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在經傳者較著可信。若夫短書俗記、竹帛胤文，非儒者所見，眾多非一。 蒼頡四目，為黃帝史。晉公子重耳仳脅，為諸侯霸。蘇秦骨鼻，為六國相。張儀仳脅，亦相秦、魏。項羽重瞳，雲虞舜之後， 與高祖分王天下。陳平貧而飲食之足，貌體佼好，而眾人怪之，曰：“平何食而肥？”及韓信為滕公所鑒，免於鈇質，亦以面狀有異。 面狀肥佼，亦一相也。
高祖隆准、龍顏、美須，左股有七十二黑子。單父呂公善相，見高祖狀貌，奇之，因以其女妻高祖，呂後是也，卒生孝惠帝、 魯元公主。高祖為泗上亭長，當去歸之田，與呂後及兩子居田。有一老公過，請飲，因相呂後曰：“夫人，天下貴人也。 ”令相兩子，見孝惠曰：“夫人所以貴者，乃此男也。”相魯元，曰：“皆貴。”老公去，高祖從外來，呂後言於高祖。高祖追及老公， 止使自相。老公曰：“鄉者夫人嬰兒相皆似君，君相貴不可言也。”後高祖得天下，如老公言。推此以況一室之人，皆有富貴之相矣。
王莽姑正君許嫁，至期當行時，夫輒死。如此者再，乃獻之趙王，趙王未取又薨。清河南宮大有與正君父稚君善者， 遇相君曰：“貴為天下母。”是時，宣帝世，元帝為太子，稚君乃因魏郡都尉納之太子，太子幸之，生子君上。宣帝崩，太子立，正君為皇后， 君上為太子。元帝崩，太子立，是為成帝，正君為皇太后，竟為天下母，夫正君之相當為天下母，而前所許二家及趙王，為無天下父之相， 故未行而二夫死，趙王薨。是則二夫、趙王無帝王大命，而正君不當與三家相遇之驗也。
丞相黃次公，故為陽夏遊徼，與善相者同車俱行， 見一婦人年十七八，相者指之曰：“此婦人當大富貴，為封侯者夫人。”次公止車，審視之，相者曰：“今此婦人不富貴，蔔書不用也。”次 公問之，乃其旁裏人巫家子也，即娶以為妻。其後次公果大富貴，位至丞相，封為列侯。夫次公富貴，婦人當配之，故果相遇，遂俱富貴。 使次公命賤，不得婦人為偶，不宜為夫婦之時，則有二夫、趙王之禍。夫舉家皆富貴之命，然後乃任富貴之事。骨法形體，有不應者，擇必別離死亡， 不得久享介福。
周亞夫未封侯之時，許負相之，曰：“君後三歲而入將相，持國秉，貴重矣，於人臣無兩。其後九歲而君餓死。” 亞夫笑曰：“臣之兄已代侯矣，有如父卒，子當代，亞夫何說侯乎？然既巳貴，如負言，又何說餓死？指示我！”許負指其口，有縱理入 口，曰：“此餓死法也。”居三歲，其兄絳侯勝有罪，文帝擇絳侯子賢者，推亞夫，乃封條侯，續絳侯後。文帝之後六年，匈奴入邊， 乃以亞夫為將軍。至景帝之時，亞夫為丞相，後以疾免。其子為亞夫買工官尚方甲盾五百被可以為葬者，取庸苦之，不與錢。 庸知其盜買官器，怨而上告其子。景帝下吏責問，因不食五日，嘔血而死。
韓太傅為諸生時，借相工五十錢，與之俱入璧雍之中，相璧雍弟子誰當貴者。相工指倪寬曰：“彼生當貴，秩至三公。”韓生謝遣相工， 通刺倪寬，結膠漆之交，盡筋力之敬，徙舍從寬，深自附納之。寬嘗甚病，韓生養視如仆狀，恩深逾於骨肉。後名聞於天下。倪寬位至御史大夫， 州郡丞旨召請，擢用舉在本朝，遂至太傅。
大樑人尉繚，說秦始皇以並天下之計，始皇從其冊，與之亢禮，衣服飲食與之齊同。繚曰：“秦王為人， 隆准長目，鷙膺豺聲，少恩，虎視狼心，居約易以下人；得志亦輕視人。我布衣也，然見我，常身自下我。誠使秦王須得志，天下皆 為虜矣。不可與交遊。”乃亡去。
Chapter XXIV. On Anthroposcopy (Ku-hsiang).
It is a common belief that fate is difficult to foresee. Far from it, it can easily be known, and by what means? By means of the body and its bones. As man derives his destiny from heaven, it becomes visible in his body. An inquiry into these manifestations leads to the knowledge of fate, just as from a look at measures one learns their capacity. By manifestations I understand the osseous configurations.
According to tradition Huang Ti had a dragon face, Chuan Hsü was marked with the character Wu1 on his brow, Ti Ku had a double tooth, Yao's eye-brows had eight colours, Shun's eyes double pupils, Yü's2 ears three orifices, T`ang had double elbows, Wên Wang four nipples, Wu Wang's3 spine was curbed backwards, Chou Kung4 was inclined to stoop forward, Kao Yao5 had a horse's mouth, Confucius' arms were turned backwards. 6 These Twelve Sages either held the positions of emperors and kings, or they aided their sovereigns, being anxious for the welfare of the people. All the world knows this, and the scholars speak of it.
These reports being given in the Classics and Annals can be relied upon. The light literature, such as journals, letters, and memoirs which the Literati do not read, afford a great many more instances: T`sang Hsieh had four eyes and became one of Huang Ti's officials. Ch`ung Erh, prince of Chin,7 had a double rib, and became the foremost of all the feudal lords. Su Ch`in8 with a bone on his nose obtained the premiership in all the Six Kingdoms. Chang Yi9 having a double rib was also made a minister in Ch`in and Wei. Hsiang Yü, who owing to his double pupils was regarded as a descendant of the Emperor Shun, shared the empire with Kao Tsu. Ch`ên P`ing,10 a poor fellow who had not enough to eat and drink, had nevertheless a very fine appearance, which surprised every one so much, that they exclaimed: what on earth does Ch`ên P`ing eat to become such a portly man. Han Hsin11 was rescued from the axe of the executioner, when he caught the eye of the duke of T`êng, and was pardoned also on account of his extraordinary appearance. Fine looks and stateliness can be characteristics as well. 12
Kao Tsu had a high nose, a dragon face, a fine beard and 72 black spots on his left leg. 13Lü from Shan-fu14 was skilled in prognosticating from looks. When he saw Kao Tsu's carriage, he thought him very remarkable, and therefore gave him his own daughter, the later empress Lü Hou, to wife. Afterwards she gave birth to Prince Hsiao Hui15 and to the princess Yuan of Lu. Kao Tsu was first a headborough on the river Sse.16 Then he gave up his post, and took to farming, again living with Lü Hou and his two children on his farm, when an old man passed by, and asked for a drink. In return he divined Lü Hou's fate by her features saying: "Madam, you belong to the great folks of the empire." Called upon to foretell the fortune of her two children, he said in regard of Hsiao Hui: "The cause of your greatness, Madam, will be this son," and with respect to Yuan of Lu: "You are all noble." When the old man had left, Kao Tsu came home from abroad. Upon being informed by Lü Hou of what had taken place, he ran after the old man, and stopped him, wishing to hear his own fortune too. The old fellow rejoined: "Before, the lady and her children bore a resemblance to you in their looks, but your mien is so grand, that words fail me to describe it." 17 Afterwards the empire devolved upon Kao Tsu, as the old man had foretold.
If we draw a general principle from this, we find that members of the same family all show their nobility in their appearance. Belonging to the same caste and animated by a similar spirit, they must necessarily have some kindred traits in their mental and physical qualities. It however happens that two persons of different classes and incongruous minds meet together. A grandee, when marrying, gets a great lady for his wife, and a gentlewoman also finds a noble lord. If two individuals meet despite discrepancies of appearance, a sudden death ensues. In case they have not yet come into contact, one party is overtaken by death previously.
Wang Mang's aunt Lady Chêng was bespoken in marriage. When the moment came for her to go, the bridegroom suddenly died. The same thing happened a second time. Then she was given away to the Prince of Chao, but the Prince had not yet taken her, when he breathed his last. Nan Kung Ta Yu of Ch`ing-ho18 met with Lady Chêng's father, the Honourable Chih, with whom he was acquainted, and prognosticated her fate saying: "She is so exalted, that she will become the mother of the empire." At that time Hsüan Ti19 was emperor and Yuan Ti heir-apparent. Through the governor of the principality of Wei, Chih then gave her in marriage to the heir-apparent, who was very pleased with her, and became father to a son of the name of Chün Shang. At the death of Hsüan Ti the heir-apparent ascended the throne, Lady Chêng was made empress, and Chün Shang heir-apparent. When Yuan Ti20 died, the heir-apparent assumed the reins of government and became the emperor Chêng Ti,21 and Lady Chêng became empress-dowager and thus mother of the empire. Lady Cheng had something in her features indicative of her future imperial motherhood. The two men to whom she was betrothed first, and the Prince of Chao had no marks showing that they would be fathers of the empire, therefore the two died, before the marriage could take place, and the prince expired. The two fiancés and the Prince of Chao were not predestinated for imperial sway, and Lady Chêng was apparently no match for them.
The prime minister Huang T`se Kung,22 who was originally a border warden in Yang-hsia,23 travelled with a soothsayer in the same carriage, when they perceived a woman seventeen or eighteen years old. The fortune-teller pointed to her and said:---"This woman will be raised to high honours, and become consort to a marquis." Huang T`se Kung stopped the carriage, and looked at her carefully. The fortune-teller said:---"If this woman will not become noble, my divination books are of no use." Huang T`se Kung inquired about her, and learned that she was from the next village, a female belonging to the Wu family. Thereupon he married her, and afterwards really gained high honours, was given the post of a prime minister, and created a marquis. 24 Since Huang T`se Kung won wealth and honour, his wife had to be on a par with him. Consequently, when they were brought together, they both became illustrious. Had Huang T`se Kung's fate been mean, he would not have got that woman as a consort, and had they not tallied together as man and wife, they would have had the same misfortune as the two persons above mentioned and the Prince of Chao. If an entire family has a glorious destiny, then later on every thing turns to their honour and advantage, whereas in case of incongruity of osseous structure and physical shape they will be separated and die, and cannot enjoy great happiness long.
In noble families even servants and slaves as well as cattle and horses which they rear are not like the common ones. From the looks of the slaves one sees that they do not easily die. The cattle and horses often produce young. The seeds in the fields grow up luxuriantly, and quickly put forth ripe grains. In commerce those sort of people manage to get excellent merchandise, which sells without delay. Those who know fate, find out the great folks amidst low people, and discern the miserable among the magnates. Judging from the osseous structure and distinguishing the lines on the skin, they discover man's fate, which always confirms their predictions.
Viscount Chien of Chao25 bade Ku Pu Tse Ch`ing tell the fortunes of his sons. He found none of them lucky, until he came to the son of the slave-girl Chai, Wu Hsü, whom he declared to be a peer. Wu Hsü had an excellent character, and was stamped a nobleman to boot. Later on Viscount Chien put the heir-apparent aside, and raised Wu Hsü, who afterwards became Viscount Hsiang.26
A soothsayer said of Ch`ing Pu27 that he would be tortured, but then become prince, and he really was made a prince after having suffered punishment. 28
The father of Wei Ch`ing,29Chêng Chi had illicit intercourse with a maid of the princess Yang Hsin, Wei. Wei Ch`ing was born in the Chien-chang Palace. A convict read his destiny in his features and said "He is noble, and will be invested with the rank of a marquis." Wei Ch`ing replied:---"For a slave it is quite enough not to be whipped or reviled. How could he dream of a marquisate?" 30 Afterwards Wei Ch`ing entered the army as an officer. Having distinguished himself in several battles, he rose in rank, and was promoted, till he was made generalissimo with the title of marquis of ten thousand families.
Before Chou Ya Fu31 became a marquis, Hsü Fu predicted his fortune saying:---"Within three years hence Your Honour will be a general and minister, and have the control of the empire. You will rank so high, that among your fellow officials there will not be your equal. But nine years later, you will die of starvation."--- Chou Ya Fu replied laughing, "My elder brother already inherits the title of marquis. When the father dies, the son succeeds to his title. Why do you hint at my becoming marquis? But should I really attain to this dignity, as you say, how can you pretend that I shall die of starvation? Explain this to me." Hsü Fu pointed to the perpendicular lines converging at the corner of his mouth, and said, "This means death by starvation."---Three years passed. His brother, marquis Shêng of Chiang32 was punished for an offence. Wên Ti33 was in favour of the marquis of Chiang's son. The wise councillors proposed Chou Ya Fu, who thereupon was created marquis of T`iao34 and succeeded the marquis of Chiang. During the six later years of Wên Ti's reign the Hsiung-nu invaded the Chinese territory, and Chou Ya Fu became general. When Ching Ti35 assumed the government, Chou Ya Fu was appointed prime minister. Later on he retired on account of sickness. His son bought from the imperial arsenal five hundred mail-coats, which he wanted for his father's funeral. The coolies employed at the job were irritated against him for not having received their money. Knowing that fiscal property had been clandestinely purchased, out of spite they denounced Chou Ya Fu's son to the throne. Ching Ti gave orders for trying and torturing Chou Ya Fu, who did not eat for five days, spat blood, and died. 36
Têng T`ung took the fancy of Wên Ti, who held him in higher esteem than a minister, presented him with enormous sums of money, and treated him almost as his equal. 37 A fortune-teller predicted his destiny. The verdict was that he would become poor and miserable and die of starvation. When Wên Ti died, and Ching Ti had mounted the throne, Têng T`ung was punished for unlawful coinage. On examination Ching Ti found Têng T`ung already dead. He stopped at the deceased man's house, but did not discover a single cash. 38
The prime minister Han39 when a youngster borrowed 50 cash from a fortune-teller, and together with him entered the Imperial Academy. The fortune-teller divined the successes of the scholars in the academy. Pointing at I Kuan40 he intimated that this youth would rise so high as to become a chief minister of state. Han sent the fortune-teller with his card to I Kuan, with whom he contracted the most intimate friendship. He exerted himself to the utmost in order to show his reverence. For the purpose of living together with I Kuan he moved his residence, and drew as near as possible. I Kuan was sick, Han nursed him like a servant. His kindness towards I Kuan was greater than towards those of his own blood. Later on his name became famous all over the world. I Kuan obtained the post of a secretary of state. The local officials had to obey his orders. He recommended his friend to the throne for an appointment at the court. Han subsequently was promoted to the post of a prime minister.
The convict, Hsü Fu and the men who told the fortunes of Têng T`ung and I Kuan can be considered as soothsayers who knew fate. These sort of people examine the symptoms of the physical frame, and perceive wealth and honour, poverty and disgrace, just as we on seeing plates, know the use thereof. Fine vessels are used by the higher classes, coarse ones with the same certainty find their way to the poor. Sacrificial vases and tripods are not put up in outer buildings, and gourds are not to be found in the principal hall. That is a matter of course. That noble bones do not meet with the hardships of the poor, and that wretched features never share the joys of the grand, is on the same principle.
Vessels used as measures may contain a peck or a picul. Thus between the human ranks there is a difference of high and low. If vessels are filled over their size, their contents runs out, and is lost. If the limit of a rank is surpassed, the holder perishes. By making in our discussion of fate this comparison with a vessel, in order to ascertain the nature of anthroposcopy, we arrive at the conclusion that fate is lodged in the corporeal form.
But not only are wealth and honour, poverty and wretchedness visible in the body, pure and base conduct have also their phenomena. Pre-eminence and misery are the results of fate, pure and base conduct depend on character. As there is a method determining fate by the bones, there is also such a science doing the same for the character. But, whereas there are famous soothsayers, it is not known that a science determining the character by the features exists.
Fan Li41 left Yüeh. From Ch`i42 he despatched a letter to the high officer Chung reading as follows:---"When the flying birds are all exterminated, the good bow is put away. When the cunning hare is dead, one cooks the greyhound. The king of Yüeh has a long neck and a mouth like a beak. One may share hardships, but not enjoy happiness with him. Why do you not leave him?" The officer Chung could not leave, but he pretended sickness, and did not go to court, whereupon the king sent him a sword, by which he died. 43
Wei Liao,44 a native of Ta-liang,45 proposed to Ch`in Shih Huang Ti46 a scheme to conquer the empire. Ch`in Shih Huang Ti accepted his proposal and conferred upon him the highest distinctions, giving him the same dresses and the same food as he had himself. Wei Liao said, "The king of Ch`in47 has a high nose, long eyes, the chest of a vulture, the voice of a jackal, the look of a tiger, and the heart of a wolf. He knows no kindness. As long as he is hard up, he is condescending, but, when he has got what he wanted, he despises men. I am a simple citizen, yet he always treats me with great condescension. Should I really serve the king of Ch`in, he would gain his ends, and the whole world would be robbed. I can have no dealings with him." Thus he went away. 48
Fan Li and Wei Liao correctly determined future events by observing the outward signs of character. Things really happened, as they had foretold from the features. It is evident, therefore, that character and destiny are attached to the body.
The instances quoted in the popular literature are universally regarded as true. Besides there are a great many cases in olden and modern times not much heard of, which are all well founded. The spirit comes from heaven, the body grows on earth. By studying the body on earth one becomes cognizant of the fate in heaven, and gets the real truth.
Confucius is reported to have examined T`an T`ai Tse Yü,49 and T`ang Chü50 to have divined for T`sai Tsê,51 and that both of them were mistaken. Where did their error come from? The signs were hidden and too delicate. The examination may have for its object the interior or the exterior, the body or the voice. Looking at the outside, one perhaps misses the inside, and occupied with the body, one forgets the voice.
When Confucius came to Chêng,52 he lost his disciples. He stood by himself near the east gate of Chêng. Some man of Chêng asked Tse Kung53 saying:---"There is a man near the east gate with a head like that of Yao, a neck like that of Kao Yao, and shoulders resembling those of Tse Ch`an.54 But from his waist downward he is by three inches shorter than Yü. He is worn out like a stray dog." Tse Kung informed Confucius. Confucius laughed heartily and said, "My appearance, never mind, but like a stray dog! just so, just so." 55
In the matter of Confucius' appearance the man of Chêng was wrong. He was not clever, and his method was very superficial. Confucius made a mistake with Tse Yü, and T`ang Chü was in the wrong with T`sai Tsê, as the man of Chêng in looking at Confucius did not apprehend his real appearance. Judging from his mien Confucius was deceived with Tse Yü, and going by words he was in error in regard of Tsai Yü.56
2. Huang Ti, Chuan Hsü, Ti Ku, Yao, Shun, and Yü are mythical or half legendary rulers of old China.
3. T`ang, Wên Wang, and Wu Wang are the founders of the Shang and Chou dynasties.
4. Tan, Duke of Chou, a younger brother of Wu Wang, whom he helped to win the throne.
5. A minister of Shun.
6. Like the wings of a bird.
7. Ch`ung Erh reigned as marquis of Chin from 634-626 b.c.
8. A famous statesman who in 333 b.c. succeeded in forming a league of the Six States: Yen, Chao, Han, Wei, Ch`i, and Ch`u against Ch`in.
9. A celebrated politician of the 4th century b.c., in early life a fellow-student of Su Ch`in.
10. A partisan of the founder of the Han dynasty, Kao Tsu, one of the Three Heroes, who in early youth lived in great poverty and subsequently rose to the highest honours.
11. Another adherent of Han Kao Tsu, also one of the Three Heroes, the third being Chang Liang. He was to be executed for treason, but was pardoned.
12. As anomalous features.
13. This passage occurs in the Shi-chi chap. 8, p. 2, which treats of Han Kao Tsu.
14. A place in Shantung.
15. He succeeded his father Kao Tsu in 194 b.c.
16. A river in Shantung.
17. Cf. Shi-chi loc. cit. which slightly differs.
18. A city in Shantung; Playfair No. 1642.
19. 73-48 b.c.
20. 48-32 b.c.
21. 32-6 b.c.
22. Huang T`se Kung was prime minister of the emperor Hsüan Ti, died 51 b.c.
23. In Honan.
24. A parallel passage occurs in the Han-shu, quoted in the T`ai-p`ing yü-lan 729 p. 4.
25. 516-457 b.c.
26. 457-425 b.c. Cf. p. 226 and Shi-chi chap. 43, p. 8 seq.
27. A military adventurer of the 2nd century b.c. His surname was originally Ying Pu. It was changed into the sobriquet Ch`ing Pu "Branded Pu", after he had been branded in his early life. He made his escape, joined in the rebellions which led to the rise of the Han dynasty, and was rewarded with the title and the fief of a "Prince of Kiukiang." Mayers Reader's Manual No. 926.
28. Quotation from Shi-chi chap. 91, p. 1.
29. Cf. p. 169.
30. Quoted from the Shi-chi chap. 111, p. 1 v.
31. Cf. Giles Biogr. Dict. No. 426, where the end of Chou Ya Fu is told a little differently.
32. The capital of the Chin State in Shansi, the modern Chiang-chou.
33. Han Wên Ti 179-156 b.c.
34. Another ancient city in Shansi not far from Chiang.
35. Han Ching Ti 156-140.
36. Quotation in a abridged form from Shi-chi chap. 57, p. 6v. seq.
37. Têng T`ung was a minion of the Emperor Wên Ti.
38. Cf. Têng T`ung's biography in Shi-chi chap. 125, p. 2.
39. Han An Kuo, 2nd cent. b.c.
40. Died 112 b.c.
41. A native of the Yüeh State, and minister of King Kou Chien of Yüeh, in modern Chekiang, 5th cent. b.c.
42. An old State in Shantung.
43. Quoted from the Shi-chi chap. 41, p. 6 v. The last clause is abridged.
44. Wei Liao wrote a work on the art of war.
45. An ancient name of K`ai-fêng-fu.
46. The first emperor of the Ch`in dynasty 221-209 b.c.
47. Shih Huang Ti's kingdom in Shensi.
48. Quoted in an abridged form from the Shi-chi chap. 6, p. 6 seq.
49. A disciple of Confucius, extremely ugly, but very talented. Cf. Analects VI, 12.
50. A famous physiognomist 3rd cent. b.c.
51. A native of Yen, who first studied physiognomy with T`ang Chü and later on was appointed minister by King Ch`ao Hsiang of Ch`in (305-249 b.c.).
52. In Honan.
53. A disciple of Confucius.
54. The appellation of Kung Sun Ch`iao, a famous minister of the Chêng State in the 6th cent. b.c.
55. A quotation from Shi-chi chap. 47, p. 12 v. Cf. Legge, Analects, Prolegomena p. 78.
56. One of the disciples of Confucius, whose character was not quite on a level with his fluency of speech, wherefore the Master said of him, "In choosing a man for his gift of speech, I have failed as regards Tsai Yü."
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