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輕 重 第 十 四
御 史 進 曰 ： 「 昔 太 公 封 於 營 丘 ， 辟 草 萊 而 居 焉 。 地 薄 人 少 ， 於 是 通 利 末 之 道 ， 極 女 工 之 巧 。 是 以 鄰 國 交 於 齊 ， 財 畜 貨 殖 ， 世 為 彊 國 。 管 仲 相 桓 公 ， 襲 先 君 之 業 ，行 輕 重 之 變 ， 南 服 彊 楚 而 霸 諸 侯 。
今 大 夫 君 修 太 公 、 桓、 管 之 術 ， 總 一 鹽 、 鐵 ， 通 山 川 之 利 而 萬 物 殖 。 是 以 縣 官 用 饒 足 ， 民 不 困 乏 ， 本 末 並 利 ， 上 下 俱 足 ， 此 籌 計 之 所 致 ， 非 獨 耕 桑 農 業 也 。 」
文 學 曰 ： 「 禮 義 者 ， 國 之 基 也 ， 而 權 利 者 ， 政 之 殘 也 。 孔 子 曰 ： 『 能 以 禮 讓 為 國 乎 ？ 何 有 。 』 伊 尹 、 太 公 以 百 里 興 其 君 ， 管 仲 專 於 桓 公 ， 以 千 乘 之 齊 ， 而 不 能 至 於 王 ， 其 所 務 非 也 。 故 功 名 隳 壞 而 道 不 濟 。 當 此 之 時， 諸 侯 莫 能 以 德 ， 而 爭 於 公 利 ， 故 以 權 相 傾 。
今 天 下 合 為 一 家 ， 利 末 惡 欲 行 ？ 淫 巧 惡 欲 施 ？ 大 夫 君 以 心 計 策 國 用 ， 構 諸 侯 ， 參 以 酒 榷 ， 咸 陽 、 孔 僅 增 以 鹽 、 鐵 ， 江 充、 楊 可 之 等 ， 各 以 鋒 銳 ， 言 利 末 之 事 析 秋 毫 ， 可 謂 無 間 矣 。 非 特 管 仲 設 九 府 ， 徼 山 海 也 。 然 而 國 家 衰 耗 ， 城 郭 空 虛 。 故 非 特 仁 義 無 以 化 民 ， 非 力 本 農 無 以 富 邦 也 。」
御 史 曰 ： 「 水 有 猵 獺 而 池 魚 勞 ， 國 有 強 禦 而 齊 民 消 。 故 茂 林 之 下 無 豐 草 ， 大 塊 之 間 無 美 苗 。 夫 理 國 之 道， 除 穢 鋤 豪 ， 然 後 百 姓 均 平 ， 各 安 其 宇 。 張 廷 尉 論 定 律 令 ， 明 法 以 繩 天 下 ， 誅 姦 猾 ， 絕 并 兼 之 徒 ， 而 強 不 凌 弱， 眾 不 暴 寡 。 大 夫 君 運 籌 策 ， 建 國 用 ， 籠 天 下 鹽 、 鐵 諸 利 ， 以 排 富 商 大 賈 ， 買 官 贖 罪 ， 損 有 餘 ， 補 不 足 ， 以 齊 黎 民 。 是 以 兵 革 東 西 征 伐 ， 賦 歛 不 增 而 用 足 。 夫 損 益 之事 ， 賢 者 所 睹 ， 非 眾 人 之 所 知 也 。 」
文 學 曰 ： 「 扁 鵲 撫 息 脈 而 知 疾 所 由 生 ， 陽 氣 盛 ，則 損 之 而 調 陰 ， 寒 氣 盛 ， 則 損 之 而 調 陽 ， 是 以 氣 脈 調 和， 而 邪 氣 無 所 留 矣 。 夫 拙 醫 不 知 脈 理 之 腠 ， 血 氣 之 分 ，妄 刺 而 無 益 於 疾 ， 傷 肌 膚 而 已 矣 。 今 欲 損 有 餘 ， 補 不 足， 富 者 愈 富 ， 貧 者 愈 貧 矣 。 嚴 法 任 刑 ， 欲 以 禁 暴 止 姦 ，而 姦 猶 不 止 ， 意 者 非 扁 鵲 之 用 鍼 石 ， 故 眾 人 未 得 其 職 也。 」
御 史 曰 ： 「 周 之 建 國 也 ， 蓋 千 八 百 諸 侯 。 其 後 ，彊 吞 弱 ， 大 兼 小 ， 并 為 六 國 。 六 國 連 兵 結 難 數 百 年 ， 內 拒 敵 國 ， 外 攘 四 夷 。 由 此 觀 之 ： 兵 甲 不 休 ， 戰 伐 不 乏 ，軍 旅 外 奉 ， 倉 庫 內 實 。
今 以 天 下 之 富 ， 海 內 之 財 ， 百 郡 之 貢 ， 非 特 齊 、 楚 之 畜 ， 趙 、 魏 之 庫 也 。 計 委 量 入 ， 雖 急 用 之 ， 宜 無 乏 絕 之 時 。 顧 大 農 等 以 術 體 躬 稼 ， 則 后 稷 之 烈 ， 軍 四 出 而 用 不 繼 ， 非 天 之 財 少 也 ？ 用 鍼 石 ， 調 陰 陽 ， 均 有 無 ， 補 不 足 ， 亦 非 也 ？
上 大 夫 君 與 治 粟 都 尉 管 領 大 農 事 ， 灸 刺 稽 滯 ， 開 利 百 脈 ， 是 以 萬 物 流 通 ， 而 縣 官 富 實 。 當 此 之 時 ， 四 方 征 暴 亂 ， 車 甲 之 費 ， 克 獲 之 賞， 以 億 萬 計 ， 皆 贍 大 司 農 。 此 皆 扁 鵲 之 力 ， 而 鹽 、 鐵 之福 也 。 」
文 學 曰 ： 「 邊 郡 山 居 谷 處 ， 陰 陽 不 和 ， 寒 凍 裂 地， 衝 風 飄 鹵 ， 沙 石 凝 積 ， 地 勢 無 所 宜 。 中 國 ， 天 地 之 中， 陰 陽 之 際 也 ， 日 月 經 其 南 ， 斗 極 出 其 北 ， 含 眾 和 之 氣， 產 育 庶 物 。 今 去 而 侵 邊 ， 多 斥 不 毛 寒 苦 之 地 ， 是 猶 棄 江 皋 河 濱 ， 而 田 於 嶺 板 菹 澤 也 。
轉 倉 廩 之 委 ， 飛 府 庫 之 財 ， 以 給 邊 民 。 中 國 困 於 繇 賦 ， 邊 民 苦 於 戍 禦 。 力 耕 不 便 種 糴 ， 無 桑 麻 之 利 ， 仰 中 國 絲 絮 而 後 衣 之 ， 皮 裘 蒙 毛， 曾 不 足 蓋 形 ， 夏 不 失 複 ， 冬 不 離 窟 ， 父 子 夫 婦 內 藏 於專 室 土 圜 之 中 。 中 外 空 虛 ， 扁 鵲 何 力 ？ 而 鹽 、 鐵 何 福 也？ 」
Chapter XIV. The Ratio of Production1
a. Then advanced one of the secretaries who said: Formerly, when T'ai Kung was enfeoffed at Ying Ch'iu, 2 he had to clear away the jungle before settling down. The land being poor and the population sparse, he developed the ways and means of benefiting secondary pursuits, and he encouraged to the limit the weaving industry, with such success that the neighboring states began trade with Ch'i; and Ch'i, accumulating capital and increasing the production of goods, became a stronger state with every succeeding generation. When Kuan Chung became Chancellor to Duke Huan, he followed the policy of Ch'i's former ruler, and so manipulated the ratio of production that he forced the submission of mighty Ch'u in the south, and won the protectorate over the feudal lords for his master. 3
b. His Excellency, the Minister, 4 has adopted at the present time the policies of T'ai Kung and Kuan Chung. He has put salt and iron under unified control, developed the profits from mountains and seas, so that the production of goods is on the increase. Thus the Government has ample and rich revenues, and people suffer no distress or need. Both the fundamental and the secondary industries are benefited, and all classes are well provided for. All this has been achieved by budgeting and accounting, not by concentrating on the rural occupations, the cultivation of mulberries and grain fields, alone.
c. The Literati: the rules of ceremonial and the social duties 5 are the foundation of a nation, but the lust for power and profit are the bane of administration. Is a prince able to rule his country with courtesy and deference, — then what difficulty will he have?6 said Confucius. While I Yin and T'ai Kung exalted high their ruler with a territory of but a hundred li, Kuan Chung, enjoying the full confidence 7 of Duke Huan, could not attain Imperial sway even with power of a thousand chariots, all because he engaged himself in wrongful enterprises. Hence his achievements and fame fell to the ground, and he never succeeded in making his policies prevail. At his time, none of the feudal lords could make use of virtue. They were competing with each other both in public and private matters, and sought thus to undermine one another by power.
d. But now that the united Empire forms one big family, why should you wish to make the profits from secondary pursuits prevail, and spread luxury and sophistication? His Excellency, the Lord Grand Secretary, 8 having calculated all the state revenue in his head, 9 has already incurred the denunciations of the feudal lords, on account of his liquor excise. Hsien-yang and K'ung Chin have now swelled [the revenues] with their salt and iron monopoly. In company with Chiang Ch'ung and Kêng Ku-chih, 10 always keen and sharp-witted in discussing matters of secondary profits, they have split hairs 11 so thoroughly that, it might be said indeed, they have not left a single outlet. They certainly did not limit themselves to establishing the Nine Bureaux, 12 and mustering the profits of mountains and seas, as Kuan Chung did. Yet the nation passes now through a period of depression, and the cities are deserted. There is no other way to educate the people outside of exalting benevolence and social duty; and no other means of enriching the realm apart from applying oneself to the development of agriculture, the fundamental industry.
e. The Secretary: The fish in the pond are agitated when otters appear in the water. 13 With powerful recalcitrants among the nation, the common people's livelihood declines. Thus, there cannot be luxuriant herbage beneath a flourishing forest. Nor can grain sprout prettily between great clumps of earth. The principle of governing a country consists in removing the noxious and hoeing out the unruly. Only then will the people enjoy equal treatment, and find satisfaction under their own roofs. Justice Chang 14 codified the laws and statutes; published them to give a common standard to the Empire; executed the evil and the crafty, and exterminated those fellows who organized combines. As a consequence, the strong could not take advantage of the weak, and the many could not ill-treat the few. His Excellency 15 has busied himself with statistical calculations to increase the state revenue. The resources of salt and iron are monopolized in order to put down the rich traders and big merchants. Offices are offered for sale and criminals may buy themselves off, thus taking from those who have, to aid the needy, 16 in the interest of equality among the Black-Haired People. Consequently, in spite of the fact that our armies made expeditions east and west, expenditures were well provided for without increasing the levies and taxes. Arithmetic17 is perceived only by the talented and not understood by the multitude.
f. The Literati: Pien Ch'iao 18 diagnosed the cause of a disease by merely feeling the pulse of the patient. Where the positive fluid was over-developed, he would lessen it to harmonize with the negative. 19 When the cold fluid was predominant, he would subdue it to harmonize the positive. Consequently the vital fluid and the pulse were harmonized and balanced, and evil influences were unable to remain. The inferior physician does not know the lines of artery and vein, or the difference between the blood and the vital fluid. He stabs in his needle blindly without any effect on the disease, and only injures the skin and flesh. Now [the Government] desires to subtract from the superabundant to add to the needy. And yet the rich grow richer, and the poor grow poorer. Severe laws and penalties are intended to curb the tyrannical and suppress malefactors. Yet the wicked still persist. Possibly these measures differ from the way Pien Ch'iao used his acupuncture and probing, and hence the multitude have not felt their salutary effect.
g. The Secretary: When Chou established the Empire, there were probably a thousand and eight hundred feudal barons. Later on, the strong swallowed the weak, and the large engulfed the small, with the result that there were formed Six States. 20 These Six States fought with one another, settling their scores. For several hundreds of years, they fought at home as enemy states, and beyond the frontiers stood off the surrounding barbarians. Thus it is seen that their armies never rested and fighting never diminished. Yet while the troops kept aloft their standards at the front, the storehouses and treasuries in the interior remained full.
h. Now, with the resources of the Empire, the wealth within the seas, and the tribute from the hundred commanderies, we possess not merely the food reserves of Ch'i and Ch'u, or the warehouses of Chao and Wei. 21 Calculating provisions and estimating income, there should be no needy moment even in times of urgency. Should the whole Ministry of Finance throw themselves body and soul into practicing farming personally in imitation of the illustrious example of Hou Chi, 22 the armies sent out in the four directions would still be without [a guarantee of] continuous supplies. This is not because Nature provides us only meager wealth. Nor is it merely a matter of employing "surgical instruments," equalizing surplus and want, or subsidizing the needy.
i. But when His Excellency, the Minister, in his capacity of Grain Intendant, 23 took over the administration of the Imperial treasurey, with his "needle pricks" and "cauterizing" he stimulated the stagnant flow of wealth, and opened up the pulsing sources of profit along the hundred arteries. As a result all commodities were circulated, and the Government got substantial revenue. At that time, expeditions were sent in four directions against the rebellious and disorderly. The expenses for chariots and armor, and the rewards for conquests and captives, were estimated by billions. 24 All, however, was supplied by the Treasury. This is certainly an effect like that of Pien Ch'iao and the boon of the salt and iron monopoly.
j. The Literati: The people in the frontier districts dwell among mountains and valleys, where yin and yang are not in accord 25 and freezing cold cracks the earth. The swirling winds raise storms of acrid dust. Sand and gravel heap up in dunes, and the land in its lay is fit for naught. On the other hand, the Middle Kingdom stands at the center of the Universe 26 at the merging point of yin and yang. The orbits of sun and moon pass to the south. The mansion of the Dipper and the Pole appear out of the north. 27 The land comprises a variety of harmoniously blending climates, and produces all manner of things. To abandon these as we are doing, and seek for conquests beyond the frontier in an attempt to expand more into the sterile land of bitter cold, is like forsaking the fertile valleys of the rivers and banks of the streams, to till on the uplands or in the reedy marshes.
k. The stores of the granaries are trundled out, and the riches of the treasuries scattered to the winds, that the needs of the frontinersmen may be met. The Middle Kingdom is in the throes of forced labor and levies, 28 while the frontiersmen are beset by garrison duties. While people toil at their cultivation, to obtain grain either by growing or buying is inconvenient. Without the benefit of mulberry trees and hemp growing, they are forced to look to the homeland for their stuffs for clothing. Coats of skins and haircloth are never enough to cover their persons. They cannot discard their doublets in the summer, 29 nor dare they leave their caves in the winter. Fathers and sons, husbands and wives live crowded in one room with mud walls. With both the central and the outlying districts depleted, what effect have your so-called Pien Ch'iao's methods had; from the salt and iron monopoly what boon?
1. 輕 重, the title of chaps. 80—86 of the Kuan-tzŭ. For the various renderings of this compound, see note 2, p. 12, supra. I take the meaning here to be "the right balance between production and distribution (consumption)". Cf. also p. 7, note 6.
2. 太 公 , 營 邱.
3. Similar attributions to Kuan Chung by virtue of his employment of ch'ing-chung are made by Ssŭ-ma Ch'ien in the Shih-chi, XXX and XXXII (cf. Chavannes, Mém. hist. III, 602, and IV, 49).
4. 今 大 夫 各 修 太 公 .... According to Chang, 各 is superfluous, as it is in a succeeding sentence. In two later passages 君 follows 大 夫. In each case, Chang construes 各 and 君 as errors for 名, name, and as representing in the original record of the debate the name of the Minister [Sang] Hung-yang, to whom the remarks of the Secretary and the Literati are directly addressed.
5. 禮, 義.
6. Soothill, Analects, IV, xiii.
7. 管 仲 專 於, omitted by Chang.
8. Cf. note 4, p. 85, supra.
9. 以 心 計. Cf. p. 1, note 3. This unusual faculty for "mental calculations" is mentioned in the Shih-chi, XXX (cf. Chavannes, Mém. hist., III, 568, and note 1). The Literati, perhaps, are ironical here.
10. 江 充 , 耕 谷 之. The latter person is unknown, and Kêng is not used as a surname. Chang suggests reading Yang K'o, a person mentioned in the Yen T'ieh Lun, ch. XXVIII, together with Chiang Ch'ung.
11. 秋 毫, "autumn hairs", a term also used in the Shih-chi (cf. Chavannes, Mém. hist., III, 568, note 2).
12. 九 府, the title of a treatise attributed to Kuan Chung, but now lost.
13. Huai-nan-tzŭ, ch. Ping-lüeh 兵 略 : 畜 池 魚 者 必 去 猵 獺. "He who raises fish in a pond, must be careful to drive away the otters".
14. 張 廷 尉 For the title, cf. note 7, p. 76, supra.
15. Cf. note 4, p. 85, supra.
16. These principles are developed in a celebrated memorial by Ch'ao Ts'o (cf. p. 50, note 1, supra), who advocated substantially the sale of offices as a means of reducing the wealth of the rich (cf. Duyvendak, The Book of Lord Shang, 55, 64—65). Such measures have been previously referred to on p. 65, supra.
17. 損 益, lit., loss and increase, "subtraction and addition", evidently a reference to the special talent of the Secretary's patron, "mental calculations", ironically referred to by the Literati, as above, p. 86.
18. 扁 鵲 (6th cent. B.C.). His biography appears in the Shih-chi, CV, concluding with the words: "Up to the present [Ssŭ-ma Ch'ien's time, circ. 100 B.C.] all discussions on the pulse have been based upon Pien Ch'iao" 至 今 天 下 言 脉 者 由 扁 鵲. Cf. Fr. Hübotter, Die chinesische Medizin zu Beginn des XX. Jahr-hunderts und ihr historischer Entwicklungsgang, 12 seq.
19. Pien Ch'iao appears in the Shih-chi, CV, as discussing the influence of yang 陽 (the "positive" principle) and yin 陰 (the "negative"). The uses of the "needle" 鍼 for acupuncture, and the "probing stone" 石, mentioned at the end of this paragraph, are also set forth by the surgeon in the same passage.
20. Cf. note 1, 43, supra
21. 齊, 楚, 趙, 魏.
22. 后 稷, traditional patron of agriculture. Cf. note 3, p. 75.
23. 上 大 夫 君 與 治 粟 都 尉. For 君, see note 4, p. 85, supra. Chang holds that 與 "with" should read 為 "in his capacity of", which I follow. Chavannes points out that the title 治 粟 都 尉 did not exist under the early Han and should read 搜 粟 都 尉 (Mém. hist., III, 597, note 1).
24. 以 億 萬 計, omitted in Chang's edition.
25. 陰 陽 不 和. For the place of yin and yang in the phenomena of day and night, cf. Maspero, La Chine Antique, 614.
26. 中 國 天 地 之 中, lit., at the centre of Heaven and Earth.
27. The astronomical observations of the Chinese appear first in the Yao Tien 堯 典, the opening chapter of the Shu-ching. The earliest notions of the Chinese and the subsequent influence of Iranian and Hindu astronomical systems, have been studied at length by L. de Saussure in the volume, published posthumously and comprising papers appearing over a number of years, Les Origines de l'Astronomie Chinoise (1930). Maspero summarizes Chinese ideas of the solar and lunar cycle in the ante-Han period in the T'oung Pao, No. 4 and 5, 1929, "L'Astronomie chinoise avant les Han"; and a chapter (II) on "L'Astronomie chinoise", is included in La Science orientale avant les by Abel Rey (Livre IV La Science Chinoise ).
28. 繇 賦 Chang's edition reads 役 for 賦.
29. 夏 不 失 複. Wang holds that this should be 暑 不 去 複 衣.
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