 was killed by lightning. Of the sheep which he used for his daily meals, five died together with him. What hidden faults had these animals, that the lightning killed them?
Boatmen sometimes pollute a stream up-river, while other people drink its water down-river. Yet the boatmen do not die by lightning.
The Spirit of Heaven dwells in heaven just as a king in his residence. A king lives behind many gates, therefore the Spirit of Heaven must stay in some secluded place likewise. As the king has his palaces and halls, Heaven also has the T`ai-wei, Tse-kung, Hsüan-yuan and Wên-ch`ang mansions. 12
A king being far away from men does not know their occult crimes. How could the Spirit of Heaven in his four palaces see the secret misdeeds of men? If a king hears of the faults of his subjects, he learns it through others. If Heaven becomes cognizant of the crimes of men, it must have it from its angels. In case the spirits are Heaven's informants as to crimes, it must also entrust the spirits with retributive justice. Such being the case, the so-called anger of Heaven is not that of Heaven, but of the spirits.
A king inflicts capital punishment in autumn, 13 Heaven kills in summer. Thus the king in meting out justice, does not observe the time of Heaven. As Heaven's anointed he should in executions also imitate the example of majestic Heaven. Heaven chooses summer for killing, whereas the king executes in autumn. Heaven and man are thus at variance, which would never do for Heaven's deputy.
Some people will argue that giving impure things to eat or drink is a great crime before Heaven, which in killing the culprit does not pay attention to time. 14 Great crimes in the eyes of kings are high-treason, rebellion, and lawlessness, whereas Heaven considers the offering of unclean things to others as food or drink as a serious offence. The crimes condemned by Heaven are of different gravity. Were the light and the serious ones all equally dealt with, the king would have to imitate Heaven's government, and put to death every one, who had given others unclean things to eat or drink. When the holy emperors were ruling, they had not such a penalty. That would mean that the holy emperors were remiss, and had forgotten this punishment. 15
It may be said that the ghosts have power over what is secret, and that a king's sway extends over what is public only. Secret faults are wrapt in darkness and invisible to man, therefore spirits must be employed to watch over them. I reply, there being not only one secret fault, why are not all the offenders put to death? To fix upon one single offence would not be a just retribution for hidden sins.
Heaven vents its anger, before the sun returns, and an outburst of human ire takes less than the time one needs to turn round upon one's heels. 16 However, secret crimes of men often become manifest in winter and not exclusively in summer. If he who misconducts himself in winter, is not struck by thunder forthwith, but must wait till summer, Heaven's wrath cannot be quicker than a revolution of the sun.
When painters represent the thunder, it is like so many joined drums, heaped together. They also paint a man having the semblance of an athlete and call him "the Thunderer" (Lei Kung). With his left hand they give him joined drums to pull, in his right hand he brandishes a hammer, as though he were going to strike. It means that the rolling sound of thunder is produced by the knocking together of the united drums, and that the sudden crashing noise is the blow of the hammer. When a man is killed, he is struck with the drums and the hammer at the same time.
People also believe in this, and nobody objects. But if we get at the bottom of it, we find that these pictures are pure fictions. Thunder is either a sound or a fluid. How can a sound or a fluid brandish a hammer, or pull drums, and have the shape of joined drums? If the thunder can really swing or pull these things, it must be a creature. That which, when knocked together, produces sounds, can be either a drum or a bell. Should the rolling sound be produced by drums or bells? In that case, bells and drums could not hang free in the air, they would require a frame with vertical and cross-beams. Suspended between, they could be sounded. Now, the bells and drums have nothing to hang upon, and the feet of the Thunderer nothing to walk upon, how then should the thunder be produced?
Somebody might object that for this very reason there must be a spirit, for, if in order to produce thunder a frame were required, or a support for the feet, it would be quite human, and by no means spirit-like.
I hold that spirits are diffuse and incorporeal. Departing or coming in they need no aperture, nor have they any hold above or below. Therefore one calls them spirits. Now the Thunderer has a body, and for the thunder there are instruments, how can he be deemed a spirit? If the Thunderer were incorporeal, his semblance could not be drawn, and, if he possesses a body, he does not deserve the name of a spirit.
People talk of the dragon spirit rising to heaven. But whoever thoroughly examines the question, discredits this idea. Men sometimes see the shape of a dragon, and owing to this circumstance they paint the shape of a dragon rising to heaven. The best proof that, as a fact, there is no spirit is, that it can be pictorially represented.
My opponents will argue: "Men also see apparitions of ghosts. Are they not spirits?" I say: "If men see ghosts sometimes, has anybody already seen the Thunderer? Ghosts are called spirits, but they walk about on earth like men. The Thunderer, however, does not rest his head in heaven, nor walk on earth with his feet. How can he, therefore, be a thunderer?"
All flying creatures have wings. Those who can fly without wings are styled genii. In representing the forms of genii men give them wings. Provided the Thunderer is like the genii, he ought to have wings equally. If, in case the Thunderer does not fly, the painters pretend that he can fly, they are wrong, and if he really could fly, but had no wings, it would be wrong likewise. Thus the pictures of the Thunderer's outward appearance, made by painters, are merely fancy work.
Those who argue about thunder aver that it is Heaven's angry snorting, whereas those who sketch it, contend that the Thunderer in his anger pulls the joined drums. If it is really as the critics say, the painters are wrong, and if they are right, the critics must be in error. The two classes are antagonistic. If both their views were taken as genuine, there would he no difference of right and wrong, and in default of that, no real right and wrong. Doubts would not be settled, and fallacies would triumph.
The Liki speaks of a goblet with the thunder carved upon it. 17 One thunder rushes forth, the other reverts, one is coiled up, the other stretched forth. Their friction would give a sound. They look as if they were colliding, piled up in a grotesque and phantastic way. This form represents the thunder. When through friction the air breaks, there is a rolling sound, the sound of friction. A sudden crash is the sound of the shooting forth of the air. When this shooting air hits a man, he dies.
In fact thunder is nothing else than the exploding solar fluid. How do we know?---In the first month the Yang fluid begins to be roused, consequently we have the first thunder during the first moon. In the fifth month Yang is at its cynosure, therefore at that time thunder rapidly follows upon thunder. In autumn and winter Yang declines, therefore thunder ceases during these seasons. In the midst of summer the sun reigns supreme, but the Yin fluid endeavours to get the upperhand. In this dispute of the Y-ang and the Yin fluids it comes to frictions, and these frictions lead to explosions and shooting, which are destructive. A man struck by these forces is killed, a tree split, and a house demolished. A person under a tree or in a house may also by chance be hit and killed.
To test the justness of this statement take a basin full of water, and throw it on a fire, used for melting purposes. The vapour will explode with a puff like the sound of thunder. Should any one be too near, his body will be burned. Heaven and earth are like a great furnace, the Yang fluid is an immense fire, clouds and rain are huge masses of water. When they struggle, explode and shoot, the effects must be most violent, and a man hit and injured cannot but die.
When founders melt iron, they make a mould of earth, into which the liquid iron runs down. Else it bursts out, flows over, and spurts. Hitting a man's body, it burns his skin. The fiery Yang fluid is not only as hot as liquid iron, the exploding Yin fluid has not merely the wetness of earth and clay, und when the Yang fluid hits a man, it does not simply cause the pain of burning.
Thunder is fire. A man burned by this fluid must show traces of it. If those traces of burning look like written characters, people seeing them use to say that Heaven has written the man's guilt to make it known to the whole world. This is also unreasonable.
If Heaven destroys men with its thunder, after they have perpetrated their misdeeds, he ought to make their wickedness quite public, with a view to frightening for the future, and write the characters clearly, but not quite indistinctly, as it does. When the "Plan" came out of the Yellow River, 18 and the "Scroll" emerged from the Lo,19 Heaven and Earth produced them for men to read and take note of. The writing on people killed by thunder is also Heaven's work. Why is it so difficult to understand?
Let us assume that the human skin is not fit to be written upon. The wife of Duke Hui of Lu,20Ch`ung Tse was daughter to Duke Wu of Sung.21 When she was born, she had a writing on her palm to the effect that she was to be duchess of Lu. The writing was distinct and intelligible. Therefore Ch`ung Tse was married to Lu. The thunder's handwriting not being clear, it cannot serve as a deterrent for the future. Ergo the burnt spots are not characters engraved by Heaven.
Sometimes people exaggerate things that really exist, sometimes they invent things that have no real basis at all. Imposed upon by fallacies, they indulge in fabricating wonders and miracles as the following arguments will prove:---
1. Thunder is fire. When a man dies struck by thunder, one discovers upon examining his body, if the head be hit, that the hair is singed, and if the body be struck, that the skin is charred. Coming near the body, one scents the smell of burning. 2. Taoist experimentalists hold that a stone heated by a thunder-clap, becomes red. If it be thrown into a well, the stone being burning hot, the well cool, an explosion ensues with a loud detonation like thunder. 3. When somebody takes cold, the cold fluid enters his stomach. The stomach being as a rule warm within, the warmth and the cold struggle together, and the exploding air gives a thunder-like sound. 4. In a thunder-storm brilliant lightnings appear every now and then like the glares of big fires. 5. When the lightning strikes, it often burns man's houses and buildings, or grass and trees.
Those who declare thunder to be fire have these five arguments, those who prentend that thunder is Heaven's anger, not a single one. Therefore this latter assertion is without any foundation.
However, it might be objected that there is a passage in the Analects to the effect that, when thunder followed thunder, and the storm raged, Confucius used to be deeply impressed. 22 The Liki says, "when a strong wind blows, and the thunder-claps quickly follow each other, and rain falls in torrents, a superior man will be deeply moved. Though it be night, he will rise, don his clothes and cap, and sit up" 23 in awe of Heaven's anger, fearing lest its punishment should reach him. If thunder were not the expression of Heaven's anger, nor its striking a punishment of the guilty, why should a good man be frightened by thunder, put on his official robe, and sit straight?
The Master 24 means that the relation of Heaven to man is similar to that of father and son. The father being moved, the son cannot remain indifferent. Therefore, when Heaven is moved, man must be likewise. Being in harmony with Heaven, he proves that he does not act in opposition to it.
Man suddenly hearing a dog bark outside the house, will be startled, and with trembling limbs harken to find out, what it means. How much more so, when he hears Heaven assuming an extraordinary voice like the noise made by the quick rolling of heavy carts!
The remark in the Analects and the observation of the Liki both refer to the wise man. The wise man displays the utmost care in all his doings and knows that he has no guilt, just like sun and moon, which, when eclipsed, have not clandestinely given impure food to men. Examining his heart, he feels no fear, wherefore should he be afraid of thunder? If he is not afraid, his excitement can be no proof of Heaven's anger, because he fears nothing for himself. Should he really be afraid of thunder, even that would not suffice to prove the punishment of hidden crimes, for people struck by lightning are mostly quite innocent. The wise man apprehends that he might be hit by chance. Therefore he is anxious and alarmed. But this alarm of the wise man cannot be put forward to demonstrate that thunder is Heaven's anger. It shows, on the contrary, that thunder strikes at random. Because it hits at random, and does not punish the guilty, people are afraid. If thunder actually punished the guilty, the wicked ought to stand in awe, and the wise had no cause for apprehensions.
The king of Sung asked T`ang Yang saying "I have killed a great number of people, yet all the officials are still quite fearless. What is the reason?"
T`ang Yang replied:---"Those that Your Highness has punished were exclusively bad characters. If the bad are called to account, why should the good be frightened? If Your Highness wishes all the officials to be in awe, the best way is to make no distinction between good and bad, and chastise them all occasionally. Then all the officialdom will be afraid." 25
The king followed his advice, and all the functionaries became frightened, whereupon the king of Sung turned very angry. Owing to the indiscriminate punishments of the king of Sung, the whole people of Sung got greatly alarmed. Because thunder and lightning strike indiscriminately, a wise man becomes agitated. His alarm is like the great fright of the kingdom of Sung.
1. The same force destroys the tree, the house, and the man.
2. The dragon is accounted a sacred animal.
3. Yiking Book V, Chên Hexagram (No. 51).
4. The mother of the emperor Kao Tsu. Cf. p. 177.
5. Heaven as a spirit was just then engendering Han Kao Tsu, the Son of Heaven.
6. In the case of joy as well as of anger.
7. Analects XIX, 19. The criminal judge Yang Fu having consulted the philosopher Tsêng Tse on the duties of his office, the latter advised him to pity the offenders, whose misdeeds were perhaps a consequence of bad administration.
8. This passage is not to be found in our text of the Shuking.
9. The first wife of Han Kao Tsu, who usurped the imperial power, and reigned under her own name against all custom from 187-179 b.c. Her son, the Emperor Hui Ti, whose nominal reign lasted from 194-187 b.c., was nothing but a puppet in her hands. Lü Hou was a fiend in human shape, who had always some poison ready for her enemies. One of her first acts, after she came to power, was to wreak her vengeance on her rival, Lady Ch`i, a concubine of Han Kao Tsu, who had attempted to have her own son made heir-apparent in place of Hui Ti, the son of Lü Hou. Hui Ti, a very kind-hearted, but weak sovereign did all in his power to shield his half-brother from the wrath of his mother, who poisoned him all the same.
10. This story is abridged from the Shi-chi chap. 9, p. 3.
11. A city in Chekiang.
12. Names of constellations.
13. In China the regular executions take place in autumn.
14. It destroys the guilty on the spot, and does not delay judgment until autumn.
15. A deduclio ad absurdum from a Chinese point of view, for the holy emperors, Yao, Shun, and the like, were perfect, and could not have omitted to punish serious misdeeds.
16. This seems to be an old adage.
17. Neither the Liki nor the Chou-li contains such a passage, as far as I could make out. On the old sacrificial bronze vases, called tsun = goblets, clouds and thunders i. e. coiled up clouds were represented. The thunder ornament is the Chinese Meander. Specimens of these goblets can be seen in the Po-ku-t`u-lu chap. 7.
18. The "Plan" appeared to the Emperor Huang Ti in the Yellow River. A big fish carried it on its back. Huang Ti received the Plan, which consisted of a combination of symbolical lines and diagrams like the Pa-kua.
19. The "Scroll" was carried by a dragon-horse, which rose from the waters of the Lo, a tributary of the Yellow River, at Fu Hsi's time. From the mystic signs on this "Scroll" the emperor is reported to have derived the Eight Diagrams and the first system of written characters, which took the place of the knotted cords, quipos, then in use.
20. 767-721 b.c.
21. 764-746 b.c.
22. Quoted from Analects X, 16.
23. Quoted from the Liki Book VI Yü-tsao (Legge, Sacred Books Vol. XXVIII, p. 5).
24. Confucius in the passage quoted from the Analects.
25. Quoted from Hsün Tse.
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