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A. Historical

Abbreviations used:

BD . . . Chinese Biographical Dictionary, Chung Kuo Jên Ming Ta Tz'ŭ Tien中 國 人 名 大 辭 典, Shanghai, Commercial Press, 1921. References to page number.

G . . . . Giles, H. A., Chinese Biographical Dictionary, London, 1898. References to the numbers.

SC . . . Shih-chi of Ssŭ-ma Ch'ien.

References in italics are to the text (chüan and folio) of the Yen T'ieh Lun, edited by Wang Hsien-ch'ien 王 先 謙, and published in 1891 by the Ssŭ Hsien Chiang Shê 思 賢 講 舍.

Ai Kung 哀 公. II, 5a. 52. Posthumous title of Chiang 蔣, son of Ting Kung 定 公, and duke of Lu, 494—466 B.C. He attempted to assert his authority against the tutelage of the "Three Huan Clans" 三 桓 q.v., but was driven out of the country by them, to spend some time in exile. Gonfucius' request to chastise T'ien Ch'ang of Ch'i for the murder of his prince, he was forced to deny. BD 1578; Tso-chuan, Legge, Bk. XII.

Chai Chung 祭 仲. II, 2a, 11a. 43 (note 2); 70 (note 5). Energetic minister of Chêng 鄭 in the early Ch'un Ch'iu period. Assisted duke Chuang 莊 (743—701 B.C.) in the latter's aggressive policy toward the Chou Emperor. Died 697. Tso-chuan, Yin Kung I, Huan Kung XI (cf. Kung-yang Chuan), Huan Kung XV; BD App. 16.

Chang Ch'ien 張 騫. IV, 2a. 103 (note 2). Celebrated general and explorer of Central Asia, where he was sent by Wu Ti on a mission to the Yüeh-chih; his findings greatly facilitated the Chinese conquest of the Tarim basin. SC CXI; Ch'ien-han-shu LXI; G 29; BD 978.

Chang Ch'u 張 楚. IV, 8a. 122. "Greater Ch'u", the name that Ch'ên Shêng gave to his `provisional' kingdom. Cf. SC XLVIII; Ch'ien-han-shu XXXI.

Chang I 張 儀. IV, 7a. 120 (note 4); 121 (note 2). Clever politician and adventurer of the Chan Kuo period. Advocated a concert of powers under the leadership of Ch'in. Minister of Ch'in from 328 to 312. Died as an exile in Wei. SC LXX, Chan-kuo-ts'ê, pass. G 70; BD 967.

Chang t'ing-wei 張 廷 尉. III, 3a. 87 (note 4). "Justice Chang", Chang T'ang 張 湯, famous jurist under Wu Ti. SC CXXII; Ch'ien-han-shu LIX; BD 956.

Ch'ang Chü 長 沮. I, 6a. 16. Recluse of Yeh 葉 in Ch'u. Associated with Chieh Ni. Apart from being the heroes of the anecdote related in Lun-yü, XVIII, vi, and Shih-chi XLVII, nothing is known of them. BD 138; G 614.

Chao Hsüan-mêng 趙 宣 孟. IV, 5a. 111. Chao Tun 趙 盾, great officer of Chin under dukes Hsiang 襄 and Ling 靈 (627—621, 620—607 B.C.); known for his stern sense of justice. SC XLIII; BD 1405; G 189.

Chao Kao 趙 高. I, 13b; II, 2a; 13b; IV, 8b. 39; 43; 80; 124. Eunuch minister of Ch'in Shih-huang-ti who contrived the death of Fu Su, the heir to the throne, and for three years ruled the Empire tyrannically in the name of Erh-shih. Put to death in 207. SC VI; G 165; BD App. 21.

Chao Kung 昭 公. II, 13a. 48; 79 (note 4). Ch'ou 裯, duke of Lu, 541—510 B.C. Worsted in his struggle against the three powerful clans of Lu, the duke fled to Ch'i where he was followed by Confucius. Died in exile. Tso-chuan, Legge, Bk. X; SC XXXIV; BD 1577.

Chao Wan 趙 綰. IV, 9a. 125. Yü-shih ta-fu at the time of Wu Ti's accession. Advocated the establishment of a ming t'ang 明 堂. Opposed by the Empress Tou, he was forced to commit suicide. Ch'ien-han-shu VI, 2nd year of Wu Ti; BD 1417.

Ch'ao Ts'o 晁 錯. II, 4b, 5a. 50 (note 1); 51; 52; 53. Minister of Ching Ti, noted for his advocacy of the strengthening of the central power and the curtailment of the rights of the feudal princes. Author of memorials to the throne on political and economic questions. SC CI; Ch'ien-han-shu XLIX; BD 1744; G 204. Cf. also Margouliès, G., Le Kou wen chinois, 68—74, 277—79.

Ch'ên Shê. IV, 8b. 123. See Ch'ên Shêng.

Ch'ên Shêng 陳 勝. IV, 8a. 122 (note 3). Tzŭ Shê 涉. A Ch'in constable who rose against Erh-shih's tyranny. He assembled a sufficient number of malcontents to maintain himself for some time in the old Ch'u provinces, but was defeated and slain before he could consolidate his power. SC XLVIII; Ch'ien-han-shu XXXI; BD 1088; G 242.

Ch'ên Wang 陳 王. IV, 8b, 124. "King of Ch'ên", Ch'ên Shêng.

Ch'ên Wên Tzŭ 陳 文 子 . II, 5a. 52. Ch'en Hsü-wu 須 無, officer in the service of duke Chuang 莊 of Ch'i (553—548 B.C.). After the murder of his prince he left the country in disgust but did not find better conditions abroad. BD 1092.

Ch'êng Wang 成 王. II, 10b; III, 7a. 70; 98. Sung 誦, Wu Wang's son and second Emperor of the Chou dynasty. Traditional dates 1115—1079 B.C. The duke of Chou was regent during his minority. SC IV; Chu Shu Chi Nien; BD 529.

Ch'êng T'ang 成 湯. IV, 9a. 124. T'ang "the Completer", founder of the Shang dynasty. Often called T'ang, simply. Traditional dates 1766—1754 B.C.; according to the Chu Shu Chi Nien, his reign began in 1558. Together with Wên and Wu, founders of the Chou house, he is venerated as a "model first Emperor". Shu-ching; SC III; Chu Shu Chi Nien; G 282; BD 896.

Chi 稷. II, 6b. 57. See Hou Chi.

Chi, Mêng 季 孟. IV, 7b. 121. Two of the most powerful clans in Lu during Confucius' lifetime.

Chi Shih 季 氏. II, 11b. 72. The Chi clan, descendants of Chi Yu 友, son of duke Huan 桓 (711—694), and younger brother of duke Chuang of Lu 莊 (693—662). One of the "Three Huan Clans". Members of this family dominated the politics of Lu for several generations. SC XXXIII.

Chi Shih 紀 氏. I, 5a. 14 (note 3). Apparently the correct reading for Fan Shih 范 氏. The prince of the little state of Chi, destroyed by Ch'i, is undoubtedly meant. Cf. Kuan Tzŭ 輕 重, 乙.

Chi-sun 季 孫. II, 3b; IV, 5ab. 46; 110 (note 5); 113. Same as Chi Shih. In II, 3b (46) Chi-sun Ssŭ 斯 (Chi Huan Tzŭ 桓 子) is meant. BD 557; G 291.

Chi Wên Tzŭ 季 文 子. I, 8a, note. 22 (note 2). Posthumous title of Chi-sun Hsing-fu 行 父. Served as Chancellor under dukes Hsüan, Ch'êng and Hsiang 宣 , 成 , 襄 (608-591-573-542). Famous for his frugality. BD 557.

Chi Tzŭ 箕 子. II, 3a, 4a. 45; 48. Viscount of Chi, Hsü-yü 胥 餘, imprisoned by Chou Hsin for repeated remonstrances. Fled to Korea after Wu Wang's triumph. Chu Shu Chi Nien; BD 1367; G 300.

Ch'i Hsüan Wang 齊 宣 王. II, 9b, 10a. 66; 67. Title of Pi-chiang 辟 疆, king of Ch'i, 342—324 B.C. Victor over Wei. Patron of scholars. SC XLVII; BD 1425. Cf. also Mencius I, pass.

Ch'i Ching Kung 齊 景 公. IV, 3a. 104. Ch'u-chiu 杵 臼, duke of Ch'i, 547—489 B.C. Contemporary of Confucius, for some time his patron. SC XXXII; BD 1427.

Chiang Ch'ung 江 充. III, 2b. 86. A native of Han-tan. Served first in the fief of Chao, whence he fled to the court of Wu Ti. Hating the Crown Prince Chü 據, he made use of Wu Ti's superstitious credulity to accuse the prince of evil magic against the person of the Emperor. Killed by the incensed prince. Ch'ienhan-shu, XLV; BD 272.

Ch'iao 蹻. I, 6a. 16 (note 5). Chuang Ch'iao 莊 蹻, descendant of king Chuang of Ch'u; maintained an independent state in Shu, living by piracy. Thus his name is linked with Robber Chih. BD 1925.

Chieh 桀. I, 5b; II, 4a. 15; 47. Last Emperor of Hsia (1818—1766 Standard Chronology. His reign ended in 1558 [Bamboo Annals]). SC II; Chu Shu Chi Nien; G 354; BD 746.

Chieh Ni 桀 溺. I, 6a. 16. Famous recluse. His conversation with Tzŭ Lu on the subject of retiring from the world is recorded in Lun-yü, XVIII, vi. See Ch'ang Chü. G. 356; BD 807.

Chieh Tzŭ 捷 子. II, 10a. 68. Also 接 子 (so the SC LXXIV). Scholar of Ch'i. Classified as Taoist in the Bibliography of the Ch'ien-han-shu. SC LXXIV; BD 982.

Chien [King] 建 王. II, 10ab. 67 (note 3); 68. Cf. Wang Chien.

Chien Hsüan 減 宣. II, 9b. 65. Stern and exacting official. Served in the judiciary and the secretariat. Pursued criminals even into the Imperial Park. SC CXXII; Ch'ien-han-shu XC; BD 1168.

Chih 蹠 or 跖. I, 6a. 16 (note 5). "Robber Chih" 盜 跖, famous bandit whom Chuang Tzŭ described as professing Taoist ideas, and as administering a good lesson to Confucius. Chuang-tzŭ, XXIX. G 1887.

Chih Po 智 伯. IV, 5a, 5b. 111; 113; 114. Count of Chih, Hsün Yao 荀 瑶. Vassal of Chin at beginning of Chan Kuo period. Talented, but brutal and arrogant, he carried on incessant wars against rival barons. While besieging his powerful antagonist Chao Hsiang Tzŭ in Chin-yang, Chao alienated his allies, and the new triumvirate of Chao, Wei, and Han annihilated him, 453 B.C. Chan-kuo-ts'ê; BD 598.

Chin Hsien 晉 獻. IV, 5b. 113; 114. Duke Hsien of Chin, 676—652 B.C. Extended the territory of Chin. Married the Barbarian princess Li Chi, which brought about troubles of succession, and the exile of his famous son, Ch'ung-êrh. SC XXXIX; Tso-chuan; BD 806.

Chin Wên Kung 晉 文 公. II, 11a; IV, 5a. 71; 111. Ch'ung-êrh 重 耳, duke of Chin, 636—628. One of the five "Lords-Protector". Romantic figure of the Ch'un Ch'iu period. Driven into exile by his father, he wandered for years through the states awaiting the opportune time to regain his heritage. Tso-chuan; BD 804; G 523.

Ching Ti 景 蒂. IV, 9a. 126. Title of Liu Ch'i 啟, Emperor of Han, 156—140 B.C. SC XI; Ch'ien-han-shu V; BD 1359; G 1284.

Ch'ing Hsiang 頃 襄. II, 3b. 46. Hêng 橫, king of Ch'u, 298—263. Tried to come to an agreement with Ch'in. Attempted to organize a league against it. Patron of Ch'ü Yüan. BD 1288.

Chou 周. I, 9a b; II, 2a, 7a, 12a; III 3b, 6b; IV, 2a, 4b, 6a. 26; 27; 28; 43; 58; 70; 71; 75; 88; 97; 109. The Chou dynasty, 1122 or 1050—249 B.C. The house of Chou. Often in reference to the first virtuous sovereigns, the "Golden Age".

Chou 紂. I, 6a; II, 4a. 17; 38; 47. Also known as Chou Hsin 辛, last Emperor of the Shang dynasty (1154—1122, Standard Chronology; 1102—1050, Bamboo Annals). SC III; Chu Shu Chi Nien; G 414; BD 896.

Chou Hsüan Wang 周 宣 王. IV, 2a. 101. Emperor of Chou, 828—782. Victorious over the Barbarians. Restored for a time the ancient glory of the house. His reign is the "Renaissance" 中 興 of the Chou dynasty. SC IV; Chu Shu Chi Nien; BD 532.

Chou 周 [ 公 ]. II, 2a, 6b, 7a, 7b, 8a b, 10b, 11a; III, 7a; IV, 8b. 43; 57; 58; 59; 62; 63; 98. The "Duke of Chou". The Chou par excellence, he in whom Chou "virtue" resided, Chi Tan 姬 旦, fourth son of Wên Wang, greatest of traditional Confucian heroes. Due to his efforts, the house of Chou became firmly established. Founder of the ducal house of Lu. SC XXXIII; BD 524; G 418.

Chu-fu Yen 主 父 偃. IV, 9ab. 125, 126. Native of Lin-tsê. In youth he studied the writings of the "diplomat" school, then philosophy and the Ch'un Ch'iu. Appointed lang-chung, he rapidly rose in rank. He was greatly feared at the Court for his eloquence. Executed for having reported the indiscretions of the prince of Ch'i. SC CXII; Ch'ien-han-shu LXIVa; BD 167.

Ch'u 楚. II, 5a. 52. Ch'u Wang, Liu Chiao 交, Prince of Ch'u, who followed Liu P'i in his rebellion. Ch'ien-han-shu XXXVI; BD 1439.

Ch'u Tai 褚 泰. II. 9a. 64. Also Ch'u Ta 大. Studied the Kung-yang Commentary. Rose to the office of Chancellor of Liang. BD 1543; SC CXXI; Ch'ien-han-shu LXXXVIII.

Ch'ü Yüan 屈 原. II, 3b. 46. Ch'ü P'ing 平, minister of Ch'u. The great poet of ancient China. Victim of calumny. SC LXXXIV; BD 563; G 503; Margouliès, Le Kou wen, 83—89 (Bibliography); Lim Boon Keng, The Li Sao, Shanghai 1929.

Chung-ni 仲 尼. II, 9b. 66. See K'ung Tzŭ (Confucius).

Chung Yu 仲 由. II, 11b; IV, 8a. 72; 123. Disciple of Confucius. Tzŭ Tzŭ Lu 子 路 or Chi Lu 季 路. Rash and impetuous, he possessed, however, many excellent qualities and was greatly beloved by the Master. Served as a magistrate in Lu. Died in battle. SC LXVII; G 522; BD 221.

Ch'ung Hu 崇 虎. II, 2a. 43. Hu, marquis of Ch'ung, towards the end of the Shang dynasty. Persuaded Chou Hsin to imprison Wên Wang. Later Wên Wang destroyed him and his state. BD App. 14.

Chü Ping 朐 邴. I, 10b, 11a, 12a. 30 (note 3); 32; 33. Cf. p. 30, note 3.

Erh-shih 二 世. II, 1b, 13a. 42; 79. Title of Hu Hai 胡 亥, second Emperor of the Ch'in dynasty. Placed upon the throne through the machinations of Chao Kao, he remained a puppet in the latter's hands throughout his reign. SC VI; BD 9; G 816.

Fan Shih 范 氏. I, 5a. 14 (note 3). Apparently a mistake for Chi Shih, q.v. Chang Chih-hsiang takes it to refer to the Fan clan of Chin, but this is improbable, in view of the context which requires an antithesis to Ch'i's rise due to Kuan Chung's efforts.

Fang Shu 方 叔. III, 6b. 97 (note 1). Minister of Chou Hsüan Wang 周 宣 王. Leader against the Barbarians. BD 60; Chu Shu Chi Nien; Shih Ching, loc. cit.

Fu Ch'ai 夫 差. II, 4a. 48. King of Wu, 495—473 B.C. Son of Ho Lu. Victor over Wu's hereditary enemy Yüeh, he was overgenerous with his rival Kou Chien, and in 473 saw his kingdom fall prey to the rejuvenated Yüeh. SC XXXI; BD 40; G. 576.

Han 韓. IV, 4b. 110. One of the three powerful clans of the state of Chin, which in 403 founded the state of Han. The reference to its wealth (cf. Mencius, VII, i, 11) may suggest that even in those early times the manufacturing and commercial center of the Empire was in the old Chin region, as it was later under the Han. SC XLV.

Han Ch'ing 韓 慶. IV, 5a. 111. Scholar whom duke Wên of Chin particularly honored by alighting from his chariot and hastening to meet him. Otherwise unknown.

Hêng Hai 橫 海. IV, 2a. 102. Hêng-hai chiang-chün, "the Sea-crossing General", i.e. Han Shuo 韓 說, who under Wu Ti distinguished himself first against the Hsiung Nu, and then led the Chinese invasion of Tung Yüeh 東 越 from the sea. SC CXI; BD 1706.

Hêng Shan 衡 山. II, 4b. 51. Liu Tz'ŭ 賜, Prince of —. Brother and fellow-conspirator of Liu An. SC CXVIII; Ch'ien-han-shu XLIV.

Ho Lu [Lü] 闔 盧 or 閭. II, 4a, 11a. 48; 72. King of Wu, 514—496. Patron of Wu Yüan and of Sun Tzŭ 孫 子. SC XXXI; BD 1726; G 654.

Hou Chi 后 稷. III, 3b. 89 (note 2). Culture hero. God of Agriculture. Enhemeriz d as Yao's minister. Ancestor of the Chou house. Chu Shu Chi Nien, Shu-ching; G 664; BD 236.

Hou Shêng 后 勝. II, 10b. 68 (note 13). Minister of king Chien of Ch'i, bribed by Ch'in to persuade his master to abandon his allies in the struggle against Ch'in. SC XLVI.

Hsia 夏. I, 9a. 26; 27; 28. The Hsia dynasty (2205—1766, [Standard chronology]; ended 1558, [Bamboo Books]). Chu Shu Chi Nien; SC II.

Hsia hou 夏 后. I, 9b. 27. The emperors of the Hsia dynasty. Hou, an ancient term for Emperor; is used often in reference to the Hsia.

Hsiang Tzŭ 襄 子. IV, 5b. 113; 114. Chao Wu-hsü 無 恤, or 毋 卹, vassal of Chin, and rival of Chih Po. SC XCIII; Chankuo-ts'ê; BD 1413.

Hsiao Kung 孝 公. II, 2b, 4b, 10b. 42; 46; 49; 69. Ch'ü-liang 渠 梁, duke of Ch'in, 361—338. Inaugurated reforms, and strengthened the state. Patron of Shang Yang. BD 827.

Hsiao-wu Huang-ti 孝 武 皇 帝. I, 13a; III, 4a. 36 (note 3); 92. Full posthumous title of Han Wu Ti.

Hsieh [Chieh] Yang 解 楊 or 揚. II, 5a. 53 (cf. note 4). Officer of Chin sent to Sung 宋 to encourage the inhabitants to defend themselves against Ch'u until the promised help would arrive from Chin. Arrested and brought before king Chuang of Ch'u, Hsieh refused to be intimidated by bribes or threats and delivered his message to the Sung people in front of the whole army of Ch'u. Tso-chuan, Hsüan XV; BD App. 20.

Hsien [Hsüan] Kao 弦 高. I, 8a; II, 5a. 23; 53. A man of Chêng, who on a business visit to Chou, encountered the army of Ch'in which was stealthily moving against Chêng. He delayed the enemy by presenting him with some of his cattle, while he despatched a messenger to warn his prince of the impending attack. BD 566; Tso-chuan, Hsi XXXII.

Hsien Ti 先 帝. I, 1b, 3a; II, 13a, 8b; III, 1b, 5a; IV, 2a. 37; 83; 94 (note 2); 101. The former (late) Emperor, usually Wu Ti.

Hsien-yang 咸 陽. II, 6a; III, 2b. 55 (note 2); 86. Tung-kuo 東 郭 Hsien-yang. A salt manufacturer of Ch'i. Associate of K'ung Chin. SC XXX; Chavannes, Mém. hist., III, 567, 570, 571.

Hsü Yen 徐 偃. II, 9a. 64. Apparently the same as Hsü Shêng 生 (Doctor Hsü), a Lu scholar. Appointed li-kuan ta-fu 禮 官 大 夫 under Wên Ti. BD 779.

Hsün Ch'ing 荀 卿. IV, 5ab, 6b. 112 (note 4); 117. Hsün K'uang 况, Hsün-tzŭ, the well-known philosopher. SC LXXIV; G 807; BD 840.

Hsün Hsi 荀 息. IV, 5b. 113. Member of the ducal house of Chin. Enfeoffed at Hsün. Distinguished himself in the service of duke Hsien. Author of the scheme to annex Kuo and Yü. Perished during the troubles following duke Hsien's death. G 805; BD 840; Tso-chuan.

Huai Nan 淮 南. -II, 4b. 51 (note 2). Liu An 安, prince of —. SC CXVIII; Ch'ien-han-shu XLIV; BD 1441; G 1269.

Huan Kung 桓 公. II 8a, 8b; III, 2ab. 62, 63, 85, 86. Hsiao-pai 小 白, duke of Ch'i, 685—643. Leader in the wars with Ch'u. Patron of Kuan Chung. Tso Chuan; SC XXXII; G 841; BD 1426.

Hui 回. IV, 3a, 8a. 105, 123. See Yen Yüan.

Hui Wang 惠 王. II, 4a. 48. King of Yen from 278 to 272 B.C. Envious of the success of Yo I, he replaced him by another commander, and as a consequence lost all the lands conquered by his father from Ch'i. BD 1586; SC XXXIV; Chan-kuo-ts'ê.

I Tun 猗 頓. I, 6a, 13a. 16, 37. A poor man of Lu, who became rich through the advice of Tao Chu-kung. One of the first Chinese salt manufacturers and traders on record. SC CXXIX; Ch'ienhan-shu XCI.

I Yin 伊 尹. I, 5ab; II, 2ab, 10b, 11ab; III, 2b; IV, 5a. 14, 15, 43, 69, 71, 73, 86, 112. Model minister of the Shang dynasty. Chu Shu Chi Nien; Shu-ching; G 913; BD 227.

Jan Ch'iu 冉 求. II, 11b. 72. Tzŭ Tzŭ Yu 子 有. Disciple of Confucius. An energetic and versatile man. Served faithfully Chi K'ang 康 and persuaded the latter to recall Confucius from exile. SC LXVII; BD 168; G 916.

K'ang 康. II, 10b. 70. Chao 釗, third ruler of the Chou dynasty (1052—1002 [Standard chronology]), last of the four virtuous princes of Chou. SC IV; Shu-ching; Chu Shu Chi Nien; BD 536.

Kao Ti 高 帝. I, 3a. 9. Posthumous little of Liu Pang 邦, founder of the Han dynasty. SC VIII; Ch'ien-han-shu I; BD 1359; G. 1334.

Kao Tsu 高 祖. Cf. Kao Ti.

Kêng Ku-chih 耕 谷 之. III, 2b. 86 (note 6 q.v.). Otherwise unknown.

Kuan Chung 管 仲. I, 4b; II, 8ab, 7a, 11ab; III, 2a, 2b; IV 2b. 7 (note 6); 14; 22; 38; 58; 62; 63; 71; 73; 85; 86; 87; 103. Famous economist and minister of duke Huan of Ch'i. SC LXII; BD 1367; G 1006.

K'uang 曠. II, 7b. 60. Cf. Shih K'uang 師 礦.

Kun 鮌 or 鯀. II, 5a. 52. Father of Yü. Banished by Shun. Chu Shu Chi Nien; Shu-ching II; BD App. 24; G. 1018. Cf. Granet, Danses et légendes de la Chine ancienne.

Kung Chih-ch'i 宮 之 奇. IV, 5b. 113. Minister of the duke of Yü who repeatedly warned his master of the evil designs of Chin in asking permission to pass through Yü territory. Tso-chuan Hsi V; Ku-liang Comm., Hsi II; G 1021; BD 771.

Kung-po Liao 公 伯 尞. II, 3b. 46. Disciple of Confucius. Tzŭ Tzŭ Chou 子 周. Slandered Tzŭ Lu before Chi-sun. He was probably a member of the ducal house. BD 34; Lun-yü XIV, xxxviii.

Kung-shu 公 叔. II, 7a. 58. Ta-fu of Wei 衛, whose name was Fa 發. His integrity and culture were greatly admired by Confucius. Cf. Lun-yü XIV, xiv, xix; BD 34.

Kung Shu Tzŭ 公 輸 子. I, 8a; IV, 2b, 4a. 23; 44; 108. Kung Shu P'an 盤, 班 or 般. Famous technician and military engineer of the end of the Chou. BD 37.

Kung-sun Ch'êng-hsiang 公 孫 丞 相. II, 8b. 63. `Chancellor Kung-sun' See Kung-sun Hung.

Kung-sun Hung 公 孫 弘. II, 8b, 9ab, 10a; IV, 9a. 63 (note 6); 64; 65; 67; 126. Noted scholar and statesman under Wu Ti. One time Chancellor. Known for his filial piety, great frugality and for patronizing poor scholars. SC CXII; Ch'ien-han-shu LVIII; G 1030; BDd 35.

K'ung Chi 孔 伋. IV, 4b. 109 (note 4). Tzŭ, Tzŭ Ssŭ 子 思. Grandson of Confucius. Studied under Tsêng Shên. Lived in great poverty, but later reached high station in Lu. BD. 41; G. 1040.

K'ung Chia 孔 甲. I, 8b. 123 (note 5). Descendant of Confucius; better known as K'ung Fu 鮒. At the peril of his life, he continued to teach the Master's precepts during the persecution of Ch'in. Later he acted as advisor to Ch'ên Shêng. Perished with his patron. Author of the K'ung Ts'ung Tzŭ 孔 叢 子. SC XLVI, CXXII; G. 1045; BD 46.

K'ung Chin 孔 僅. II, 6a, 9a; III, 2b. 55 (note 2); 65; 86. Iron manufacturer of Nan-yang 南 陽. Placed together with Tung-kuo Hsien-yang at the head of the administration of the salt and iron monopoly. SC XXX; Chavannes Mém. hist. III, 567 et al.; BD 44.

K'ung Tzŭ 孔 子. Passim. Confucius (For list of quotations cf. Introduction, App). SC XLVII.

Lao Tzŭ 老 子. 7. The reputed founder of Taoism (quoted). SC LXIII.

Li Ssŭ 李 斯. I, 13b; IV, 5ab, 6ab, 7a. 39, 112 (note 2), 114, 117, 118, 119. Chancellor of Ch'in under Shih Huang-ti. A native of Shang Ts'ai 上 蔡 he studied under Hsün-tzŭ in his youth. SC LXXXVII; G 1203; BD 425.

Liao 僚. II, 11a. 72. King of Wu, 526—515 B.C. Ascended the throne in place of Chi Cha. Murdered by Ho Lu. SC XXXI; BD 309.

Liu-hsia Hui 柳 下 惠. IV, 9a. 124. Hui of Liu-hsia (district in Lu), posthumous name of Chan Ch'in 展 禽 (or Huo 獲). A Lu magistrate of the highest integrity. Extolled by Confucius. BD 772; G 18; Lun-yü XV, xiii, XVIII, ii, viii.

Lou Chi 樓 季. II, 6b. 57. Younger brother of marquis Wên of Wei 魏, Wei Ch'êng Tzŭ.

Lou-ch'uan 樓 船. IV, 2a. 102. Lou-ch'uan chiang-chün, "General of the High-decked Ships", Yang P'u 楊 僕. Distinguished himself as a strict magistrate. Conqueror of Southern and Eastern Yüeh. Degraded after his Korean campaign. Ch'ien-han-shu VI; SC CXXII; BD 1280.

Lu Chün 魯 君. IV, 5b. 114. "The prince of Lu", probably duke Ai.

Lu Kung 魯 公. II, 11a. 72. The duke of Lu, duke Hsüan, 608—591. Hsiang Chung 襄 仲, who was the actual murderer of the little prince, Tzŭ-ch'ih. Tso-chuan, Wên, XVIII.

Lu Ting Kung 魯 定 公. II, 13a. 79 (note 3). Sung 宋, duke of Lu, 509—495. For some time patron of Confucius. Tso-chuan; SC XXXIII; BD 1577.

Lü 呂 [Wang 望]. II, 2a; IV, 5a. 43 (note 9); 112. Lü Shang. See T'ai Kung.

Mencius. Cf. Mêng K'o 孟 軻, and Mêng Tzŭ 孟 子.

Mêng 孟. IV, 7b. 121. Mêng-sun 孟 孫, powerful clan of Lu, descendants of Ch'ing-fu 慶 父, son of duke Huan

Mêng K'o 孟 軻. II, 9b, 10b. 66; 70. Mencius. SC LXXIV; G 1522; BD 555.

Mêng T'ien 蒙 恬. II, 3a; IV, 2a, 8b. 45; 46; 102; 124. Famous general of Ch'in Shih Huang-ti. Hero of campaigns against the Hsiung Nu. As Warden of the Northern Marches supervised (re-)building of the Great Wall. Forced to commit suicide together with Fu Su. SC LXXXVIII; G 1526; BD 1374.

Mêng Tzŭ 孟 子. I, 8ab; II, 6b, 11a. 23; 57; 71. Mencius or his works (quoted).

Mi Tzŭ Hsia 彌 子 瑕. II, 11b. 73 (note 2). Favorite of duke Ling of Wei 衛, 534—493 B.C. G 1532; BD 1635.

Min Tzŭ 閔 子. IV, 3a. 104. Min Sun 損 Tzŭ Tzŭ Ch'ien 子 騫, disciple of Confucius. One of the "Twenty-four Paragons of Filial Virtue". SC LVII; BD 1211; G 1533.

Min Wang 湣 王. II, 10a. 67; 68. Title of Ti 地, king of Ch'i, 323—284. His aggressive policy led to the formation of a coalition of five states against Ch'i. Min was driven from his capital and was murdered in Lü. BD 1427; SC XLVI.

Mu Kung 穆 公. II, 10b. 69. Jên-hao 任 好, duke of Ch'in, 659—621. Extended his state at the expense of the Barbarians. Patron of worthies and scholars. Tso-chuan; BD 830.

Nan Tzŭ 南 子. II, 11b. 73. The beautiful but wanton wife of duke Ling 靈 of Wei. Had an interview with Confucius. Drove the Heir Apparent into exile. Killed by him at his accession to his father's throne. G 1561; BD 632; Lun-yü VI, xxvi.

Ni K'uan 倪 賈. II, 7b, 8a. 60; 61. A poor scholar who attracted attention through his studies on the Boon of History. Rose to be Yü-shih ta-fu under Wu Ti. Ch'ien-han-shu LVIII; G 906; BD 521.

Ni Ta-fu 倪 大 夫. 61 (note 1). Cf. Ni K'uan.

Ning Ch'i 甯 戚. IV, 2b. 104 (note 4). A poor man who attracted duke Huan of Chi's attention while feeding his oxen. Rose subsequently to high office in Ch'i. G 1568; BD 1177.

Ou Yeh 歐 冶. I, 8a, 11a; IV, 4a. 23; 31; 108. Famous metallurgist. Commissioned by the king of Yüeh to make five swords, famous in Chinese art and tradition. BD 1508.

P'an Kêng 盤 庚. I, 3a. 9. Sixteenth sovereign of the Shang dynasty (1401—1374 [Standard Chronology]). In 1388 removed his capital from Yen to Yin, North of the Ho. Shu-ching; SC III; BD 1524.

Pao Ch'iu Tzŭ 包 丘 子. IV, 5a, 5b. 112; 113. Apparently the same person as Fou Ch'iu Po 浮 邱 伯, pupil of Hsün Tzŭ, with Li Ssŭ. Later the teacher of Liu Chiao, prince of Ch'u. Cf. Ch'ien-han-shu XXXVI; BD 815.

P'i Shên 裨 甚 (应 為 “言”字 旁 加 “甚”). II, 2a. 43 (note 6). Ta-fu of Chêng whose advice Tzŭ-ch'an sought on important state affairs. BD 1378.

P'êng-tsu Ning 彭 租 寧. I, 12a. 34 (note 34). Tu-wei 都 尉 of Shan-shui.

Pi Kan 比 干. II, 4a. 48. A sage of the Shang dynasty. Relative of Chou Hsin, who ordered him to be disembowelled in order to see how many openings a sage's heart had. G 1645; BD 67.

Pien Ch'iao 扁 鵲. II, 3a; III, 3a, 3b, 4a. 44; 88 (notes 2, 3); 90; 91. Native of Chêng in the Chan Kuo period. His real name was Ch'in Yüeh-jên 秦 越 人. SC CV; BD 651; G 396.

Ping of Chü. Cf. Chü Ping 胊 邴.

P'ing [chief criminal judge] 評 [ 廷 尉 ]. 76. Cf. T'ing-wei P'ing.

Po Kuei 白 圭. IV, 3b. 107. A native of Wei, who made a fortune through the principle: "Utilize what people reject and supply people with what they would take". SC CXXIX; Ch'ienhan-shu XCI; BD 208.

Po Ch'in 伯 禽. II, 6b. 57. Son of Chou Kung, second prince of Lu, 1108—1063. SC XXXIII; BD 283.

Po I 伯 夷. IV, 3a, 7b, 9a. 104; 120; 124. Brother of Shu C'hi 叔 齊. After having renounced a dukedom, they became recluses. Starved to death on Mt. Shou, on the accession of Wu Wang to the Imperial throne, declining "to eat" the usurper's grain. The vir probus of ancient China. SC LXI; BD 283; G 1657.

Po-li 百 里. II, 10b, 11a; III, 2b. 69; 71. Po-li Hsi 奚. Minister in Yü. Taken into captivity by Ch'in. Attracted the attention of duke Mu (cf. Wu Ku). Chancellor of Ch'in for seven years. Model minister. G 1659; BD 277.

San Huan 三 桓. I, 11a; IV, 7b. 31 (note 4); 121. The three Huan Clans, descendants of duke Huan's sons Chi-sun, Mêng-sun and Shu-sun 叔 孫. SC XXXIII.

Second Emperor. 42 (43, note 1). Cf. Erh-shih 二 世 .

Shang 商. I, 6a; III, 6b. 38; 97. Shang dynasty (1766—1122 [Standard chronology]; 1558—1050 [Bamboo Annals]). SC III; Chu Shu Chi Nien.

Shang Chün 商 君. II, 1ab, 3ab, 10b. 40 (note 1); 42; 45; 46; 69; 70. See Shang Yang.

Shang Yang 商 鞅. II, 1b, 2ab, 3ab, 4a; 7a; IV, 7a. 40 (notes 1, 2); 42 (note 3); 43; 44; 46; 47; 49; 118. Kung-sun Yang or Wei 衛 Yang, famous statesman of Ch'in, to whose reforms that state owed its greatness. SC LVIII; BD 36; G 2296.

Shang-kuan ta-fu 上 官 大 夫. II, 3b. 46. Title of Chin Shang 靳 尚, a great dignitary of Ch'u, who calumnied Ch'ü Yüan before king Ch'ing-hsiang (or more correctly king Huai). BD 1347.

Shao 邵 [公]. II, 7b, 8b. 59; 63. Title of Shih, duke of Shao (also 召), Chou Kung's brother, and associate in the regency during Ch'êng Wang's minority. Enfeoffed at Yen. Ancestor of the Yen ducal house. SC XXXIV; BD 272; G 1680.

Shên Tao 慎 到. II, 10a. 68 (p. 66, note 8). Native of Chao. Taoist philosopher. One of the scholars invited to Ch'i by king Hsüan. Author of the Shên-tzŭ, a work listed in the Han Bibliography. SC LXXIV; BD 1254.

Shih Huang 始 皇. IV, 5b. 113. Title of Chêng 政, first Emperor of Ch'in. Often referred to as Ch'in 秦. SC VI; BD 827; G. 1712.

Shih K'uang 師 曠. II, 7b. 60. Famous musician of the state of Chin. G. 1717; BD 773.

Shu Mien 叔 眄 [ 肸 ]. II, 11a. 72 (note 8). Younger brother of duke Hsüan 宣 of Lu. Horrified at his brother's murder of the rightful heir to the throne, he refused to the end of his days to accept office. Ku-liang com. Hsüan XVII; BD 522.

Shu Tzŭ 輸 子. II, 7b. 60. See Kung Shu Tzŭ.

Shun 舞. I, 3a, 5a; II, 4a, 5a, 8b, 10a; IV, 2b, 4a, 6a, 8b; 9; 14; 44; 47; 52; 62; 67; 76; 108; 109; 116; 123. One of the legendary Emperors. Also referred to as Yü 虞. Chu Shu Chi Nien; Shu ching; SC I; G. 1741.

Shun-yü K'un 湻 [ 淳 ] 于 髠. II, 9b. 66. Ch'i scholar, contemporary of Mencius. SC LXXIV. Identical with Ch'un-yü K'un, the famous Ch'i wit, diplomat and drunkard. SC CXXVIII; BD 1009; G 513.

Ssŭ-ma 司 馬 [Hsiang-ju 相 如]. IV, 2a. 102 (note 4). Great poet of ancient China. Successfully dealt with the South-western tribes, due to his knowledge of the country, as a native of Ssŭ-ch'uan. Ch'ien-han-shu LVII ab.; G 1753; BD 184.

Ssŭ-ma Tzŭ 司 馬 子 [ 遷 ]. IV, 6b. 116. Ssŭ-ma Ch'ien. Author of the first systematic history of China. Died soon after 85 B.C. The YTL. quotation seems to be the earliest known mention of the historian. Autobiography in SC CXXX. Cf. Chavannes, Mém. hist., I; Ch'ien-han-shu LXII; G 1750; BD 186.

Su Ch'in 蘇 秦. II, 3b; IV 7a, 7b. 47 (note 2); 119; 120 (note 4); 121 (note 2). Politician of the Chan Kuo period. Advocated a bloc of Six States to check the power of Ch'in. Assassinated in Ch'i. Chan-kuo-ts'ê; SC LXIX; G 1775; BD 1779; (See Chang I).

Sun Ch'ing 孫 卿. II, 10b. 68. Same as Hsün Ch'ing.

Sun-shu Ao 孫 叔 敖. I, 8a, IV, 7a. 22 (note 2); 118 (note 1). Honest and frugal minister of king Chuang of Ch'u. SC CXIX; G 1818; BD 754.

Ta-fu Chung 大 夫 種. II, 4a. 48. Minister Chung, title of Wên 文 Chung. Concluded peace with Wu on behalf of Kou Chien, and concentrated all his efforts upon revenge. After Yüeh's victory over Wu, was calumnied and ordered to commit suicide by the king, who sent him a sword as a sign to end his life. BD 56; SC XLI.

T'ai Kung 太 公. I, 10b; III, 2a, 2b; IV, 2b, 4ab, 6a. 30; 63; 85; 86; 104 (note 3); 109; 116. Title of 呂 尚 Lü Shang, also known as Chiang Tzŭ-ya. Called T'ai Kung Wang 望 "The Hope of T'ai Kung", by Wên Wang, who found him fishing on the Wei river. A prophecy had been made to T'ai Kung that a sage found thus would bring fortune to Chou. Founder of the ducal house of Ch'i. Taoist saint (cf. legends in the Fêng Shên Yen I). SC XXII; G 343; BD 1862; Chavannes, Mém. hist., vol. IV.

T'ang 湯. I, 4a, 4b, 9ab; II, 10b, 11a; IV, 1b, 2a. 12; 13; 26; 28; 31; 69; 71; 101. See Ch'êng T'ang.

T'ang Mêng 唐 蒙. IV, 2a. 102 (note 4). Distinguished himself under Wu Ti against the Southern Barbarians. On his own request was sent to the Southwest, where he persuaded a number of tribes to submit. Ch'ien-han-shu XCV; BD 740.

Tao Wang 悼 王. II, 1b. 42 (note 6). Hsiung-i 熊 疑, king of Ch'u, 401—381 B.C. Patron of Wu Ch'i. SC XL.

T'ao 陶. II, 6a. 56. Taken this to refer to Wei Jan 魏 冉 (cf. Chang Chih-hsiang), who was enfeoffed at T'ao. May also refer to T'ao Chu-kung or to the T'ao district. Cf. Wei.

T'ao Chu 陶 朱 [ 公 ]. IV, 2b, 4b. 103 (note 6); 109. Identified with 范 蠡 Fan Li who, after his retirement from Yüeh, came to settle at T'ao under the name of Chu. The prototype of the successful capitalist. SC CXXIX; Ch'ien-han-shu XCI; G 540; BD 716.

Têng Shih 鄧 氏. I, 9b. 28 (note 7). Têng T'ung and his family.

Têng T'ung 鄧 通. I, 9b. 28 (note 7). Wên Ti believed to recognize in T'ung the man he saw in an auspicious dream, and attached him to his person. T'ung was given the right to coin money from some Ssŭ-ch'uan mines. Shorn of power by Ching Ti. SC CXXV; Ch'ien-han-shu XCIII; BD 1557.

T'ien Ch'ang 田 常. II, 6a. 55. Powerful minister of Ch'i who in 481 murdered duke Chien 簡, and whose grandson founded a new dynasty in Ch'i. SC XLVI; G 1915.

T'ien P'ien 田 駢. II, 10a. 68 (p. 66, note 8). Also Ch'ên 陳 P'ien, a scholar (of Taoistic tendencies) among the group flourishing at the court of king Hsüan of Ch'i. BD 204; SC LXXIV.

T'ien Tsung 田 宗. II, 5b. 54. The powerful T'ien clan of Ch'i. Growing exceedingly rich and strong during the Vth century, it finally usurped all power and founded a new dynasty in 410 B.C.

T'ing-wei P'ing 廷 尉 評. II, 12b. 76 (note 7) q. v. Probably corruption of 故 廷 尉 王 平, "the former t'ing-wei Wang P'ing". Ch'ien-han-shu VII, 1st yr. of Chao Ti's reign.

Tsang Wên 臧 文. II, 8b. 63 (note 1). Possibly Tsang Wên-chung 文 仲, posthumous title of Tsang-sun Ch'ên 辰, minister of Lu. Criticized by Confucius for not recognizing talent in his subordinates. Lun-yü XV, xiii; BD 1373.

Tsao Fu 造 父. II, 10a. 67 (p. 117, note 2). Famous charioteer of Mu Wang. Ancestor of the house of Chao. SC XLIII; G 1992; BD 1042.

Ts'ao ch'êng hsiang 曹 丞 相. II, 8a. 61 (note 1). Chancellor Ts'ao, Ts'ao Ts'an 參. One of the closest associates of Han Kao Ti. Succeeded Hsiao Ho 蕭 何 as Chancellor. Pursued a laissez faire policy. SC LIV, Ch'ien-han-shu XXXIX; BD 989; G 2012.

Ts'ao Mo 蕭 沫 [ 劌 ap. Tso-chuan]. I, 13b. 38. A knight in the service of duke Chuang of Lu. Though defeated three times in battle with Ch'i, he succeeded by his bold action at the peace conference to save the day for Lu. SC LXXXVI; G 2006; BD 897.

Tsêng Shên 曾 參. II, 5a; IV, 3a. 51; 104. Tzŭ Tzŭ Chu 子 輿. One of the famous and learned disciples of Confucius. Founder of a school. The Hsiao-Ching, the Ta-Hsüeh and parts of the Li-Chi are ascribed to him. Known also as 曾 子. SC LXVII; G 2022; BD 1164.

Tsêng Tzŭ 曾 子. Cf. Tsêng Shên 曾 參.

Tso-chiang 左 將. IV, 2a. 102. 荀 彘 Hsün Chih. General under Wu Ti. Took part in expeditions against the Hsiung Nu. In 108 made "General of the Left" and sent against Korea together with Yang P'u. Betrayed Yang and was himself executed on his return after the conquest. SC CXI; BD 841.

Tsou Tzŭ 鄒 子. II, 10b, 11a. 69 (note 7); 70. Tsou Yen 衍, philosopher and "naturalist" of the Chan Kuo period. Served the princes of Ch'i, Wei, Yen. His "scientific" qualifications made him comparatively successful in contrast to the "moral philosophers", his contemporaries (Mencius et al.). Also written 騶 子. SC LXXIV; G 2030; Lun Hêng; BD 1785.

Tu Chou 杜 周. II, 9b. 65. Assistant to Chang T'ang; Chief Justice; Yü-shih ta-fu in 98 B.C. Extremely cruel, he incarcerated thousands of men. His deputies and constables terrorized the country. SC CXXII; Ch'ien-han-shu LX; BD 462—3.

Tuan Kan-mu 段 干 木. IV, 5a. 111 (note 5). Pupil of Pu Tzŭ-hsia 卜 子 夏. One of the group of scholars who flocked to Wei Wên-hou's court. BD 665; SC XLIV.

Tung-fang Hsien-shêng 東 方 先 生. IV, 9a. 126. Respectful reference to Tung-fang So, "Master", "Doctor", Tung-fang.

Tung-fang So 東 方 朔. IV, 9a. 125. Important official and scholar at Wu Ti's court. Famous as a wit. His biography is overburdened with Taoist legends. Reputed author of several books, all spurious. SC CXXVI; Ch'ien-han-shu, LXV; BD 579; G 2093.

Tung-kuo Yen 東 郭 偃. II, 9a. 65 (note 3). Obviously for Tung-kuo Hsien-yang. Hsien-yang apparently gave much trouble to copyists who mistook the two characters for the name of the city. In this case the name of a comparatively well known personage was substituted for Hsien-yang (cf. BD 580).

Tzŭ Cha [公] 子 札. II, 11a. 72 (note 5). Also Chi Cha 季 札, son of prince Shou-mêng 壽 夢 of Wu. Declined to accept the throne offered him by his father. He is one of the "pure knights" of the Ch'un Ch'iu period. BD 557; G. 287.

Tzŭ-ch'an 子 產. II, 2b. 43; 44. Appelation of Kung-sun Ch'iao 公 孫 僑, famous minister and legislator of the state of Chêng. Contemporary of Confucius. SC CXIX; G 1029; BD 36; Tso-chuan.

Tzŭ-ch'ih 子 赤. II, 11a. 72. Apparently another name of 惡 O, the murdered young son of duke Wên of Lu. Cf. Kung-yangchuan, Wên XVIII, Ch'êng XV.

Tzŭ-hsü 子 胥. II, 4a. See Wu Yüan.

Tzŭ-kao 子 高. II, 7b 59. Tzŭ of Shên Chu-liang 沈 諸 梁, official of Ch'u, who played a prominent part in the suppression of troubles during the reign of king Hui 惠 (488—432). As he was approaching the capital, the people were "looking for him as for a good year". The pacification achieved, he retired to Yeh, his home. Tso-chuan, Ai XVI; BD 500.

Tzŭ-kung 子 貢 or 贛. IV, 3b, 4b. 107; 109; 110. Tuan-mu Tz'ŭ 端 木 賜, disciple of Confucius, successful diplomat and business man. One of the great capitalists of ancient China. SC LXVII, CXXIX; Ch'ien-han-shu XCI; BD 1366; G 2083.

Tzŭ-lu 子 路. II, 3b, 11b. 46; 73. See Chung Yu.

Tzŭ-shu 子 叔 [ 掓 ]. II, 8b. 63 (note 2). Most probably Tzŭ-shu I 疑 mentioned in Mencius II. ii. x. 6, an otherwise unknown person, notorious for nepotism.

Tzŭ-ssŭ 子 思. IV, 5a. 111. Either K'ung Chi or Yüan Hsien; probably the latter.

Wang Chien 王 建. II, 10ab. 67 (note 3); 68. King Chien, last sovereign of Ch'i; 264—221 B.C. He offered a weak resistance to Ch'in, and was ignominiously led into captivity. SC XLVI; BD 1424.

Wang Tsang 王 臧. IV, 9a. 125 (note 4). Scholar and official (lang-chung-ling 郎 中 令). Perished with Chao Wan. BD 141.

Wang Wên-shu 王 溫 舒. II, 9b. 65 (note 6). Native of Yang-ling 陽 陵. A grave-robber in his youth, he entered the service of Chang T'ang and soon distinguished himself by his merciless execution of justice. SC CXXII; Ch'ien-han-shu XC; BD 133.

Wei 魏. IV, 4b. 110. The house of Wei, one of the powerful clans of Chin, which founded the kingdom of Wei. Cf. Han 韓. SC XLIV.

Wei 衛. II, 6a. 56. Chang Chih-hsiang takes Wei as referring to the Lord of Shang, i.e. Wei Yang. More probably it refers to the district of Wei, which, together with T'ao, must have controlled the trade on the lower Huang Ho.

Wei 微 [ 子 ]. II, 3a. 45. Viscount of Wei, title of K'ai 開, brother of the wicked Emperor Chou of Shang. Remonstrated with him in vain. Enfeoffed at Sung to perpetuate sacrifices to Shang. SC XXVIII; Chu Shu Chi Nien; Shu-ching XI; G 2294; BD 1253.

Wei Ch'êng Tzŭ 魏 成 子. II, 7a. 58. Virtuous younger brother of Wei Wên hou. SC XLIV.

Wei Fu-jên 衛 夫 人. II, 11b. 73. The lady Wei. See Nan Tzŭ.

Wei Shêng 尾 生. II, 11a; IV, 7b. 71; 120 (note 2). Famous example of blind loyalty. Also known as Wei Shêng-kao 微 生 高 (to be distinguished from the Wei Shêng-kao of Lun-yü, V, xxiii). Chuang-tzŭ XXIX; G 2290; BD 366.

Wei Wên hou 魏 文 侯. IV, 5a. 111. Posthumous title of Ssŭ 斯 (or 都 acc. to the Shih-chi), marquis of Wei, 425—387 B.C., and first ruler of the Wei house after the break up of Chin. Patron of scholars. SC XLIV; BD 1733—4.

Wên 文 [ 王 ]. I, 9ab, 10b, 13b; II, 2a, 8b, 10b; IV, 9a. 26; 28; 37; 39; 43; 57; 70; 124. Wên Wang, q.v.

Wên Ti 文 帝. I, 9a; II, 1a. 28 (note 5); 41 (note 4). Hêng 桓, third Emperor of Han. One of the favorite Emperors of the Literati, who extoll his virtues in contrast with Wu Ti's evil policies. SC X; Ch'ien-han-shu IV; BD 1358; G 1298.

Wên Wang 文 王. I, 13b; II, 6b, 9a. 37; 57; 63; 64. Ch'ang 昌, prince of Chou, and father of Wu Wang. One of the Confucian "saints". SC IV; BD 531; G 2308; Chu Shu Chi Nien.

Wu 武. I, 13b; II, 2a, 8b; IV, 9a, 1b, 2a. 39; 43; 70; 101; 124. Wu Wang 武 王 q.v.

Wu 吳. II, 5a. 51 (p. 28, note 6 q.v.) 吳 [王], Liu P'i prince of Wu.

Wu Ch'i 吳 起. II, 2b; IV, 7a. 42, 118; 119. Famous warrior who served in Lu, Wei and Ch'u. Supposed to be the author of a military treatise the Wu-tzŭ where his conversations with Wu hou 武 of Wei 魏 are recorded. Murdered by conspirators on the dead body of his patron, king Tao of Ch'u. SC LXV; G 2321; BD 319.

Wu Ku 五 羖 [大 夫 ]. I, 8a. 23. Po-li Hsi, known as "Five Rams", having been once ransomed by duke Mu of Ch'in for five sheep skins. See Po-li Hsi.

Wu Ti 武 帝. IV, 9b. 126. Ch'ê 徹, Emperor of Han, 140—87 B.C. See also Hsiao-wu Huang-ti and Hsien Ti. SC XII; Ch'ien-hanshu VI; G 1276; BD 1358—9.

Wu Wang 武 王. I, 13b. 38. Posthumous title of Fa 發, Wên Wang's son and successor, first Emperor of the Chou dynasty. One of the "San Wang", the Three Model Emperors, founders of Dynasties. (1122—1116 [Standard chronology]; 1050—1044 [Bamboo Annals]). Shu-ching; SC IV; Chu Shu Chi Nien; BD 531; G 2353.

Wu Wang 吳 王. I, 9b, 10b. 28 (note 6); 30. Liu P'i 劉 濞, prince of Wu. He acquired great power through industrial activities and finally led the revolt of the "Seven Princes" against the central government. The coalition was defeated by Chou Ya-fu and P'i slain. SC CVI; Ch'ien-han-shu XXV; BD 1488.

Wu Yüan 伍 員. II, 4a. 48. Tzŭ Tzŭ-hsü 子 胥. Hero of the wars between Ch'u and Wu, dedicated to revenge against king P'ing of Ch'u for the murder of his father and elder brother. Through his efforts Wu was successful against Ch'u. Fu Ch'ai, successor to Yüan's patron Ho Lu, forced him to commit suicide. SC LXVI; BD 229; G 2358.

Yang Tzŭ 楊[陽]子. IV, 3a. 105. The quotation ascribed to this Yang Tzŭ is put, in Mencius, III, i, iii, into the mouth of Yang Hu 陽 虎, also known as Yang Huo 貨, a retainer in the service of the Chi family of Lu, who rose to great power and was for some time dictator. G 2382; BD 1212; SC XXXIII; Lun-yü XVII, i.

Yao 堯. II, 2b, 4a, 6b, 8b, 11b; IV, 4b, 6a, 8b. 44; 47; 57; 62; 73; 76; 109; 116; 123. Legendary Emperor (2357—2258 [Standard chronology]; 2145—2045 [Bamboo Annals]). Also referred to as T'ang 唐, or T'ao T'ang 陶 唐. Saintly ruler of the "Golden Age". Shu-ching; SC I; Chu Shu Chi Nien; G 2426; BD 739.

Yen Chao 燕 昭. II, 4a, 8b, 9a. 62; 64. P'ing 平, king of Yen, 311—279 B.C. Ascending the throne after Yen's defeat at the hands of Ch'i, he concentrated all his efforts on improving and strengthening the administration of his state. His generous treatment of scholars is supposed to be referred to in some of the Odes. SC XXXIV; BD 1586.

Yen Hui 顏 回. IV, 4b, 8a. 110 (note 1); 123. See Yen Yüan.

Yen Yüan 顏 淵. IV, 2b, 3a, 4b, 8a. 104; 105; 110. Yen Hui, favorite disciple of Confucius, one of the model worthies of ancient China. Died in 483 at the early age of 32, his death greatly affecting the Master. SC LXVII; G 2465; BD 1728.

Yin 殷. I, 9ab; II, 2ab, 4a. 26; 28; 43; 44; 48. The Yin or Shang dynasty (1766—1122 [Standard chronology]; 1558—1050, [Bamboo Annals]).

Yo I 樂 疑. II, 4a. 48. General of the state of Yen in the Chan Kuo period. Generalissimo of the united forces of the five states in their campaign against Ch'i in 284. Calumniated before the new king of Yen, he fled to Chao. SC LXXX; BD 1504; G 2502; Chan-kuo-ts'ê.

Yu 由. IV, 8a. 123. See Chung Yu.

Yü 禹. I, 4a, 4b, II, 5a, 6b, 10a; III, 4b; IV, 1b. 12; 13; 17; 52; 67; 92; 100. Legendary founder of the Hsia dynasty (2205— 2197, [Standard chronology]; 1989—1981 [Bamboo Annals]). Cultural hero. SC II; Shu-Ching; Chu Shu Chi Nien; G 1846; BD 746.

Yü 虞. II, 12b. 57. Shun. Yü is variously explained as being his dynastic designation, the name of his fief, or his family name. Cf. Shu-Ching, Commentaries (Legge, Chi. Classics,v. III, p. 29, note).

Yü Kung 虞 公. IV, 5a. 111. Duke of the little state of Yü who, disregarding the protests of the sage Kung Chih-ch'i, allowed the armies of Chin to pass through his territory on their way to Kuo, a state allied to Yü. His short-sighted policy led to his state being swallowed by the aggressive Chin. BD 1320; Tso-chuan, Hsi V (Legge, Chi. Classics, I, 145—6).

Yüan Hsien 原 憲. IV, 4b, 5a. 109; 110. Tzŭ Tzŭ-ssŭ 子 思, also known as Yüan Ssŭ. Native of Lu (or of Sung). Disciple of Confucius. He lived in poverty, but endured it with great fortitude. SC LXVII; G 2547; BD 733.

Yüan Ang 袁 or 爰 盎. IV, 9a. 126. Indefatigable writer of remonstrances, served at the Imperial Court and with the prince of Wu. Great enemy of Ch'ao Ts'o, whose death he caused by persuading the Emperor that Ch'ao alone was to blame for the revolt of the princes. SC CI; Ch'ien-han-shu XLIX; G 2571; BD 847.

Yüeh Wang 越 王. II, 4a. 48. Kou Chien 句 踐, king of Yüeh, 496—465 B.C., rival of the Wu princes. Defeated by Fu Ch'ai, he spent years in preparations for another attack and, ably assisted by the ta-fu Chung, he succeeded finally in overthrowing Wu. SC XLI; G 982; BD 172.

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