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燔柴於大壇，祭天也；瘞埋於大折，祭地也，用騂犢。埋少牢於大昭，祭時也； 相近於坎壇，祭寒暑也；王宮、祭日也，夜明、祭月也，幽宗、祭星也，雩宗、祭水旱也，四坎壇、 祭四方也。
山林、川谷、丘陵，能出雲，為風雨，見怪物，皆曰神。有天下者祭百神。諸侯、 在 其地則祭，亡其地則不祭。」
《禮》曰：「王為群姓立七祀，曰司命， 曰中（靈）〔霤〕，曰國門，曰國行，曰泰厲，曰戶，曰。諸侯為國立五祀，曰司命， 曰中霤，曰國門，曰國行，曰公厲。大夫立三祀，曰族厲，曰門，曰行。適士立二祀，曰 門，曰行。庶人立一祀，或立戶，或立。」
靈星之祭，祭水旱也，於禮舊名曰雩。雩之禮，為民祈穀雨、祈穀實也。春求 〔雨〕，〔秋求〕實，一歲再祀，蓋重穀也。春以二月，秋以八月。故《論語》曰：「暮春者，春服 既成，冠者五六人，童子六七人，浴乎沂，風乎舞雩，詠而歸。」
春雩之禮廢，秋雩之禮存，故世常脩靈星之祀，到今不絕。名變於舊，故世人不 識；禮廢不具，故儒者不知。世儒案禮，不知靈星何祀，其難曉而不識說，縣官名曰「明星」， 緣明星之名，說曰「歲星」。
歲星、東方也，東方主春，春主生物，故祭歲星，求春之福也。四時皆有力於物， 獨求春者，重本尊始也。審如儒者之說，求春之福，（及）〔反〕以秋祭，非求春也。《月令》祭戶 以春，祭門以秋，各宜其時。如或祭門以秋，謂之祭戶，論者肯然之乎？不然，則明星非歲星也， 乃龍星也。
凡祭祀之義有二：一曰報功，二曰脩先。報功以勉力，脩先以崇恩，力勉恩崇，功 立化通，聖王之務也。是故聖王制祭祀也，法施於民則祀之，以死勤事則祀之，以勞定國則祀之，能禦大 災則祀之，能捍大患則祀之。
帝嚳能序星辰以著眾，堯能賞均刑法以義終，舜勤民事而野死，鯀勤洪水而殛死， 禹能脩鯀之功，黃帝正名百物以明民共財；顓頊能脩之；契為司徒而民成，冥勤其官而水死，湯 以寬治民而除其虐，文王以文治，武王以武功去民之災，凡此功烈，施布於民，民賴其力，故祭報之。
延陵季子過徐，徐君好其劍，季子以當使於上國，未之許與。季子使還，徐君已死， 季子解劍帶其冢樹。御者曰：「徐君已死，尚誰為乎？」季子曰：「前已心許之矣，可以徐君死故負吾 心乎？」遂帶劍於冢樹而去。
聖人知其若此，祭猶齋戒畏敬，若有鬼神，脩興弗絕，若有禍福。重恩尊功，慇 懃厚恩，未必有鬼而享之者。何以明之？以飲食祭地也。人將飲食，謙退，示當有所先。孔子曰：「 雖食菜羹，瓜祭必齋如也。」
Chapter XLII. Sacrifices (Chi-yi).
According to the Liki the emperor sacrifices to Heaven and Earth, the feudal princes to the Mountains and Rivers, 1 the ministers, and high dignitaries to the Five Genii, 2 the scholars and the common people to their ancestors. 3 From the offerings to the spirits of the Land and Grain down to those in the ancestral hall there is a gradation from the son of heaven down to the commoners.
The Shuking says that a special sacrifice was made to Shangti, a pure one to the Six Superior Powers, a sacrifice on high to the Mountains and Rivers, and a sacrifice to the various spirits round about. 4
Huang Ti, Ti K`u and Chuan Hsü are mythical emperors. Ti K`u is said to have been the father of Yao.
[Shun, says the Liki, offered the imperial sacrifice to Huang Ti, the suburban sacrifice to Ti K`u, the patriarchal to Chuan Hsü, and the ancestral to Yao. The Hsia dynasty likewise presented the imperial sacrifice to Huang Ti, but the suburban to K`un,5 the patriarchal to Chuan Hsü, and the ancestral to Yü. The Yin dynasty transferred the imperial sacrifice to Ti K`u, the suburban to Ming,6 the patriarchal to Hsieh, and the ancestral to T`ang. The Chou dynasty made the imperial sacrifice to Ti K`u, the suburban to Chi7 , the patriarchal to Wên Wang, and the ancestral to Wu Wang.8
Wood was burned on the big altar as a sacrifice to Heaven, a victim was buried in the big pit as a sacrifice to Earth. A red calf was immolated, and a sheep buried in bright daylight as a sacrifice to the Seasons, and they approached the sacrificial pits and altars to offer sacrifice to the Heat and the Cold. In the imperial palace a sacrifice was made to the Sun, and in clear night they sacrified to the Moon. Oblations were made to the Stars in the dark hall, to Water and Drought in the rain hall, and to the Four Cardinal Points at the four pits and altars.
The mountain forests, the valleys of the rivers, and the hills and cliffs can emit clouds and produce wind and rain. All these curious phenomena are regarded as spirits. The ruler of the world sacrifices to all the spirits, the princes only as long as they are within their territories, but not, when they have left them.] 9
Such are the official sacrifices according to usage and the prescribed rites. The emperor treats Heaven like his father and Earth like his mother. Conformably to human customs he practises filial piety, which accounts for the sacrifices to Heaven and Earth. In the matter of Mountains and Rivers and the subsequent deities the offerings presented to them are in appreciation of their deserts. A living man distinguishing himself is rewarded, ghosts and spirits which are well-deserving have their sacrifices. When mountains send forth clouds and rain, the welcome moisture for all the organisms, and when the Six Superior Powers keep in their six spheres, and aid Heaven and Earth in their changes, the emperor venerates them by sacrifices, whence their appellation the "Six Honoured Ones." 10
The spirits of Land and Grain are rewarded for their kindness in letting all the things grow, the spirit Shê11 for all the living and growing things, the spirit Chi12 for the five kinds of grain.
The Five Sacrifices are in recognition of the merits of the Outer and Inner Doors, the Well, the Hearth, and the Inner Hall. Through the outer and inner doors man walks in and out, the well and the hearth afford him drink and food, and in the inner hall he finds a resting-place. These five are equally meritorious, therefore they all partake of a sacrifice.
Ch`i of Chou13 was called Shao Hao.14 He had four uncles of the names of Chung, Kai, Hsiu, and Hsi15 who could master metal, fire, and wood, wherefore he made Chung the Genius of Spring, Kou Mang, Kai the Genius of Autumn, Ju Shou, and Hsiu and Hsi Gods of the Winter, Hsüan Ming.16 They never neglected their office, and assisted Ch`iung-sang.17 To these the Three Offerings are made.
Chuan Hsü18 had a son called Li, who became the God of Fire, Chu Yung.19Kung Kung's20 son was named Kou Lung. He was made Lord of the Soil, Hou Tu. The Two Sacrifices refer to these two personages.
The Lord of the Soil was the spirit of the land and grain in charge of the fields. The son of Lieh Shan,21Chu, was the spirit of the grain and from the Hsia dynasty upwards worshipped as such. Ch`i of Chou was likewise spirit of the grain. From the Shang dynasty downwards people sacrificed to him.
The Liki relates that, while Lieh Shan22 was swaying the empire, his son of the name of Chu23 could plant all the various kinds of grain, and that after the downfall of the Hsia dynasty, Ch`i of Chou succeeded him, and therefore was worshipped as Spirit of the Grain. While Kung Kung was usurping the power in the nine provinces, his son, called Lord of the Soil, was able to pacify the nine countries, and therefore was worshipped as Spirit of the Land. 24
There is a tradition to the effect that Yen Ti25 produced fire and after death became the tutelary god of the Hearth, and that Yü having spent his energy on the waters of the empire, became Spirit of the Land after death.
The Liki says that [the emperor institutes the Seven Sacrifices as representative of his people, namely for the arbiter of fate, 26 for the inner court, for the gates of the capital, for its high-ways, for the august demons, 27 for the doors, and for the hearths. The princes on their part institute the Five Sacrifices for their States, namely for the arbiter of fate, for the inner court, for the gates of their capital, for its high-ways, and for the illustrious demons. The high dignitaries present the Three Sacrifices for the demons of their ancestors, for their doors, and for their roads. The ordinary scholars make Two Offerings, one for the door and one for their roads, and the commoners only one, either for their inner doors or for the hearth.] 28
There are no fixed rules for the oblations to be made to the spirits of the Land and Grain or for the Five Sacrifices, but they are all expressions of gratitude for benefits received from the spirits, whose goodness is not forgotten.
If we love somebody in our heart, we give him to eat and to drink, and, if we love ghosts and spirits, we sacrifice to them. With Yü the worship of the spirits of the land and grain, and the sacrifices to the lord of the grain commence. Subsequently they fell into desuetude, until in the 4th year of the emperor Kao Tsu29 the world was called upon to sacrifice to the Ling constellation, 30 and in the 7th year people were enjoined to sacrifice to the spirits of the land and grain. 31
The offerings to the Ling constellation are for the sake of water and drought. In the Liki their ancient name is rain sacrifices. They are being performed for the people praying for grain rain and for grain ears. In spring they sue for the harvest, and within one year's time they sacrifice again, because grain grows twice a year. In spring this is done in the second moon, and in autumn in the eighth. Therefore we read in the Analects:32 "About the end of spring, when the spring robes are all complete, along with five or six young men who have assumed the cap, and six or seven boys, I would wash in the Yi,33 enjoy the breeze among the rain altars, and return home singing."
The end of spring is the fourth month, but the fourth month of the Chou dynasty corresponds to our first and second months. During the time of the second month, the Dragon Star rises, whence it has been observed that, when the dragon appears, the rain sacrifice takes place. When the Dragon Star becomes visible, the year has already advanced as far as the time, when the insects begin to stir.
The vernal rain sacrifice has fallen into oblivion, while the autumnal one is still observed. Yet during all the ages the sacrifices to the Ling Star have always been prepared until now without interruption, only the ancient name has been changed, therefore the people of our time do not know it, and, since the ceremony has been abolished, the scholars are not cognisant of the fact. Finding nothing about the sacrifice to the Ling Star in the Rites, our literati could not form an opinion about it, and declare that the emperor 34 had the Ming Star in view. Now the Ming Star is identified with the planet Jupiter.35
Jupiter stands in the east, the east rules over the spring, and the spring over all things that grow. Consequently one sacrifices to the planet Jupiter, they say, with the purpose of praying for vernal bliss. However all the four seasons affect the growth of things. By imploring the spring only, one lays great stress on the outset and emphasizes the beginning. Provided that in fact, according to the opinion of the scholars, the happiness of spring be sought, then by the autumnal sacrifice spring could not well be implored. 36 In conformity with the Yüeh-ling37 one sacrifices to the inner door in spring, and to the outer door in autumn, 38 all in accordance with the proper time. If the offerings made to the outer door in autumn were considered to be those to the inner door, would this be approved of by the critics? If not, then the Ming Star is not the planet Jupiter, but the "Dragon Star." 39
When the Dragon Star becomes visible in the second month, one prays for grain rain at the rain sacrifice, and, when in the eighth month it is going to disappear, one sues for the grain crop at the autumnal rain sacrifice. The literati were probably aware of this, and what they say is not quite unreasonable. The vernal sacrifice for rain has been abolished, and only the autumnal one has survived. This explains why they termed the star corresponding to the autumnal sacrifice the Ming Star. 40 The correct name however is the Ling Star.
The Ling Star means a spirit, and this spirit is the Dragon Star, as under the various spirits the wind god Fêng Po, the rain god Yü Shih, the god of thunder, Lei Kung, and others are understood. Wind produces a wafting, rain a moisture, and thunder a concussion. The four seasons, the growing, heat and cold, the natural changes, the sun, the moon, and the stars are what people look up to, inundations and droughts are what they dread. From the four quarters the air pours in, and from the mountains, the forests, the rivers, and valleys people gather their riches. All this is the merit of the spirits.
Two motives are underlying all sacrifices: gratitude for received benefits and ancestor worship. We show our gratitude for the efforts others have take on our behalf, and worship our ancestors out of regard for their kindness. Special efforts, extraordinary goodness, merits, and universal reforms are taken into consideration by wise emperors, and it is for this reason that they have instituted sacrifices. An oblation is offered to him who has improved the public administration, who for the public welfare has worked till his death, who has done his best to strengthen his country, who has warded off great disasters, or prevented great misfortunes.
[Ti K`u could fix the courses of the stars and enlighten the world. 41Yao knew how to reward, and equitably mete out punishments, so that justice reigned supreme. Shun toiled for his people, and died in the country, K`un laboured to quell the flood, and was banished for life. Yü could take up his work. Huang Ti gave things their right names to enlighten people about the use to be made of them. Chuan Hsü still further developed this system. When Hsieh was minister of education, the people flourished. Ming fulfilled his official duties with the greatest diligence, and found his death in the water. T`ang inaugurated a liberal government, and delivered the people from oppression. Wên Wang relieved the misery of the people by culture and science, Wu Wang by his military exploits. By all these glorious deeds the people were benefitted. 42 ] They rely on the strength of men like those, and show their gratitude by sacrifices.
The ancestors in the ancestral temple are our own kindred. Because, while they are alive, it is customary to maintain our parents, this duty cannot be shirked, when they are dead. Therefore we sacrifice to them, as though they were still alive. Ghosts are treated like men, for it is the living who attend the dead. For man it is usual to reward good deeds, and to maintain the nearest relatives, whence the duty to requite the kindness of the ancestors and to sacrifice to them has been derived.
When the dog which Confucius had bred was dead, he requested Tse Kung to bury him. "I have been told, quoth he, that one does not throw an old curtain away, but uses it to bury a horse, and that an old cart-cover is not thrown away, but used to bury a dog. I am poor, and have no cover to wrap him in." Then he gave him a mat, and bade him not to throw the dog down with his head first. 43
Chi Tse44 of Yen-ling45 passed through Hsü. The prince of Hsü46 was very fond of his sword, but, because Chi Tse had to go as envoy to a powerful State 47 he, at that time did not yet consent to give it him. When Chi Tse came back from his mission, the prince of Hsü had died in the meantime. Chi Tse unbuckled his sword and hung it up on a tree over the grave. His charioteer asked for whom he did so, since the prince of Hsü was already dead. "Previously, replied Chi Tse, I have made this promise in my heart already. Shall I become unfaithful, because the prince of Hsü has died?"---Whereupon he hung up his sword and went away. 48
Those who make offerings in recognition of special merits, are animated by the same sentiment as Confucius, when he interred his pet dog, and those who sacrifice, lest they should evade a former obligation, have the same tenderness of heart as Chi Tse, who hung up his sword on a tree over a tomb.
A sage knows these facts, and yet while sacrificing he will fast, and show such respect and devotion, as if there were really ghosts and spirits, and reform without cease, as if happiness and unhappiness depended thereon. But though people thus appreciate goodness, and honour merit, and take such pains to manifest their gratitude, it is not necessary that there should be really ghosts to enjoy these manifestations. We see this from the sacrifice offered to Earth at the meals. When people are going to eat and drink, they respectfully retire, as if they were giving precedence to somebody. Confucius says:---"Although the food might be coarse rice and vegetable soup, one must offer a little of it in sacrifice with a grave, respectful air." 49
The Liki tells us that, when subjects are invited to dine with their prince, he first calls upon them to sacrifice, before they receive their rations.
These oblations are like the various sacrifices of the Liki. At a meal one also may omit the offering, and though venerating the spirits one may forego a sacrifice. The same principle holds good for all the sacrifices, which invariably consist in giving something as an offering. He who knows that at the sacrifice to Earth no spirit is present, and still maintains that ghosts attend the various sacrifices, ignores how to reason by analogy.
This is not quite true. The Liki, the Tso-chuan, and the Shi-chi treat of ghosts and spirits in many places, as we have seen.
In the text of the Classics and the writings of the worthies nothing is said yet about ghosts and spirits, nor did they compose special works on this subject. The unauthorized sacrifices offered by the people are not enjoyed by any ghosts, but people believe in the presence of spirits, who can cause either happiness or misfortune.
The votaries of Taoism studying the art of immortality abstain from eating cereals and take other food than other people with a view to purifying themselves. Ghosts and spirits, however, are still more ethereal than immortals, why then should they use the same food as man?
One assumes that after death man loses his consciousness, and that his soul cannot become a spirit. But let us suppose that he did, then he would use different food, and using different food, he would not like to eat human food. Not eating human food, he would not ask us for it, and having nothing to ask at the hands of man, he could not give luck or mishap.
Our joy and anger depend on the fulfilment of our wishes. When they are satisfied, we are pleased, when not, irritated. In our joy we are generous and cause happiness, when we are sulky, we give vent to our anger and make others unhappy. Ghosts and spirits are insensible of joy and anger. People may go on sacrificing to them for ever, or completely disregard and forget them, it makes no difference, how could they render man happy or unhappy?
1. The mountains and rivers of their territory.
2. The five genii of the house to whom the Five Sacrifices were offered. See further on.
3. Cf. Liki, Ch`ü-li (Legge, Sacred Books Vol. XXVII, p. 116).
4. Shuking, Shun-tien Pt. II, Bk. I, 6 (Legge Vol. III, Pt. I, p. 33).
5. K`un, the father of Yü.
6. Ming was a descendant of Hsieh, who was a son of Ti K`u.
7. Chi = Hou Chi, the ancestor of the Chou dynasty.
8. The four sacrifices here mentioned were presented by the sovereigns of the ancient dynasties to the founders of their dynasties, their ancestors, and predecessors.
9. Quotation from the Liki, Chi-fa (Law of sacrifices). The commentators, whom Legge follows in his translation (Sacred Books Vol. XXVIII, p. 201), read much between the lines, which appears rather problematic.
10. What the "Six Honoured Ones" are, is disputed. Some say:---water, fire, wind, thunder, hills, and lakes; others explain the term as signifying:---the sun, the moon, the stars, rivers, seas, and mountains.
11. The Spirit of the Land or the Soil.
12. The Spirit of Grain.
13. Ch`i, the first ancestor of the Chou dynasty, venerated as the Spirit of Grain under the title Hou Chi "Lord of the Grain." On his miraculous birth vid. p. 174.
14. By other authors Ch`i is not identified with the legendary emperor Shao Hao, whose birth was miraculous also. His mother was caused to conceive by a huge star like a rainbow (T`ai-p`ing-yü-lan).
15. According to the commentary of the Liki these were not uncles, but sons of Shao Hao.
16. The names of these deities or deified
men correspond to their functions:--- Kou Mang =
"Curling fronds and spikelets," Ju Shou = "Sprouts
gathered," and Hsüan Ming = "Dark and obscure."
According to the Liki (Yüeh-ling)
these three deities were secondary spirits, each presiding over three months of
spring, autumn, and winter. Some say that Hsüan Ming was
a water spirit. As the spirit of summer Chu Yung, who is
related to fire, is venerated. There being a fixed relation between the four
seasons, the four cardinal points, and the five elements we have the following
17. Another name of Shao Hao, who was lord of Ch`iung-sang.
18. A legendary emperor.
19. Cf. Note 4.
20. See p. 250.
21. Personal name of the emperor Shên Nung, who was lord of Lieh-shan.
22. The Liki in the current edition writes:---Li Shan.
23. The Liki has:---Nung.
24. Liki, Chi-fa (end).
25. Dynastic appellation of Shên Nung.
26. The fourth star in Ursa major.
27. The discontented and mischievous spirits of former sovereigns without children, who must be propitiated.
28. Quotation from the Liki, Chi-fa (Legge, loc. cit. p. 206).
29. In 203 b.c.
30. The constellation T`ien-t`ien "Heavenly field" in Virgo.
31. According to the Shi-chi chap. 28 (Chavannes Vol. III, p. 453) Han Kao Tsu instituted these sacrifices in the 9th and 10th years of his reign.
32. Analects XI, 25, VII.
33. River in the south-east of Shantung.
34. Kao Tsu.
35. the "Bright star" is generally regarded as another name of Venus. Cf. Shi-chi chap. 27, p. 22.
36. Thus Jupiter, which rules over spring only, could not well be sacrificed to at the rain sacrifice in autumn.
37. A chapter of the Liki.
38. Cf. Legge's translation of the Liki (Sacred Books Vol. XXVII, p. 251 and 283).
39. The Dragon Star occurs in the Tso-chuan, Duke Hsiang 28th year, as the star of Sung and Chêng. The commentary explains it as a synonym of Jupiter.
40. The Ming Star = Venus governs the west and autumn, whereas Jupiter reigns in the east and in spring.
41. About the prognostics furnished by the stars.
42. Quoted from the Liki, Chi-fa (Legge, loc cit. p. 208).
43. Quotation from the Liki, T`an-kung (Legge, loc. cit. p. 196).
44. Chi Cha, fourth son of King Shou Mêng of Wu, who died in 561 b.c.
45. A territory in Kiangsu, the appanage of Prince Chi Tse.
46. A State in Anhui.
47. He was on an embassy to Lu, Ch`i, Chêng, Wei and Chin, and passed through Hsü in 544 b.c.
48. See a parallel passage in the Shi-chi chap. 31, p. 9v.
49. Analects X, 8, X.
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