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未 通 第 十 五
御 史 曰 ： 「 內 郡 人 眾 ， 水 泉 薦 草 ， 不 能 相 贍 ， 地 勢 溫 濕 ， 不 宜 牛 馬 ； 民 蹠 耒 而 耕 ， 負 檐 而 行 ， 勞 罷 而 寡 功。 是 以 百 姓 貧 苦 ， 而 衣 食 不 足 ， 老 弱 負 輅 於 路 ， 而 列 卿大 夫 ， 或 乘 牛 車 。
孝 武 皇 帝 平 百 越 以 為 園 圃 ， 卻 羌 、 胡 以 為 苑 囿 ， 是 以 珍 怪 異 物 ， 充 於 後 宮 ， 騊 駼 駃 騠 ， 實 於外 廄 ， 匹 夫 莫 不 乘 堅 良 ， 而 民 間 厭 橘 柚 。 由 此 觀 之 ： 邊 郡 之 利 亦 饒 矣 ！ 而 曰 『 何 福 之 有 ？ 』 未 通 於 計 也 。 」
文 學 曰 ： 「 禹 平 水 土 ， 定 九 州 ， 四 方 各 以 土 地 所 生 貢 獻 ， 足 以 充 宮 室 ， 供 人 主 之 欲 ， 膏 壤 萬 里 ， 山 川 之 利 ， 足 以 富 百 姓 ， 不 待 蠻 、 貊 之 地 ， 遠 方 之 物 而 用 足 。
聞 往 者 未 伐 胡 、 越 之 時 ， 繇 賦 省 而 民 富 足 ， 溫 衣 飽 食 ，藏 新 食 陳 ， 布 帛 充 用 ， 牛 馬 成 群 。 農 夫 以 馬 耕 載 ， 而 民 莫 不 騎 乘 ； 當 此 之 時 ， 卻 走 馬 以 糞 。 其 後 ， 師 旅 數 發 ，戎 馬 不 足 ， 牸 牝 入 陣 ， 故 駒 犢 生 於 戰 地 。 六 畜 不 育 於 家， 五 穀 不 殖 於 野 ， 民 不 足 於 糟 糠 ， 何 橘 柚 之 所 厭 ？ 傳 曰： 『 大 軍 之 後 ， 累 世 不 復 。 』 方 今 郡 國 ， 田 野 有 隴 而 不 墾 ， 城 郭 有 宇 而 不 實 ， 邊 郡 何 饒 之 有 乎 ？ 」
御 史 曰 ： 「 古 者 ， 制 田 百 步 為 畝 ， 民 井 田 而 耕 ，什 而 藉 一 。 義 先 公 而 後 己 ， 民 臣 之 職 也 。 先 帝 哀 憐 百 姓 之 愁 苦 ， 衣 食 不 足 ， 制 田 二 百 四 十 步 而 一 畝 ， 率 三 十 而 稅 一 。 惰 民 不 務 田 作 ， 饑 寒 及 己 ， 固 其 理 也 。 其 不 耕 而 欲 播 ， 不 種 而 欲 獲 ， 鹽 、 鐵 又 何 過 乎 ？ 」
文 學 曰 ： 「 什 一 而 藉， 民 之 力 也 。 豐 耗 美 惡 ， 與民 共 之 。 民 勤 ， 己 不 獨 衍 ； 民 衍 ， 己 不 獨 勤 。 故 曰 ： 『什 一 者 ， 天 下 之 中 正 也 。 』 田 雖 三 十 ， 而 以 頃 畝 出 稅 ，樂 歲 粒 米 狼 戾 而 寡 取 之 ， 凶 年 饑 饉 而 必 求 足 。 加 之 以 口 賦 更 繇 之 役 ， 率 一 人 之 作 ， 中 分 其 功 。 農 夫 悉 其 所 得 ，或 假 貸 而 益 之 。 是 以 百 姓 疾 耕 力 作 ， 而 饑 寒 遂 及 己 也 。築 城 者 先 厚 其 基 而 後 求 其 高 ， 畜 民 者 先 厚 其 業 而 後 求 其 贍 。 論 語 曰 ： 『 百 姓 足 ， 君 孰 與 不 足 乎 ？ 』 」
文 學 曰 ： 「 什 一 而 藉， 民 之 力 也 。 豐 耗 美 惡 ， 與 民 共 之 。 民 勤 ， 己 不 獨 衍 ； 民 衍 ， 己 不 獨 勤 。 故 曰 ： 『什 一 者 ， 天 下 之 中 正 也 。 』 田 雖 三 十 ， 而 以 頃 畝 出 稅 ，樂 歲 粒 米 狼 戾 而 寡 取 之 ， 凶 年 饑 饉 而 必 求 足 。 加 之 以 口 賦 更 繇 之 役 ， 率 一 人 之 作 ， 中 分 其 功 。 農 夫 悉 其 所 得 ，或 假 貸 而 益 之 。 是 以 百 姓 疾 耕 力 作 ， 而 饑 寒 遂 及 己 也 。築 城 者 先 厚 其 基 而 後 求 其 高 ， 畜 民 者 先 厚 其 業 而 後 求 其贍 。 論 語 曰 ： 『 百 姓 足 ， 君 孰 與 不 足 乎 ？ 』 」
文 學 曰 ： 「 樹 木 數 徙 則 萎 ， 蟲 獸 徙 居 則 壞 。 故 『代 馬 依 北 風 ， 飛 鳥 翔 故 巢 』 ， 莫 不 哀 其 生 。 由 此 觀 之 ，民 非 利 避 上 公 之 事 而 樂 流 亡 也 。 往 者 ， 軍 陣 數 起 ， 用 度不 足 ， 以 訾 徵 賦 ， 常 取 給 見 民 ， 田 家 又 被 其 勞 ， 故 不 齊 出 於 南 畝 也 。 大 抵 逋 流 ， 皆 在 大 家 ， 吏 正 畏 憚 ， 不 敢 篤 責 ， 刻 急 細 民 ， 細 民 不 堪 ， 流 亡 遠 去 ； 中 家 為 之 絕 出 ，後 亡 者 為 先 亡 者 服 事 ； 錄 民 數 創 於 惡 吏 ， 故 相 倣 傚 ， 去 尤 甚 而 就 少 愈 者 多 。
傳 曰 ：「 政 寬 者 民 死 之 ， 政 急 者 父 子 離 。 」 是 以 田 地 日 荒 ， 城 郭 空 虛 。 夫 牧 民 之 道 ， 除 其 所 疾 ， 適 其 所 安 ， 安 而 不 擾， 使 而 不 勞 ， 是 以 百 姓 勸 業 而 樂 公 賦 。 若 此 ， 則 君 無 賑 於 民 ， 民 無 利 於 上 ， 上 下 交 議 而 頌 聲 作 。 故 取 而 民 不 厭， 役 而 民 不 苦 。 靈 臺 之 詩 ， 非 或 使 之 ， 民 自 為 之 。 若 斯， 則 君 何 不 足 之 有 乎 ？ 」
御 史 曰 ： 「 古 者 ， 十 五 入 大 學 ， 與 小 役 ； 二 十 冠 而 成 人 ， 與 戎 事； 五 十 以 上 ， 血 脈 溢 剛 ， 曰 艾 壯 。 詩 曰 ：『 方 叔 元 老 ， 克 壯 其 猶 。 』 故 商 師 若 烏 ， 周 師 若 荼 。 今 陛 下 哀 憐 百 姓 ， 寬 力 役 之 政 ， 二 十 三 始 賦 ， 五 十 六 而 免， 所 以 輔 耆 壯 而 息 老 艾 也 。 丁 者 治 其 田 里 ， 老 者 修 其 塘 園 ， 儉 力 趣 時 ， 無 饑 寒 之 患 。 不 治 其 家 而 訟 縣 官 ， 亦 悖 矣 。 」
文 學 曰 ： 「 十 九 年 已 下 為 殤 ， 未 成 人 也 ； 二 十 而 冠 ； 三 十 而 娶 ， 可 以 從 戎 事 ； 五 十 已 上 曰 艾 老 ， 杖 於 家， 不 從 力 役 ， 所 以 扶 不 足 而 息 高 年 也 ； 鄉 飲 酒 之 禮 ， 耆 老 異 饌 ， 所 以 優 耆 耄 而 明 養 老 也 。 故 老 者 非 肉 不 飽 ， 非 帛 不 暖 ， 非 杖 不 行 。 今 五 十 已 上 至 六 十 ， 與 子 孫 服 輓 輸， 並 給 繇 役 ， 非 養 老 之 意 也 。
古 有 大 喪 者 ， 君 三 年 不 呼 其 門 ， 通 其 孝 道 ， 遂 其 哀 戚 之 心 也 。 君 子 之 所 重 而 自 盡 者 ， 其 惟 親 之 喪 乎 ！ 今 或 僵 尸 ， 棄 衰 絰 而 從 戎 事 ， 非 所以 子 百 姓 ， 順 孝 悌 之 心 也 。 周 公 抱 成 王 聽 天 下 ， 恩 塞 海 內 ， 澤 被 四 表 ， 矧 惟 人 面 ， 含 仁 保 德 ， 靡 不 得 其 所 。 詩 云 ： 『 夙 夜 基 命 宥 密 。 』 陛 下 富 於 春 秋 ， 委 任 大 臣 ， 公 卿 輔 政 ， 政 教 未 均 ， 故 庶 人 議 也 。 」
御 史 默 不 荅 也 。
Chapter XV. Undeveloped Wealth
a. The Secretary: The provinces of the interior, — with a great population, where the water supply is not adjusted to fodder-growing requirements, with climate warm and damp, — are not suited to raising horses and cattre. When farming, people trudge wearily behind the plough; and when walking, they carry their loads on their backs or on poles. They wear out their strength and still obtain little results. Thus the common people have suffered great hardships, insufficiently provided even with clothing and food. Old men and children have been forced to carry burdens and pull carts on the highways, and even ministers and high officials often rode in ox-carts. 1
b. But since His Majesty the Emperor Hsiao-wu 2 conquered the Hundred Tribes of the South 3 and turned their lands into orchards, drove away the Western and Northern Barbarians, 4 and established national reservations, precious novelties and foreign articles fill the Inner Palace, 5 and fleet-footed palfreys and chargers pack the Outer Stables. Every common man can ride a fine mount, and the people feast to satiety upon oranges and pumaloes. This shows what affluence the profit derived from the frontier commandeering has brought. To ask, as you do, what are the blessings that we now enjoy, is to show complete lack of judgment.
c. The Literati: When Yü had settled water and land, and laid out the Nine Provinces, every part of the Empire sent in as tribute the produce of its soil 6 in quantities to fill up the palaces and supply the demands of the Ruler of Men. The wealth of the mountains and rivers, and the rich produce of ten thousand li of fertile land, were ample enough to enrich the people, there being no necessity to rely upon the lands of the Barbarian, and the products of distant countries, to provide for all immediate expenditure.
d. We have heard that in the not very distant past before the expeditions against the Barbarians of the North and South, labor conscriptions and levies were few, and the people were rich and satisfied. Well fed and warmly clad, they put away the new harvest and subsisted on last year's storage; linens and silks were plentiful, and horses and cattle were gathered in large herds. Farmers employed horses for ploughing or packing, and everyone among the people could ride in saddle or chariot. In fact they considered at the time the advisability of restricting the use of horses to the fields.7 But later on, because of innumerable military expeditions, there was such lack of battle-horses, that mares and cows were despatched to the front. Colts and calves were now born on battle-fields,8 while the six domestic animals were not raised at home; the five cereals were not cultivated on the countryside, and the people had not even enough husks and chaff to go around. How could they feast upon oranges and pumaloes? Following a great war, says the Chuan, recovery is slow to come even after several generations.9 In province and demesne at the present time we often see clearly demarcated but uncultivated fields; in city and burg are houses, but unoccupied. Where is the fat of the land of frontier commanderies of which you speak?
e. The Secretary: According to the ancient regulations, one hundred paces of field formed a mou, which the people farmed in accordance with the "well-tithe" system, one share in ten devoted to mutual support, 10 following the principle that the "public interest comes first, private interests second". Such was the fundamental duty of citizen and subject. The late Emperor, taking pity upon the hardships and the sufferings of the multitude and their insufficiency in food and clothing, promulgated new regulations whereby two hundred and forty paces of field constituted an acre, and the tax was levied at the rate of one thirtieth. 11 But idle 12 subjects refusing to work strenuously on their farms bring hunger and cold upon their own heads by their obstinacy: they want to sow without having ploughed, and to reap without having planted. Why lay the blame for this on the salt and iron monopoly?
f. The Literati: The tithe collected for the public benefit consisted only of the people's labor, and the Government shared with the people in the good or bad crops. It would not get more when the people had less, nor would it get less when the people had more. Hence it is said that the tithe was the most proper and just measure for the whole Empire. But now, though the farmers are taxed but one thirtieth, the rate is based upon acreage. Thus in good years when the grain lies about in abundance,13 the actual exaction would be [too] small, while in bad years with famine rampant, the full stipulated amount would be demanded. Add to this the poll tax and corvée duty, and the rate would become actually exactly one half of a man's labor. The farmers are forced not only to yield all of their produce, but are even often obliged to go into debt in order to fulfill the required amount. Thus are the people overtaken with hunger and cold, in spite of their strenuous farming and intense labor. As the wall-builder is first careful to lay a broad foundation before he begins to build to a height, so must the shepherd of the people first stabilize the people's occupation before demanding adequate returns. The Lun Yü says: If the people enjoy plenty, with whom will the Prince share want?14
g. The Secretary: In olden days when the feudal lords were struggling for power, and the Warring States came into existence amidst unceasing strife, people were often prevented from working in the fields, yet rendering the tithe did not interfere with their work. But at present by virtue of Your Majesty's sacred powers, there has been no mobilization of troops for a long time. Yet people do not all go to work in the southern fields, and in spite of the subdivision of land in proportion to the population, they still suffer from deficiency. The grain stores are emptied for the relief of the poor and needy more and more every day, idleness being thus increased with more people looking to the government expecting support. It is certainly a matter of exasperation for the Prince, for, while he exerts himself in the service of the people, they still, ungrateful and with no regard to a sense of duty, migrate and flee to distant regions and evade their public duties. The contagion spreads from one to the other; daily the acreage under cultivation decreases; taxes are not paid; attempts are made to resist government agents! Even if the Prince would like to enjoy plenty, with whom is he going to share it?
h. The Literati: Frequent transplanting kills a tree; frequent change of habitat weakens animal or reptile. Thus the horses of Tai 15 long for the wind of the North, and the flying bird wings its way to its old nest; they all pine for the place of their birth. It is thus plain that the people evade their public duties not because they seek profit; nor can it be said that they find especial delight in migrating. Some time ago, when frequent military expeditions brought about financial distress, constant levies 16 were exacted and the burden fell again on the people's farms and homes. These burdens being again increased, they would not go to work in the southern fields. Most of the evasions, however, were committed by the great families, whom the hesitating and pusillanimous officials did not dare to press, and the responsibility was shifted to the common people. The latter unable to bear their extortions, fled or migrated to distant regions. The middle class families were then forced to pay, and the stay-behinds were obliged to fulfill the duties of the lucky fugitives. This is why the people, constantly plundered by the wicked officials, follow one another's example, and in great numbers flee from the places of the hardest pressure to regions where the situation is slightly better.
i. The Chuan says: For a liberal administration the people are ready to die; fathers leave sons, and sons fathers, under an oppressive government.17 This is the explanation for the daily decrease of the acreage under cultivation, and for the cities becoming gradually deserted. For the principle that a shepherd of the people should follow lies in removing their ills, and leading them to contentment, pacifying them without disturbing them, and employing them without overburdening them. Then the people would diligently apply themselves to their work, and gladly contribute their share of public taxes. Under such conditions, the ruler would need no assistance from the people, and the people would look for no doles from the ruler; rulers and subjects would freely intercommune, and songs of praise would rise. Thus [the Government] would be able to take from the people without provoking their disgust, and enlist their labor without their murmuring. In the poem of the "Spirit Tower," 18 it is shown how the people would address themselves to work without ever being obliged to do so. In such a case, how would the Prince suffer any deficiency?
j. The Secretary: In ancient times a lad fifteen years of age entered the higher school, and had to take part in minor corvées; at twenty he received his cap of maturity, and was liable to military service; when he was over fifty, still in his prime and sound in health, he would be called an ai chuang19 . The Book of Poetry says: Fang Shuh is of great age, but full of vigor were his plans.20 Therefore the army of Shang was as numerous as marsh-flowers and that of Chou like crows. Now Your Majesty shows his commiseration for the people by liberal regulations in the matter of corvées. One becomes subject to taxation at the age of twenty-three; at fifty-six one is exempted; the purpose is to aid the elders and to give rest to the aged. Those in their prime are given the chance to cultivate their lands and fields, and the aged to work on their plots and gardens. If they economized their strength and worked according to season, they would have no worry as to hunger and cold. But they do not regulate their families and yet complain against the magistrates. This is indeed absurd.
k. The Literati: Those under the age of nineteen should be called shang;21 they are not yet full grown men. They are capped at the age of twenty, marry at thirty and become subject to military service. After fifty, they should be called ai-chuang; they stay at home, leaning on their canes, and they are not subject to corvées; the purpose of these regulations should be to assist the needy and give rest to the advanced in age. At the Village Feast the rule is that the older folk have a separate meal—a special privilege instituted to comfort old men from sixty to ninety years of age, and to indicate clearly how elders should be treated. Thus the elders are not supposed to be satisfied without meat, to be made warm without silk, 22 or to walk without the support of canes. No such principle of nourishing the elders is in force now when men from fifty to sixty are still made to serve in the transportation service, together with their sons and grandsons, and are equally subject to corvées and labor conscriptions.
l. In ancient times, in the event of a major mourning, for a period of three years, [the Prince's call] did not resound at one's door. The idea was to facilitate the execution of the duties of filial piety and leave one free to vent a sorrowing heart. Is not mourning for a parent the unique occasion when a true gentleman wishes to concentrate for the fullest self-expression? But now people are obliged to leave their parents' corpses unattended and to forego the mourning dress to join military service. This is not the proper way of loving the people like children or conforming to their filial and brotherly affections. 23 When the Duke of Chou held the baby Ch'êng Wang in his arms in attendance on the affairs of the Empire, his favors filled the Four Seas, and his bounties extended to the Four Directions. How much the more should one who reigns in his own right follow this example? All mankind cherished his benevolence and virtue, and everyone was properly occupied. The Book of Poetry says: Night and day he enlarged its foundations by his deep and silent virtue.24 Your Majesty is still youthful in age 25 and is forced to rely upon Your chief subjects and great ministers in carrying out Your administration. It is because of the fact that administration and education are not well balanced, that the common people find it necessary to criticize.
The Secretary remained silent, making no reply.
1. The opening paragraphs of the Shih-chi, XXX, employ similar expressions in describing conditions at the beginning of the Han era. (Cf. Chavannes, Mém. hist., III, 539; and Giles, Hist. of Chinese Literature, 103).
2. 孝 武 皇 帝, Han Wu Ti.
3. 平 百 越.
4. 卻 羌 胡.
5. Cf. ch. II, pp. 14—15, supra.
6. The Shu-ching, II, i, "Tribute of Yü", describes the various products of the Nine Provinces, offered as tribute.
7. 卻 走 馬 以 糞 . Cf. Tao-tê-ching, ch. XLVI: 天 下 有 道 卻 走 馬 以 糞 "When the Tâo prevails in the world, they send back their swift horses to (draw) the dung carts" [Legge, Sacred Books, vol. XXXIX, pt. i, 88]. Cf. also Ilan-fei-tzŭ, Part VII, ch. xxi, opening paragraph.
8. 駒 犢 生 於 戰 地. Cf. Tao-tê-ching, loc. cit., 天 下 有 道 戌 馬 生 於 郊 "When the Tâo is disregarded in the world, the war-horses breed in the border lands" [Legge, loc. cit.], as also in Han-fei-tzŭ, loc. cit.
9. The quotation has not been identified.
10. For "well-tithe" 井 田, cf. p. 16, note 2, supra; and for the statements in this passage, cf. Mencius III, i, iii, 6—9, where occur the terms mou 畝, the Chinese "acre" of varying size, and chi 藉, translated by Legge as "mutual dependance".
11. The Ch'ien-han-shu (ch. XXIV, Shih-huo-chih 食 貨 志) states that at the beginning of the Han era the tax on land was 1/15, and under Ching-ti (156—141 B.C.), evidently the "late Emperor" of the YTL., was reduced to 1/30. The term used for the land tax is 田 租, which has generally been taken as a levy on the produce of the land (in proportion to its annual productivity). Cf. Forke, Das Chinesische Finanz- und Steuerwesen, in Mitteil. des Sem. für Oriental. Sprachen (1900), 168. The YTL. makes clear in the succeeding paragraph, "But now . . . . the rate is based on acreage", that the levy was fixed on acreage, not produce, in the Early Han period.
12. The text has 墮 Chang reads 惰, followed in the translation.
13. The text reads 梁 糲, while Chang reads 狼 戾, as in Mencius III, i, iii, 7.
14. Soothill, Analects, XII, ix.
15. 代 馬, from beyond the northern frontier (cf. p. 70, supra), where the horses used in China are bred.
16. 徵 賦 are taken as "universal mobilization", "conscription", both financial and bodily.
17. The citation has not been identified.
18. Shih-ching III, i, viii; also Mencius I, i, ii, 3.
19. 艾 壯, lit., "old and sedate". For this passage, cf. the Li-chi, ch. I (Legge, Sacred Books, vol. XXVII, pp. 65—66).
20. Shih-ching II, iii, iv, 3 [Legge, Chi. Classics, vol. IV, pt. ii, 287].
21. As indicated by the radical, 殤 originally meant "untimely death [before 19]"; it then became a synonym for "a youth under 19". Cf. K'ang Hsi Tzŭ-tien.
22. Cf. Legge, Sacred Books, [Li-chi], vol. XXVII, p. 241; also Wên Ti's edict in the first year of his reign, Ch'ien-han-shu, ch. IV.
23. The passage "But now people..... brotherly affections", is omitted in the Chang text.
24. The Shih-ching IV, ii, 1, vi [Legge's rendering].
25. Cf. supra, p. 5, note 5; and p. 36, note 9.
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