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〔曰〕：蘇秦約六國為從，強秦不敢窺兵於關外。張儀為橫，六國不敢同攻於關內。六國約從，則秦畏而六國強；三秦稱橫 ，則秦強而天下弱。功著效明，載紀竹帛，雖賢何以加之？太史公敍言眾賢，儀、秦有篇，無嫉惡之文，功鈞名敵，不異於賢。夫功 之不可以效賢，猶名之不可實也。
儀、秦，排難之人也，處擾攘之世，行揣摩之術。當此之時，稷、契不能與之爭計，禹、睾陶不能與之比效。若夫陰陽調和， 風雨時適，五穀豐熟，盜賊衰息，人舉廉讓，家行道德之功，命祿貴美，術數所致，非道德之所成也。太史公記功，故高來祀，記錄成則著效明 驗，攬載高卓，以儀、秦功美，故列其狀。由此言之，佞人亦能以權說立功為效。無效，未可為佞也。
假令甲有高行奇知，名聲顯聞，將恐人君召問，扶而勝己，欲故廢不言， 常騰譽之。薦之者眾，將議欲用，問人，人必不對曰：“甲賢而宜召也。何則？甲意不欲留縣，前聞其語矣，聲望欲入府，在郡則望欲入州。志 高則操與人異，望遠則意不顧近。屈而用之，其心不滿，不則臥病。賤而命之則傷賢，不則損威。故人君所以失名損譽者，好臣所常臣也。自耐下之，用之可也。自度不能下之，用之不便。夫用之不兩相益，舍之不兩相損。”人君畏其志，信佞人之言，遂置不用。
傳曰：“蘇秦、張儀從橫習之鬼谷先生，掘地為坑，曰： ‘下，說令我泣出，則耐分人君之地。’蘇秦下，說鬼谷先生泣下沾襟 ，張儀不若。蘇秦相趙，並相六國。張儀貧賤往歸，蘇秦座之堂下，食以仆妾之食，數讓激怒，欲令相秦。儀忿恨，遂西入秦。蘇秦使人厚送。其後覺 知，曰：此在其術中，吾不知也，此吾所不及蘇君者。”
《書》曰：‘知人則哲，惟帝難之。’虞舜大聖，驩兜大佞。大聖難知大佞，大佞不憂大聖 。何易之有？”〔曰〕：是謂下知之，上知之。上知之，大難小易，下知之，大易小難。何則？佞人材高，論 說麗美。因麗美之說，人主之威，人〔主〕心並不能責，知或不能覺。小佞材下，對鄉失漏，際會不密，人君警悟，得知其故。大難小易也。
Chapter VI. On the Cunning and Artful (Ta-ning).
The following question may be raised:---The virtuous obtain honourable appointments and high wages, in case they behave properly, why then must people acquire wealth and honour by cunning?
The reason is this. If the cunning, though well aware that proper conduct leads to wealth and honour, nevertheless seek a position and money by deceit, it is because they cannot withstand their inclinations. People know that vigorously tilling the ground, they can expect a harvest, and that a brisk trade will provide them with valuable goods. If they must steal them all the same, they are unable to overcome their natural propensities. Those who always do their duty, are held in esteem by every one, albeit yet the unrighteous are many, and the friends of justice in the minority; the hearts of the former are concupiscent, and their will and intellect confused and weak. The cunning have the same qualities as the virtuous, 1 but succumb to their passions. The robbers are no less intelligent than farmers and merchants, but become guilty by their cupidity.
Question:---The cunning and the virtuous having the same qualities, qualities and conduct ought to agree. Why must the cunning alone succumb to their passions?
Reply:---Wealth and honour is what every one desires. Even he who by his conduct proves himself to be a perfect gentleman, is subject to the feelings of hunger and thirst. But a superior man combats his feelings by propriety, and dispels his desires by righteousness. Thus walking the right path, he eschews calamities. A vile man, on the other hand, yields to his greed and avarice, transgressing the rules of propriety and failing against the laws of righteousness. That leads to waywardness and cunning, by which he becomes liable to punishment. The virtuous are superior men, the cunning are vile. In their doings and dealings the superior men and the vile widely differ, and their likes and dislikes are dissimilar.
Question:---Have the cunning and the slanderers the same principles, or is there any difference?
Reply:---The cunning and the slanderers are both vile, their principles are the same, but their qualities, different. Envy is the mainspring of their characters, which, however, manifest and reveal themselves in a different way. Slanderers hurt others by their tongues, whereas the cunning endanger them by their actions. The former take the direct road, the latter prefer the crooked one, and disguise their plans. The slanderers do not intrigue, the cunning have all kinds of devices. Therefore the sovereign can avoid the company of slanderers and seek that of the kind-hearted, but he is unable to distinguish the cunning from the virtuous.
Exception:---Since a sovereign can always keep aloof from slanderers and consort with the kind-hearted, but is incapable of drawing a distinction between the virtuous and the cunning, is it impossible to know the mind of the latter?
Reply:---The cunning can be known, but a sovereign is not qualified to acquire this knowledge. An ordinary sovereign does not know the virtuous, and for that very reason cannot know the cunning either. Only wise and sage men examine their actions by the Nine Virtues and verify their words by the outcome of their deeds. If those actions do not harmonise with the Nine Virtues, 2 and if their words are not proved true by their doings, the persons in question are not virtuous, but cunning. By knowing the cunning one knows the virtuous, and by knowing the virtuous one knows the cunning. The knowledge of the cunning at the same time displays the nature of the virtuous and wise, and a conception of the virtuous is a key to understanding the character of the cunning and artful. The virtuous and the cunning proceed in a different way, but the same investigation shows us what they are; their aspirations are not the same, but one look reveals their real nature.
Question:---The system of the Nine Virtues has long been established, and there is no student but on seeing measures, knows their capacity, or on beholding scales, knows their weight. How is it that a ruler and lord of the land is ever surrounded by false and cunning ministers and always humbugged and hoodwinked? 3
(Reply):---One must not complain that the measures are wrong, but that there is no grain to be measured, nor that there are no scales, but that there is nothing to be weighed. Those on the throne do not ignore that by means of the Nine Virtues they can investigate actions, and that from the results of his actions the sentiments of the agent may be inferred. If nevertheless they are blindfolded and see nothing, it is evident that they did not take the trouble to look. It is not always possible to act, but any action may be scrutinised, and men cannot always go into a question, but their sentiments may always be learned.
Question:---When the actions do not agree with the Nine Virtues, an investigation into the achievements does not disclose any deserts. Then such persons though promoted, do not turn out virtuous, and not being virtuous, they are cunning. Now, can men of trivial talents and superficial knowledge who cannot come up to the virtuous, since they have not their merits, nor act like them, be called cunning?
Reply:---The talents not being equally matched, there can be no rivalry of actions, nor a competition of merits. If people cannot cope together in knowledge, their talents may be in a proportion of ten to a hundred, 4 but their likes and dislikes ought to be the same. However the virtuous and the cunning do not act in the same way. Both declare good to be good, and bad, bad, 5 and both enjoy real fame, but in their works the former build up, the latter destroy. According to their distinction of right and wrong, their doings must likewise be true or false. Now they agree in their words, but their proceedings are different, both have an excellent name, but the doings of the cunning are depraved.
Question:6 ---If those whose dealings are in accordance with the Nine Virtues are virtuous, then those whose actions are not, are cunning. Must then all the ordinary people be held to be cunning owing to their actions?
Reply:---All who are not right are wicked. Among the wicked those who kick against the pricks, are called unprincipled, and those who are artful, are considered cunning. In the penal laws of the holy emperors the cunning are ranked among the wicked, and in their rewards and exhortations the virtuous are among the good. The virtuous of perfect purity and the best among the good, are the sages among the virtuous. On the other hand, the great impostors among the wicked, 7 are the worst of the bad. Whence they say that one must look for the virtuous among the good, and search for the cunning among the wicked. When goodness and badness are well determined, the virtuous and the cunning become manifest.
Question:---The intelligent may be beclouded, and in arguing one may be mistaken. Now, if those who are right, are looked upon as virtuous, and those who are wrong, as cunning, this would be a misconception of the real nature of virtue, I should say.
Reply:---That the intellect may be beclouded and arguments erroneous, is much to be regretted. Therefore we have the saying:--- [In punishing premeditated crimes none must be considered too small, 8 and in condoning carelessness none should be deemed too great. 9 ] A wise sovereign scrutinises the heart, and examines the mind, and then he punishes malice, and pardons mistakes. In case of premeditated attacks the penalty is increased, for mistakes and errors it is diminished. 10 Every judge can make this distinction, and he will harbour no doubt, when he falls in with a virtuous man.
Question:---May those be called cunning whose words and deeds are not attended with any success?
(Reply):---When Su Ch`in11 brought about a confederation of Six States, 12 mighty Ch`in did not venture to review its troops outside the gates, and when Chang Yi13 sowed distrust, the Six States did not risk a joint attack within the gates. The Six States being allied, Ch`in was afraid, and the Six States were powerful; the Three Ch`in14 having spread discord, Ch`in became powerful and the empire weak. The merits of these men were conspicuous, and their success was obvious. They have been recorded on bamboo and silks. Even worthies could not have outvied them. The Grand Annalist speaking of all the worthies, devotes special chapters to Su Ch`in15 and Chang Yi,16 nor is there any allusion to their having been envious or depraved. Their deserts were the same, and their fame not inferior to that of worthies. Merits which fall short of those of the worthies are like fame which is not real.
Chang Yi and Su Ch`in were men who could arrange difficulties. Living in a time of great disorder and confusion, 17 they formed far reaching plans. At that time Chi18 and Hsieh19 could not have vied with them in scheming, and Yü and Kao Yao would not have been as successful. When the Yin and the Yang are in harmony, wind and rain set in at the proper time, the Five Grains grow in abundance, and robbers and thieves desist from their iniquitous doings; this is the merit of some persons exhibiting disinterestedness and self-denial, and of families displaying morality and virtue. Appointments, salary, honour, and glory are the results of plans and schemes, 20 and not the upshot of morality and virtue. The Grand Annalist recording merits, the Kao-lai-sse-chi-lu was written. Illustrious deeds have been carefully gone through, and all the most excellent, put on record. Chang Yi and Su Ch`in's exploits being so famous have also been included in this narrative. From this it follows that the cunning may also distinguish themselves by their gift of speech, 21 and that those who have no success cannot be cunning.
Exception:---Those among the wicked who win merit are called cunning. In order to acquire merit they must be possessed of high talents and a keen intellect. Their thoughts must be far-reaching and pay regard to justice and benevolence, that they may be confounded with the great worthies. Whence it is said in the chapter on recognising the cunning: 22 ---When the ruler of men has a taste for disputations, the words of the cunning are sharp, and when he delights in literature, their speech is refined. Sympathising with his feelings and falling in with his views, they ingratiate themselves with the ruler, who does not perceive the falsity of their words. How could he learn their duplicity and detect their deceitfulness?
Reply:---This remark only refers to an ordinary sovereign, of poor gifts and a limited intelligence, who is easily overreached, and then does not see anything, and takes a knave for a virtuous man. When a prince is a good observer, discrimination is as easy for him as beholding dried meat on a dish, pointing out the lines on the palm, counting the figures on a chessboard, and unharnassing a horse in the shafts. Fish and turtles abscond in the depths, but fishermen know their resorts; birds and beasts hide in the mountains, but hunters perceive their tracks. The conduct of the cunning is different from that of most other people, and only ordinary sovereigns and men of mediocre abilities cannot see the difference.
Exception:---The sovereign being fond of discussions, the cunning will use sharp words, and, when he is partial to literature, the style of the cunning is refined. Their words and deeds thus being modelled upon those of the prince, how can they be discovered?
Reply:---Wên Wang says of the method how officials are to be treated:---A consideration of their former actions makes us understand their present words, and hearing their present words we may form a judgment of their former actions. Beholding the outward appearance we learn to know what is hidden, and from the inside we infer the outside. Thus the hypocrites posing as law-abiding people may be known, and heartless deceivers be distinguished. Conversely, sterling characters and truly good people are found out, and the faithful who observe the laws, appear. When, by nature, the cunning do not like discussions, but the sovereign has a fancy for them, they will imitate their lord with a view to agree with him, and when originally their mind has no literary turn, upon learning that their sovereign is addicted to literature, they will endeavour to equal him. His Majesty being extravagant, the cunning wear costly dresses, and in case His Majesty is thrifty, they avoid all pomp. Their present actions disagree with the former, and their behaviour at court is other than at home. Comparing their conduct in their native village with their manners in the palace, and contrasting the way in which they treat their own people with the style in which they serve their prince, we become aware that there is a discrepancy between the outside and the inside, and that the name and the thing do not tally. At certain moments this becomes visible, when their falsehood leaks out.
Question:---Human actions are not constant and unchangeable. Special circumstances often determine the issue. The faithful become traitors, and the straight turn crooked, changes brought about by special circumstances. The actions differ at different times, each event is attended with its special effect, sometimes people say one thing, sometimes another. The books of the Literati give many instances, and such changes under special circumstances are not unusual. Now, must we not fall into error, if we take normal conditions as a basis?
Reply:---The virtuous may be favoured by circumstances, and so may the cunning. When the virtuous are thus favoured, they act accordingly, whereas, when the cunning are, they lose all restraint and do evil. The virtuous avail themselves of such an opportunity for a noble aim and for their country, while the cunning use it for their personal profit and that of their family. Such an opportunity helps us to discriminate between the virtuous and the cunning. Observing how they react on such an incentive, we learn whom we may call depraved and whom virtuous.
Question:---Does it happen that the cunning like to defame others?
Reply:---The cunning do not defame others, those who do, are slanderers. For the cunning have no occasion to slander, because they merely seek profit. If some one is useful to them, why should they slander him, and if he is not, slandering would be of no avail. By their scheming they seek advantage, and by their plots to make profit, and this profit they acquire in a convenient manner.
In case they grudge others a share of it, they intrigue against them. When they intrigue against somebody, they do not defame him, and injuring some one, they do not treat him badly. On the contrary, they praise a man, while laying their traps for him, so that he does not become aware of them, and cajole him whom they are going to strike, so that he has no suspicions. In this manner the cunning plot, without incurring any hatred, and they injure, nay ruin a man, without fearing his vengeance. Hiding their feelings and concealing their intentions, they even give themselves the air of exerting themselves for others. If they slandered others, these would again slander them. Nobody would have any sympathy for them, and the scholars would not consort with them. How could they fill their place in the world then, and win the good graces of their lord?
Question:---If the cunning do not slander others in society, do they slander them to the governors?
Reply:---The cunning deceive the governors with men, but they do not slander others in their presence. 23
Question:---Then, how do the cunning proceed?
Reply:---When the cunning calumniate others, they praise them, and, when they plot against them, they lull them into security. Wherein consists their slandering and plotting?
E. g. let a man have great accomplishments and a wonderful knowledge, that his fame spreads far and wide. A governor afraid, lest the sovereign summon the man to hear his advice, and put more reliance in him than in himself, seeks a pretence to pass him over in silence. But those who constantly extol and belaud the man and introduce him to his notice, are many. The governor mentions that he desires to employ him and asks sombody's opinion about him. This one does not reply that X is a worthy and deserving to be called to office, for X would not like to be retained in a district, he formerly heard him say so. He declared that he hoped to go to a prefecture, and being in a circuit, he hoped to be transferred to a department. If his aims be lofty, he does not act like other people, and if his hopes be far-reaching, he does not care for what is near. 24 Being given a small office, his ambition is not satisfied, or he lies down sick, and a poor appointment would injure his virtue or hurt his dignity. Therefore the sovereign will prefer to choose ordinary officials, that he may not lose his name or derogate to his reputation, for, provided that he can bear the thought of deferring to the worthy, he may use him, but if he considers to be unable to do so, it is not advisable to employ him. In case he makes use of him, and both sides are not equally benefitted, or that he dismisses him, and both do not suffer, he fears his resentment. Consequently he trusts in the suggestions of his cunning adviser and dispenses with the services of the worthy.
Question:---Can the cunning, in order to acquire great talents and extensive knowledge, study the ancients alone, or must they learn from a teacher?
Reply:---Every one possesses himself the knowledge to deceive others, but approaching a ruler he must have special qualities to impress him, just as a person in an exalted position overawes his subjects by his boldness. When it comes to fighting he must be conversant with the military art. Those special abilities are uniting and disuniting, and Kuei Ku Tse may be the teacher.
There is a tradition that Su Ch`in and Chang Yi both studied uniting and disuniting. 25 The teacher Kuei Ku Tse26 dug a cavern into the earth and said, "He that shall speak down to me, so that I come out crying, will be able to divide the territories of rulers." Su Ch`in spoke down to him, and Kuei Ku Tse was so moved, that his tears fell and moistened his coat. Chang Yi did not equal Su Ch`in, who was chief minister of Chao and of the Six States at the same time. Chang Yi, poor and wretched, fell back upon Su Ch`in, who made him sit down at the lower end of the hall, and gave him the food of the servants and handmaids. Several times calling out for him, he roused his anger with the object of inducing him to become a minister of Ch`in. In high dudgeon Chang Yi betook himself westward to Ch`in. Su Ch`in sent some of his men to escort him with rich presents. Subsequently it dawned upon Chang Yi, and he exclaimed, "This was planned by him, but I did not understand it. In these things I cannot compete with him." 27
Such schemes proceeded from Su Ch`in's profound knowledge. Watching his opportunity, he did his hit at the right moment, hence the high honour in which he was held and his great renown, for he was considered the first hero of his time. In deep laid plans and brilliant devices the profound and the superficial cannot be equally successful, and the clear-headed cannot possess the same knowledge as the blunt-witted.
Question:---Is it possible that the cunning care for their good names and accomplish great things?
Reply:---The cunning live on profit and exclusively set store on power. They do not care for their good names nor accomplish great things. By affecting power and sticking to what is vulgar they win a great notoriety of themselves. They are admired by the base, but not esteemed by superior men, for profit and justice are antagonistic, and straightforwardness and crookedness are opposites. It is justice that moves the superior man, and profit the base one. The cunning strive for great profits and notoriety. The superior man not staying in low spheres exposes himself to dangers, 28 and the cunning of the whole world meet with so many calamities, that they cannot take care of their persons and still less of their good names.
Many records of former ages give examples of men who abandoned their families to take care of their own persons. Renouncing all gain, they only thought of their names. On bamboo and silks it has been written how Po Ch`êng Tse Kao29 left his country and tilled the ground, and how Wu Ling Tse30 gave up his position to water a garden. In recent times, Wang Chung Tse31 of Lan-ling32 and Hsi-Lu Chün Yang33 in Tung-tu,34 have resigned their dignities, and after a prolonged sickness did not respond to the call of their sovereign. They may be said to have been mindful of their repute.
Those who do not proceed on the path of righteousness, cannot advance on this road, and those who are never checked in their progress by the rules of justice, cannot win a reputation by their justice. The cunning, hankering after profit, make light of misfortunes, but think much of their own persons. They suddenly perish and are disgraced; how should they care for their name. Devoid of justice and destitute of virtue, subsequently, their proceedings must entail dishonour, and there can be no question of great accomplishments.
Question:---Is it easier to recognise great impostors or small impostors?
Reply:---It is easier to recognise great impostors, and more difficult to recognise the minor ones, for the great impostors have conspicuous abilities, and their whereabouts are easily traced. The small impostors are less shrewd, and their doings harder to detect, which will become clearer from the following consideration:---
After a robbery it is difficult to detect small robbers, whereas the big ones are easily found. When they have attacked a city, besieged a town, robbed and pillaged, the thing transpires as soon as it has been done, and all the wayfarers know the robbers. But when they pierce a wall and, stealthily sneaking into a compound, steal, nobody knows them.
Question:---Great impostors create disorder by their extreme wickedness. Now, if great robbers are easily known by people in general, wherefore does the ruler find it such an arduous task?
Reply:---The Shuking avers that it requires intelligence to know men, and that only for an emperor it is hard work. 35Shun was a great sage, and Huan Tou36 a great impostor. For the great sage it was difficult to know the great deceiver, for how could it be easy, since the great deceiver did not give the great sage any annoyance. Therefore a distinction is made between the knowledge of the people and of their lord. The sovereign finds it difficult to know great impostors, but easy to know small ones, whereas the people easily know great impostors, but have difficulties to find out small ones. Provided that the impostors be very clever and fine speakers, then they make such a use of their talents, that the prince with all his power cannot well call them to account for mere thoughts, and with all his intelligence he does not perceive anything. The talents of small impostors are of a lower order. When, amongst their countrymen, at times they are thrown of their guard, their real character leaks out. Then the sovereign is startled, when he gets wind of it. Thus great deceivers cause much more trouble than small ones.
When the roof of a house leaks, those who perceive it, are below. In case it leaks much, those below notice it quite clearly; if the leak is small, those below see it but indistinctly.
[Some one said, "Yung is benevolent, but not cunning." Confucius said," Why should he use cunning. They who encounter men with smartness of speech for the most part procure themselves hatred.] 37 By their ill-advised schemes they interfere with agriculture and commerce, they annoy the citizens to benefit the sovereign and irritate the people to please their lord. The advice of loyal officers is detrimental to the ruler, but advantageous to his subjects, the suggestions of the cunning are detrimental to the subjects and advantageous to the ruler. 38
[The head of the Chi family was richer than the duke of Chou, and yet Ch`iu collected his imposts for him and increased his wealth. The disciples might have beaten the drum and assailed him.] 39 Collecting for Chi, he did not know how wicked it was, and that all the people comdemned him. 40
1. Their original nature is essentially the same, but develops differently. Cf. Vol. I, p. 390.
2. Properly speaking these Nine Virtues are eighteen. According to the Shuking Part II, Book III, 3 (Legge, Classics Vol. III, Part I, p. 71) they are:--- "Affability combined with dignity; mildness combined with firmness; bluntness combined with respectfulness; aptness for government combined with reverence; docility combined with boldness; straightforwardness combined with gentleness; easiness combined with discrimination; vigour combined with sincerity; and valour combined with righteousness."
3. Ed. C. correctly writes , ed. A. and B. have .
6. All the three editions here write:---. I think that is superfluous and should be dropped.
7. All editions have , which should be , unless Wang Ch`ung wishes to designate those impostors who have sneaked among the virtuous, but that would be somewhat forced.
8. Too small to be punished.
9. Too great to be pardoned. The passage is quoted from the Shuking Part II, Book II, 12 (Legge, Classics Vol. III, Part I, p. 59).
10. A fundamental principle of all penal law, based on the difference of dolus and culpa.
11. See Vol. I, p. 304, Note 8.
12. Yen, Chao, Han, Wei, Ch`i, and Ch`u.
13. See Vol. I, p. 115, Note 2.
14. , the three kingdoms into which the State of Ch`in was divided by Hsiang Yü in b.c. 206, viz.Yung, Sai, and Ti. Since Wang Ch`ung here speaks of the 4th cent. b.c., the time of Su Ch`in and Chang Yi, when the Three Ch`in did not yet exist, and since by their creation Ch`in did not become more powerful, but broke up, I suppose that here is a misprint for San Chin, the Three Chin States:---Han, Wei, and Chao, into which the once powerful State of Chin split in b.c. 453, thus enabling Ch`in to come to the front.
15. Shi-chi chap. 69.
16. Shi-chi chap. 70.
17. The time of the contending States , beginning in b.c. 480.
18. See Vol. I, p. 130, Note 3.
19. Vid. Vol. I, p. 318.
20. Elsewhere Wang Ch`ung says that all these things are the outcome of fate alone.
21. Wang Ch`ung apparently sees in the two politicians Chang Yi and Su Ch`in cunning schemers, but not worthies or virtuous men. The Chinese still cling to the idea that moral laws hold good for politics also, and have not yet accepted the phantom of political morality, another name for the right of the strongest. They call a liar a liar, even though he has been a great statesman who did all his misdeeds for the welfare of his country. Thus most Europeans admire Ch`in Shih Huang Ti, but every Chinese detests him.
22. , probably the title of a lost chapter of the Lun-hêng.
23. Ed. A. and C.:--- . One suffices as in Ed. B.
24. So says the one who seeks to frustrate the promotion of X by raising all kinds of fictitious difficulties.
25. political intriguing, forming and breaking alliances.
26. An ascetic philosopher of the 4th cent. b.c.
27. Abridged from Shi-chi chap. 70, p. 2r.
28. Their exalted positions have many dangers, and they easily come to fall.
29. A vassal of Yao who resigned his fief, when Yü became emperor, and took to agriculture. Yü is reported to have visited and questioned him on his fields. See Chuang Tse V, 4v. (Giles, Chuang Tse p. 142). Cf. p. 33, Note 2.
30. An appellative of Ch`ên Chung Tse, a scholar of Ch`i, mentioned by Mencius. Cf. Vol. I, p. 427. Wu Ling Tse is reputed the author of a short philosophical treatise in 12 paragraphs, contained in the Tse-shu po-chia Vol. 51. According to Liu Hsiang he wrote a work in 12 chapters (Pei-wen-yün-fu chap. 25). From the last paragraph of the work still extant we learn that he abandoned his post as minister of Ch`u to water other people's garden. At all events he was a rather extravagant recluse.
31. Wang Chung Tse or Wang Liang, , famous for his learning and excellent character, lived in the time of Kuang Wu Ti, 25-57 a.d. He declined the high offices conferred upon him owing to sickness.
32. A place in Yen-chou-fu, Shantung.
33. . The Li-tai ming-hsien lieh-nü shih-hsing p`u calls the man:--- So-Lu and informs us that Chün Yang was his style, and that he was a native of Tung-chün, not of Tung-tu. The Shang-yu-lu again writes So-Lo. As his name both biographical dictionaries give Fang. So-Lu Fang was appointed governor of Lo-yang in a.d. 30. Twice he resigned owing to bad health. The second time in a.d. 55 he did not obey the summons of the emperor Kuang Wu Ti, who then sent a sedan-chair for him, and after the audience made him a grant of 2000 bushels of rice.
34. A territory in Honan.
35. Cf. p. 147, Note 3.
36. The minister of works under Yao, subsequently punished by Shun (Shuking Part II, Book I, 12, Legge, Classics Vol. III, Part I, p. 39).
37. Analects V, 4.
38. Only socialists would agree to this.
39. Analects XI, 16.
40. The disciple of Confucius, Ch`iu is pronounced to have been cunning owing to his having taken care of the interests of a nobleman instead of working for the people, a somewhat radical view, but collectors of taxes never have been popular. In the New Testament they are all decried as sinners.
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