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1. 子張問:「士何如斯可謂之達矣?」

2. 子曰:「何哉,爾所謂達者?」

3. 子張對曰:「在邦必聞,在家必聞。」

4. 子曰:「是聞也,非達也。

5. 夫達也者,質直而好義,察言而觀色,慮以下人。在邦必達,在家必達。

6. 夫聞也者,色取仁而行違,居之不疑。在邦必聞,在家必聞。」


1. Tsze-chang asked, 'What must the officer be, who may be said to be distinguished?'

2. The Master said, 'What is it you call being distinguished?'

3. Tsze-chang replied, 'It is to be heard of through the State, to be heard of throughout his clan.'

4. The Master said, 'That is notoriety, not distinction.

5. 'Now the man of distinction is solid and straightforward, and loves righteousness. He examines people's words, and looks at their countenances. He is anxious to humble himself to others. Such a man will be distinguished in the country; he will be distinguished in his clan.

6. 'As to the man of notoriety, he assumes the appearance of virtue, but his actions are opposed to it, and he rests in this character without any doubts about himself. Such a man will be heard of in the country; he will be heard of in the clan.'

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IATHPublished by The Institute for Advanced Technology in the Humanities, © Copyright 2003 by Anne Kinney and the University of Virginia